Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ of The Multiversal Communist Collective ::: mcc.MarkFoster.red

Hammer, Sickle, and Star Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ in Arabic calligraphy Fist
Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ of
The Multiversal Communist Collective
Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ•Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl
Píra ū Mur°šida Bullet Píra ū Mur°šida Bullet Pír–o–Murshid
The Muliversal Communist Collective
١. Prologue to the Monograph
Social fiction tackles significant social and personal issues using various entertainment media. From a sociological standpoint, the value of social fiction should not be underestimated. The subjects addressed, sometimes hidden in metaphor, can frequently be serious and consequential. Among these fictional genres is online gaming. Like visual and performance art, such gaming frequently brings to the fore topics only rarely considered in everyday lifeworlds (German/Deutsch, Lebenswelten [MP3]). In studying the instrumentality or agency of forming and governing fictional nations, my methodology blends ethnography—also called participant observation—with my twin modes of phenomenological analysis (PA): Heartfulness Inquiry™ and The Echoing Practice™. Linking ethnography with PA is a common strategy, but my approach to that process is relatively unique.
This monograph, or specialized study, includes many lists of translated terms. One of the major objectives of the translations, and the monograph itself, is to suggest a unity in diversity of languages. If the subject of translation does not personally interest you, just pass the lists by. And now, using the traditional Arabic numbering system, the following are multilingual renderings of some of the major terms mentioned in this paragraph as well as in the previous paragraph of the chapter:
  1. ⫰iṯ°nūġ°rāfiyyaẗ (Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ, إِثْنُوغْرَافِيَّة [MP3]), “ethnography
  2. ⫯an°ṯ°rūbūlūǧiyyaẗ ʾal•waṣafiyyaẗ (Arabic, أَنْثْرُوبُولُوجِيَّة الوَصْفِيَّة [MP3]), “ethnography (descriptive anthropology)
  3. ʾẹṯə′nōḡərạp̄iyāh (Hebrew/ʿIḇəriyṯ, אֶתְ׳נוֹגְרַפִיָה [MP3]), “ethnography
  4. qāw°m•i nigārí (Persian/Fār°sí, قَوْمِ نِگَارِی [MP3]), “ethnography
  5. etnografiya (Tajik/Toǧikī, этнография [MP3]), “ethnography
  6. ḱul°tūrí ṯabat (Pashto/Paṣ̌°tū/Pax̌°tū, کُلْتُورِی ثَبَت [MP3]), “ethnography
  7. nažāda nāmah (Urdu/ʾUr°dū, نِژَادَ نَامَہ [MP3]), “ethnography
  8. prākritika (Guramukhi Punjabi/Guramukhī Pajābī, ਪ੍ਰਾਕ੍ਰਿਤਿਕ [MP3]), “ethnography
  9. p°rāḱ°ritiḱa (Shahmukhi Punjabi/Šāha Muḱ°hí Pan°ǧābí, پْرَاکْرِتِکَ [MP3]), “ethnography
  10. qaw°mī g°rāf (Sindhi/Sin°dʱī, قَوْمِي گْرَاف [MP3]), “ethnography
  11. nrvaṃśavijñāna (Hindi/Hiṃdī, नृवंशविज्ञान [MP3]), “ethnography
  12. nr̥kulabidyā (Bengali/Bāṅāli/Bānlā, নৃকুলবিদ্যা [MP3]), “ethnography
  1. taḥ°līl min ʾal•ʿil°mu ʾal•ẓẓawāhiru (Arabic, تَحْلِيل مِن العِلْمُ الظَّوَاهِرُ [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  2. nitūḥạ hạ•p̄ēnōmẹnōlōḡə′y (Hebrew, נִתּוּחַ הַפֶנוֹמֶנוֹלוֹגְ׳י [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  3. taḥ°líl•i padídiha•i šināsā (Persian, تَحْلِیلِ پَدِیدِهَِ شِنَاسِی [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  4. tahlil•i padidaiho•i donistani (Tajik, таҳлили падидаиҳои донистани [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  5. da taǧ°rubih taḥ°líl (Pashto, دَ تَجْرُبِه تَحْلِیل [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  6. ruǧ°ḥāna taǧ°ziýah (Urdu, رُجْحَانَ تَجْزِیَہ [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  7. ghaṭanā dē viśalēśaṇa (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਘਟਨਾ ਦੇ ਵਿਸ਼ਲੇਸ਼ਣ [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  8. g°haṭanā dē višalēšana (Shahmukhi Punjabi, گْھَٹَنَا دَے وِشَلَیشَنَ [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  9. tuǧarribū ǧū ʾim°tiḥān (Sindhi, تُجَرِّبُو جُو اِمْتِحَان [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  10. ghaṭanā–kriyā viśleṣaṇa (Hindi, घटना–क्रिया विश्लेषण [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  11. abhijñatā biślēṣaṇa (Bengali, অভিজ্ঞতা বিশ্লেষণ [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  1. Taḥ°qīq min ʾal•Qal°b (Arabic, تَحْقِيق مِن القَلْب [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  2. Ḥăqiyrāh šẹl hạ•Lēḇ (Hebrew, חֲקִירָה שֶׁל הַלֵב [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  3. P̄ərẹʿgən diy Hʾạrəṣ (Yiddish/Yiyḏiyš, פְֿרֶעגְּן דִּי האַרְץ [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  4. frag das Herz (German [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  5. Pur°s va Ǧū•i ʾAz•i Qal°b (Persian, پُرْس وَ جُوِ ازِ قَلْب [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  6. Dilro me•Pursand (Tajik, Дилро меПурсанд [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  7. Da Z°ṛih Pūx̌°tinah (Pashto, دَ زْړِه پُوښْتْنَه [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  8. Dila ḱí ʾIn°ḱ°wā⫯ýirí (Urdu, دِلَ کِی اِنْکْوَائِرِی [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  9. Dila dī Jān̄ca (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਦਿਲ ਦੀ ਜਾਂਚ [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  10. Dila dí Ǧān°ča (Shahumukh Punjabi, دِلَ دِی جَانْچَ [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  11. Dil ǧī Čak̀as (Sindhi, دِل جِي چَڪَاس [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  1. Tam°rīn ʾal•Ṣadaỳ (Arabic, تَمْرِين الصَدَى [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  2. Nāhạḡ šẹl hạ•Hēḏ (Hebrew, נָהַג שֶׁל הַהֵד [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  3. Diy Viydẹʿrəqʾọl P̄iyr (Yiddish, דִּי ווִידֶּערְקאָל פִֿיר [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  4. Tam°rín•i Piž°vāḱ (Persian, تَمْرِینِ پِژْوَاک [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  5. Tam°rín•i Ṭanín•i ʾAn°dāz (Persian, تَمْرِینِ طَنِینِ انْدَاز [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  6. Taʿriba•i Takrorī (Tajik, Таьрибаи Такрорӣ [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  7. da ʾAn°ǵāzē Faʿāl (Pashto, دَ انْګَازَې فَعَال [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  8. ʿAḱāsí ḱí P°riýaḱ°ṭisa (Urdu, عَکَاسِی کِی پْرِیَکْٹِسَ [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  9. Īkō dā Abhiꞌāsa (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਈਕੋ ਦਾ ਅਭਿਆਸ [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  10. ʾIý°ḱū dā ʾAb°hiýasa (Shahumukh Punjabi, اِیْکُو دَا ابْھِیَاسَ [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  11. Gun°ǧ ǧū Riwaǧ (Sindhi, گُونْج جُو رِوَاج [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  12. Gūṃjane kā Abhyāsa (Hindi, गूंजने का अभ्यास [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  13. Anuraṇana Anuśīlana (Bengali, অনুরণন অনুশীলন [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  1. ddirāsaẗ ʾal•mutaẖaṣṣiṣaẗ (Arabic, دِّرَاسَة المُتَخَصِّصَة [MP3]), “monograph (specialized study)
  2. monographía (Modern Greek/Néa Ellēniká, μονογραφία [MP3]), “monograph
  3. mōnōḡərạp̄əyāh (Hebrew, מוֹנוֹגְרַפְיָה [MP3]), “monograph
  4. mʾọnʾọgərʾạp̄ (Yiddish, מאָנאָגְּראַףֿ [MP3]), “monograph
  5. Monographie (German [MP3]), “monograph
  6. tiḱ niviš°tih (Persian, تَک نِوِشْتِه [MP3]), “monograph (single writing)
  7. monografiya (Tajik, монография [MP3]), “monograph
  8. tadqiqot•i maḱsadnok (Tajik, тадқиқоти маќсаднок [MP3]), “monograph (targeted research)
  9. mūnūǵ°rāf (Pashto, مُونُوګْرَاف [MP3]), “monograph
  10. da tamar°ḱuz muṭālaʿah (Pashto, دَ تَمَرْکُز مُطَالَعَه [MP3]), “monograph (concentrated research)
  11. t°ḥaqíqí muqālah (Urdu, تْحَقِیقِی مُقَالَہ [MP3]), “monograph (research article)
  12. mōnōgrāpha (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਮੋਨੋਗ੍ਰਾਫ [MP3]), “monograph
  13. mūnūg°rāfa (Shahmukhi Punjabi, مُونُوگْرَافَ [MP3]), “monograph
  14. ẖāṣ nūš°tū (Sindhi, خَاص نُوشْتُو [MP3]), “monograph (special notation)
  1. waḥidaẗ fī ʾal•tanawwuʿ (Arabic, وَحِدَة فِي التَنَوُّع [MP3]), “unity in diversity
  2. ʾạḥəḏūṯ bə•givūn (Hebrew, אַחְדוּת בְּגִּוּוּן [MP3]), “unity in diversity
  3. ʾạḥəḏūṯ ʾạyən diyəyvẹrəsiyṭiy (Yiddish, אַחְדּוּת אַיְן דִּייווֶערְסִיטִי [MP3]), “unity in diversity
  4. vaḥidat dar ḱaṯ°rat (Persian, وَحِدَت دَر کَثْرَت [MP3]), “unity in diversity
  5. vahdat dar kasrat (Tajik, ваҳдат дар касрат [MP3]), “unity in diversity
  6. tanawwuʿ ḱaý ýaw°wālí (Pashto, تَنَوُّع کَې یَوْوَالِی [MP3]), “unity in diversity
  7. tanawwuʿ mēṉ ʾittiḥād (Urdu, تَنَوُّع مَیْں اِتِّحَاد [MP3]), “unity in diversity
  8. bhinatā vica ēkatā (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਭਿੰਨਤਾ ਵਿਚ ਏਕਤਾ [MP3]), “unity in diversity
  9. b°hinatā viča ʾēḱatā (Shahmukhi Punjabi, بھِنَتَا وِچَ ایکِتَا [MP3]), “unity in diversity
  10. tanawwuʿ meṃ➦⁺ⁱᵃˢᵗ ʾittiḥād (Sindhi, تَنَوُّع ۾ اِتِّحَاد [MP3]), “unity in diversity
  11. unité dans la diversité (French/Français, [MP3]), “unity in diversity
  12. çeşitlilık ıçınde birlık (Turkish/Türk Dılı [MP3]), “unity in diversity
  1. bāb (Sindhi and originally Arabic, بَاب [Arabic MP3 or Sindhi MP3]), “chapter (‘gate or door’)
  2. bāba (Urdu, بَابَ [MP3]), “chapter (‘gate or door’)
  3. bob (Tajik, боб [MP3]), “chapter (‘gate or door’)
  4. faṣ°l (Persian, Pashto, and originally Arabic, فَصْل [MP3]), “chapter or section (‘season’)
  5. fasl (Tajik, фасл [MP3]), “chapter or section (‘season’)
  6. sūraẗ (originally Arabic, سُوْرَة [MP3]), “chapter or tablet (‘a row or pile of stones’)
  7. sūrah (Persian, سُورَه [MP3]), “chapter or tablet (‘a row or pile of stones’)
  8. sūrat (Persian and Pashto, سُورَت [MP3]), “chapter or tablet (‘a row or pile of stones’)
  9. surat (Tajik, сурат [MP3]), “chapter or tablet (‘a row or pile of stones’)
  10. sūrata (Urdu, سُورَتَ [MP3]), “chapter or tablet (‘a row or pile of stones’)
  11. suresı (Turkish [MP3]), “chapter or tablet (‘a row or pile of stones’)
  12. surätu (Amharic/ʾÄmarəña, ሱረቱ [MP3]), “chapter or tablet (‘a row or pile of stones’)
  13. sūrāha (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸੂਰਾਹ [MP3]), “chapter or tablet (‘a row or pile of stones’)
  14. sūrāha (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سُورَاہَ [MP3]), “chapter or tablet (‘a row or pile of stones’)
  15. adhiꞌāꞌi (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਅਧਿਆਇ [MP3]), “chapter
  16. ʾad°hiýā⫯ýē (Shahmukhi Punjabi, ادْھِیَائَے [MP3]), “chapter
  17. məʾərafə (Amharic/ʾÄmarəña, ምዕራፍ [MP3]), “chapter
  18. pẹrẹq (Hebrew, פֶּרֶק [MP3]), “chapter
  19. qʾạpiyṭəl (Yiddish, קאַפִּיטְל [MP3]), “chapter
  20. Kapitel (German [MP3]), “chapter
  21. chapitre (French [MP3]), “chapter
This monograph is an odd historical novel. Even though the status and sociohistorical context of the writer are fictitious, his thoughts and personal experiences are mostly genuine. Whether the perspectives have any value is for you to decide. I would never claim to be an authority on any subject. As a libertarian communist, I immediately distrust anyone—other than the Prophets of ʾAl•llꞌah (Arabic, [MP3], “the God”) sub°ḥān°h wa•taʿātaỳ (Arabic, سُبْحَانْه وَتَعَالَى [MP3], “glorified and exalted be He” or “SWT”) and Their successors—who makes authoritarian personal claims. The novel is an attempt at concrete utopianism. That framework was conceived by German Marxist philosopher Ernst Bloch (MP3), 1885–1977, and later developed by British Marxist philosopher and true libertarian communist Roy Bhaskar (MP3; Hindi, राम रॉय भास्कर [MP3], Rāma Rôya Bhāskara), 1944–2014.
  1. riwāyaẗ ʾal•t⫯ārīẖiyyaẗ (Arabic, رِوَايَة التَأرِيخِيَّة [MP3]), “historical novel
  2. rōmān hạ•hiysəṭōriy (Hebrew, רוֹמָן הַהִיסְטוֹרִי [MP3]), “historical novel
  3. hiysəṭʾāriyš rʾọmʾạn (Yiddish, הִיסְטאָרִישׁ ראָמאַן [MP3]), “historical novel
  4. rumān•i tāríẖí (Persian, رُمَانِ تَارِیخِی [MP3]), “historical novel
  5. romon•i taʿriẖī (Tajik, ромони таърихӣ [MP3]), “historical novel
  6. rūýẖat•i taʿriẖī (Tajik, рӯйхати таърихӣ [MP3]), “historical novel
  7. da tāríẖí nāwal (Pashto, دَ تَارِیخَي نَاوَل [MP3]), “historical novel
  8. tāríẖí nāwala (Urdu, تَارِیخَي نَاوَل [MP3]), “historical novel
  9. itihāsaka nāvala (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਇਤਿਹਾਸਕ ਨਾਵਲ [MP3]), “historical novel
  10. ʾitihāsaḱa nāvala (Shahmukhi Punjabi, اِتِہَاسَکَ نَاوَلَ [MP3]), “historical novel
  11. tārīẖī rumān (Sindhi, تَارِيخِي رُمَان [MP3]), “historical novel
  12. roman historique (French [MP3]), “historical novel
  13. historia romano (Esperanto [MP3]), “historical novel
  14. aitihāsika upanyāsa (Hindi, ऐतिहासिक उपन्यास [MP3]), “historical novel
  15. aitihāsika upanꞌyāsa (Bengali, ঐতিহাসিক উপন্যাস [MP3]), “historical novel
  16. tarihı roman (Turkish [MP3]), “historical novel
  1. ṭūbāwiyyaẗ ʾal•mal°mūsaẗ (Arabic, طُوبَاوِيَّة المَلْمُوسَة [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  2. ʾūṭōpiyizəm hạ•qōnəqərẹṭiy (Hebrew, אוּטוֹפִּיִזְם הַקוֹנְקְרֶטִי [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  3. ʾūṭōpiyizəm hạ•mūḥāšiy (Hebrew, אוּטוֹפִּיִזְם הַמוּחָשִׁי [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  4. bʾạṭʾọnẹʿn ūṭʾọpiyʾạniyzəm (Yiddish, באַטאָנֶען וּטאָפִּיאַנִיזְם [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  5. ẖaýāl•i ʾutūpiýāý•i bituní (Persian, خَیَالِ اُتُوپِیَایِ بِتُنِی [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  6. ǧahoni•i behtarin (Tajik, ҷаҳонии беҳтарин [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  7. da ḱān°ḱ°ríṭ ǧazírah (Pashto, دَ کَانْکْرِیټ جَزِیرَه [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  8. dun°ýāwí miṯālí dun°ýā (Urdu, دُنْیَاوِی مِثَالِی دُنْیَا [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  9. kakarīṭa yūṭōpiꞌānīzama (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕੰਕਰੀਟ ਯੂਟੋਪਿਆਨੀਜ਼ਮ [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  10. ḱan°ḱaríṭa ýūṭūpiýānízama (Shahmukhi Punjabi کَنْکَرِیٹَ یُوٹُوپِیَانِیزمَ [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  11. k̀an°k̀°riʈ k̀āmil pasan°dī (Sindhi, ڪَنْڪْرِٽ ڪَامِل پَسَنْدِي [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
The perspectives which are diagrammed, directly below, in the libertarian communist pentad intertwine Islamic studies (Arabic, دِّرَاسات الإسْلاميَّة [MP3], Ddirāsāt ʾal•⫰Is°lāmiyyaẗ) with a preternatural praxis (spiritually engaged practice) through an ongoing conversation with these five critical and Marxist frameworks: Marxism–Luxemburgism (MP3), Autonomist Antifa (MP3; Arabic, مُضَادّ الفَاشِيَّة مِن الاِسْتِقْلَال [MP3], muḍād ʾal•fāšiyyaẗ min ʾal•ʾis°tiq°lāl); the originally neo–Trotskyist theory of “socialism from below” (Arabic, اِشْتِرَاكِيَّة مِن الأَسْفَل [MP3], ʾištirākiyyaẗ min ʾal•⫯as°fal) from third–camp Trotskyist Hal Draper and others; Roy Bhaskar’s critical realism (Arabic, وَاقِعِيَّة النَقْدِيَّة [MP3], wāqiʿiyyaẗ ʾal•naq°diyyaẗ); and, moreover, intersectional theory (Arabic, نَظَرِيَّة التَقَاطُعَات [MP3], naẓariyyaẗ ʾal•taqāṭuʿāt) from Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw, Patricia Hill Collins, and others.
Pentad
  1. H̱umāsiyyaẗ ʾal•Šuyūʿiyyaẗ ʾal•Lībir°tāriyyaẗ (Arabic, خُمَاسِيَّة الشُيُوعِيَّة اللِيبِرْتَارِيَّة [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  2. Məḥūmāš hạ•Qōmūniysəṭiyṭ hạ•Ḥērūṯ (Hebrew, מְחוּמָשׁ הַקוֹמוּנִיסְטִי הַחֵרוּת [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  3. Pan°ǧ Ḍilʿí•i Ḱumūnís°t•i Líbir°tāriýan (Persian, پَنْج ضِلعِیِ کُمُونِیسْتِ لِیبِرتَارِیَن [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  4. Panǧ Tarafho•i Kommunistī•i Ozodī (Tajik, Панҷ Тарафҳои Коммунистӣи Озодӣ [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  5. Da ʾÂzādí Ḱumūnís°ṭ Pay°n°ṭūǵun (Pashto, دَ آزَادِی کُمُونِیسْټ پَیْنْټُوګُن [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  6. ʾÂzādí Pasan°da Ḱam°ýūnis°ṭa Pēn°tāg°rāma (Urdu, آزَادِی پَسَنْدَ کُمْیُونِسْٹَ پَینْٹَاگْرَامَ [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  7. Āzādī dē Kamiꞌūnisaṭa Pajabhuja (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਆਜ਼ਾਦੀ ਦੇ ਕਮਿਊਨਿਸਟ ਪੰਜਭੁਜ [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  8. ʾÂzādí dē Ḱam°ýūnis°ṭa Pan°ǧab°huǧa (Shahmukhi Punjabi, آزَادِی دَے کَمْیُونِسْٹَ پَنْجَبْھُجَ [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  9. ʾÂzādí K̀am°yūnis°ʈ Pay°n°ṭagū⫯yn (Sindhi, آزَادِی ڪَمْيُونِسْٽ پَيْنْٽَگُوئن [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  1. taṭ°bīq ʾal•ʿamaliyy mutaʿaddid ẖāriq lil•ṭabīʿaẗ (Arabic, تَطْبِيق العَمَلِيّ مُتَعَدِّد خَارِق لِلطَبِيعَة [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  2. nōhāḡ mərubẹh ʿạl ṭibʿiy (Hebrew, נוֹהָג מְרֻבֶּה עַל טִבעִי [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  3. ʿur°f•i čan°d°gānih•i fūqāl°ʿādih (Persian, عُرْفِ چَنْدگَانِهِ فُوقَالْعَادِه [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  4. taʿriba•i balandtarin•i bisyor (Tajik, таьрибаи баландтарини бисёр [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  5. da ʿamal ṭabíʿí ḱaṯír ʾâýat (Pashto, دَ عَمَل طَبِیعِی کَثِیر آیَت [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  6. māfūqa ʾal•fiṭ°rata maš°qa (Urdu, مَافُوقَ الفِطْرَتَتَ مَشق [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  7. abhiꞌāsa malaṭīpala brahimaḍa (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਅਭਿਆਸ ਮਲਟੀਪਲ ਬ੍ਰਹਿਮੰਡ [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  8. ʾab°hiýāsa malaṭípala brahim°naḍa (Shahmukhi Punjabi, ابھِیَاسَ مَلَٹِیپَلَ برَہِمْنَڈَ [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  9. māfūq maš°q (Sindhi, مَافُوق مَشْق [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
Bhaskarian critical realism is a metatheory and a critical theory which, like all critical theories, incorporates a a methodology for emancipation or, in this case, a methodology for actualizing libertarian communism. Intersectionality, wonderfully grounded in Black feminism (Arabic, نِسْوِيَّة مِن السَوْدَاء [MP3], nis°wiyyaẗ min ʾal•saw°dāˁ) and critical race theory (Arabic, نِسَائِيَّة الْعُنْصُرِيَّة النَقْدِيَّة [MP3], nisā⫯yiyyaẗ ʾal•ʿunṣuriyyaẗ ʾal•naq°diyyaẗ), is legal scholar Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw’s (born 1959) critical theory. According to this perspective, individuals and cohorts of one sort of another will traverse diverse intersections on a metaphorical roadmap. Sociologist Patricia Hill Collins (born 1948) invites her readers to recognize the matrix of domination, shift the centers of their thinking to the other or the socially marginalized peoples of the world, and, finally, reconstruct their knowledge.
  1. man°haǧiyyaẗ (Arabic, مَنْهَجِيَّة [MP3]), “methodology (or methodological)
  2. ṭarīqaẗ (Arabic, طَرِيقَة [MP3]), “methodology (method or procedure)
  3. mẹṯ′ōḏōlōḡə′yāh (Hebrew, מֶת׳וֹדוֹלוֹגְ׳יָה [MP3]), “methodology
  4. mẹʿṭʾọdʾọlʾọgiy (Yiddish, מֶעטאָדּאָלאָגִּי [MP3]), “methodology
  5. Methodologie (German [MP3]), “methodology
  6. raviš•i šināsí (Persian, رَوِشِ شِنَاسِی [MP3]), “methodology
  7. metodologiya (Tajik, методология [MP3]), “methodology
  8. da lēlah (Pashto, دَ لېلَه [MP3]), “methodology
  9. ṭaríqah (Urdu, طَرِیقَہ [MP3]), “methodology (method or procedure)
  10. vidhī (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਵਿਧੀ [MP3]), “methodology
  11. vid°hí (Shahmukhi Punjabi, وِدْھِی [MP3]), “methodology
  12. ṭaríqū (Sindhi, طَرِيقُو [MP3]), “methodology (method or procedure)
  1. ⫰iʿādaẗ bināˁ ʾal•maʿ°rifaẗ (Arabic, إِعَادَة بِنَاء المَعْرِفَة [MP3]), “reconstruction of knowledge
  2. šiḥəzūr hạ•yẹḏạʿ (Hebrew, שִׁחְזוּר הַיֶדַע [MP3]), “reconstruction of knowledge
  3. rēʿqạʾnəsəṭərʾạqəšʾạn p̄ōn viysẹn (Yiddish, רֵעקאַנְסְטְראַקְשׁאַן פֿוֹן ווִיסֶן [MP3]), “reconstruction of knowledge
  4. Rekonstruktion von Wissen (German [MP3]), “reconstruction of knowledge
  5. bāz°sāzí•i dāniš (Persian, بَازْسَازِیِ دَانِش [MP3]), “reconstruction of knowledge
  6. bozsozī•i doniš (Tajik, бозсозӣи дониш [MP3]), “reconstruction of knowledge
  7. aznavsozi•i doniš (Tajik, азнавсозии дониш [MP3]), “reconstruction of knowledge
  8. da b°ýā raġawinah da pūnah (Pashto, دَ بْیَا رَغَوِنَه دَ پُوهَه [MP3]), “reconstruction of knowledge
  9. ʿil°ma ḱí dūbārah tiʿmíra (Urdu, عِلْمَ کِی دُوبَارَہ تِعمِیرَ [MP3]), “reconstruction of knowledge
  10. giꞌāna dā muṛa niramāṇa (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗਿਆਨ ਦਾ ਮੁੜ ਨਿਰਮਾਣ [MP3]), “reconstruction of knowledge
  11. giýāna dā muṛa niramāna (Shahmukhi Punjabi, گِیَانَ دَا مُڑَ نِرَمَانَ [MP3]), “reconstruction of knowledge
  12. ʈīhar tiʿmīr ʿil°m ǧī (Sindhi, ٻِيھَر تِعمِير عِلْم جِي [MP3]), “reconstruction of knowledge
Luxemburgism is a libertarian communist tendency which, unlike some other left–libertarian currents, acknowledges the importance of direct as well as indirect democracy. Autonomist Antifa is a libertarian communist commitment to fighting fascism and its evil cousins. Third–camp socialist Hal Draper’s (1914–1990) socialism from below, later adopted by those within a broad cross section of currents, is a left–libertarian rejection of that socialism from above, or so–called authoritarian socialism, which single–handedly wreaked havoc on the 20ᵗʰ century. Each one of those approaches, from critical realism to socialism from below, has contributed to the development of left–libertarian Marxism.
  1. ʾiš°tirākiyyaẗ ʾal•ṯāliṯaẗ lil•muẖayyam (Arabic, اِشْتِرَاكِيَّة الثَالِثَة لِلمُخَيَّم [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  2. sōṣəyāʾliyzəm šẹl ha•mạḥănẹh hạ•šəliyšiy (Hebrew, סוֹצְיָאלִיזְם שֶׁל הַמַחֲנֶה הַשְׁלִישִׁי [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  3. dəriyṭ–lʾạgẹʿr sʾọṣiyʾạliyzəm (Yiddish, דְּרִיט־לאַגֶּער סאָצִיאַלִיזְם [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  4. Sozialismus im dritten Lager (German [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  5. sūsiýāliýs°m•i sivvum ʾur°dūgāh (Persian, سُوسِیَالِیسْمِ سِوُّم اُرْدُوگَاه [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  6. sotsializm•i seyum–ūrdugoh (Tajik, сотсиализми сеюм–ӯрдугоҳ [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  7. da d°ray°m pin°ɖ°ġālaý sūsiýāliýz°m (Pashto, دَ دْرَیْم پِنْډْغَالَی سُوسِیَالِیزْم [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  8. tís°rí ẖaý°mah sūšaliz°m (Urdu, تِیسْرِی خَیْمَہ سُوشَلِزم [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  9. tījī–ḍērē samājavāda (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਤੀਜੀ–ਡੇਰੇ ਸਮਾਜਵਾਦ [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  10. tíǧí–ḍērē samāǧa vāda (Shahmukhi Punjabi, تِیجِی-ڈَیرَے سَمَاجَ وَادَ [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  11. ʈiyūn man°zil sūšaliz°m (Sindhi, ٽِيُون مَنزِل سُوشَلِزم [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  12. üçüncü kamp sosyalizm (Turkish [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
Draper’s socialism from below is post–Trotskyist or neo–Trotskyist. These terms are given by some writers to tendencies which, while beginning in Trotskyism, either try to move beyond it or to renew it. Among those tendencies are international socialism and third–camp socialism. Draper was a leader of third–camp socialism. I alternated between identifying with third–camp socialism and international socialism. That is to say, I have also been a post–Trotskyist. From within post–Trotskyism, I then turned to Luxemburgism. Trotskyism has been the only major alternative to Stalinism and Maoism for organizing. Near the end of Trotsky’s life, while exiled in North America, he had already adopted the informal, egalitarian style of libertarian Marxism. If he was not, unfortunately, assassinated in Mexico by a Soviet operative, Trotsky might have become a post–Trotskyist, too.
Authoritarianism has, mysteriously to me, appealed to some people. It may be fine if the authoritarians are your friends. What happens, however, if the authoritarians are your sworn enemies? A genuine libertarian communism will, optimistically, promote a positive vision of communism and its incredible possibilities. As left–libertarianism is socialism from below, so “left”–authoritarianism is socialism from above. Libertarian communists do not buy into the make–believe logic of right–libertarianism. Because full freedom, full liberty, or full emancipation now escapes us, capitalism must be eliminated. Communism is freedom. Capitalism is chains. Communism, the views of some right–wingers notwithstanding, would be only “make–believe” if communists, negating the struggle, argued that communism is preordained rather than a good possibility. Communists are not prophets.
  1. rr⫯āsumāliyyaẗuṇ (Arabic, رَّأْسُمَالِيَّةٌ [MP3]), “capitalism
  2. qāpiyṭāliyzəm (Hebrew, קָפִּיטָלִיזְם [MP3]), “capitalism
  3. qʾạpiyṭʾạliyzʾạm (Yiddish, קאַפִּיטאַלִיזאַם [MP3]), “capitalism
  4. Kapitalismus (German [MP3]), “capitalism
  5. sar°māý°hadārí (Persian and Pashto, سَرْمَایْهَدَارِی [MP3]), “capitalism
  6. sarmoyadorī (Tajik, сармоядорӣ [MP3]), “capitalism
  7. kapitalizm (Tajik, капитализм [MP3]), “capitalism
  8. sar°māý°hadārí (Urdu, سَرْمَاہْهَدَارِی [MP3]), “capitalism
  9. pūn°ǧíwāda (Urdu, پُونْجِیوَادَ [MP3]), “capitalism
  10. pūjīvāda (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪੂੰਜੀਵਾਦ [MP3]), “capitalism
  11. pūn°ǧívāda (Shahmukhi Punjabi, پُونْجِیوَادَ [MP3]), “capitalism
  12. sar°mā⫯yyadārī (Sindhi, سَرْمَائيَدَارِي [MP3]), “capitalism
  13. pūṃjīvāda (Hindi, पूंजीवाद [MP3]), “capitalism
  1. ʾal•niḍāl (Arabic, النِضَال [MP3]), “the struggle
  2. ʾal•kifāḥ (Arabic, الكِفَاح [MP3]), “the struggle
  3. ʾal•ǧihād (Arabic, الجِهَاد [MP3]), “the struggle or striving
  4. ʾal•mubārazaẗ (Arabic, مُبَارَزَة [MP3]), “the struggle (the contest, duel, or competition)
  5. hạ•mạʾăḇāq (Hebrew, הַמַאֲבָק [MP3]), “the struggle
  6. dẹʿr gẹʿrʾạnəgəl (Yiddish, דֶּער גֶּעראַנְגְּל [MP3]), “the struggle
  7. der Kampf (German [MP3]), “the struggle
  8. mubārizih (Persian, مُبَارِزِه [MP3]), “the struggle
  9. da mubārizih (Pashto, دَ مُبَارِزِه [MP3]), “the struggle
  10. muboriza (Tajik, мубориза [MP3]), “the struggle
  11. ʾal•ǧidūǧihida (Urdu, الجِدُوجِہِدَ [MP3]), “the struggle
  12. iha sagharaśa (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਇਹ ਸੰਘਰਸ਼ [MP3]), “the struggle
  13. ʾiý°ha san°g°haraša (Shahmukhi Punjabi, اِیْہَ سَنْگْھَرَشَ [MP3]), “the struggle
  14. ǧī ǧidūǧihid (Sindhi, جِي جِدُوجِهِد [MP3]), “the struggle
A complete economic, social, and political emancipation would require the elimination of intersectionality, the capitalist world–system, and the establishment of a communist world–system. On the other hand, individual libertation or emancipation is possible, to a degree, even now. Personal emancipation is a libertation from one’s absences. An absence, from a critical realist standpoint, is an lack of emancipation. Racism, sexism, ageism, ableism (disablism) may be seen as absences embedded within the capitalist world–system. Anti–racism, feminism, age inclusiveness, and the social model of disability (disability seen as social oppression) can absent those absences. Consciously struggling for one’s own self–realization, through a regular spiritual practice and by encouraging the emancipation of others, is an everyday methodology for absenting one’s own absences.
  1. namūḏaǧ ʾal•ʾiǧ°timāʿiyy lil•⫰iʿāqaẗ (Arabic, نَمُوذَج الاِجْتِمَاعِيّ لِلإِعَاقَة [MP3]), “social model of disability
  2. mōḏẹl hạ•ḥẹḇərāṯiy šẹl hạ•muḡəbālūṯ (Hebrew, מוֹדֶל הַחֶבְרָתִי שֶׁל הַמֻגְבָּלוּת [MP3]), “social model of disability
  3. dẹḡẹm hạ•sōṣəyāʾliy šẹl hạ•nāḵūṯ (Hebrew, דֶּגֶם הַסוֹצְיָאלִי שֶׁל הַנָכוּת [MP3]), “social model of disability
  4. gẹʿzẹləšạp̄əṭəlẹʿḵ mʾọdẹʿl p̄ōn dẹʿr dạyəsʾabiyliyṭiy (Yiddish, גֶּעזֶעלְשׁאַפְֿטְלֶעך מאָדֶּעל פֿוֹן דֶּער דַּיְסאַבִילִיטִי [MP3]), “social model of disability
  5. soziales Modell von der Behinderung (German [MP3]), “social model of disability
  6. mudil•i ʾiǧ°timāʿí•i maʾlūlít (Persian, مُدِلِ اجتِمَاعِیِ مَعْلُولِیت [MP3]), “social model of disability
  7. model•i iǧtimoi•i maʿyubī (Tajik, модели иҷтимоии маъюбӣ [MP3]), “social model of disability
  8. da ṭūlaníz māɖil da maʾlūlít (Pashto, دَ ټُولَنِیز مَاډِل دَ مَعْلُولِیت [MP3]), “social model of disability
  9. maʿḏūrí ḱē samāǧí māḍila (Urdu, مَعذُورِی کَے سَمَاجِی مَاڈِلَ [MP3]), “social model of disability
  10. apagatā dā samājaka māḍala (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਅਪੰਗਤਾ ਦਾ ਸਮਾਜਕ ਮਾਡਲ [MP3]), “social model of disability
  11. ʾapan°gatā dā samāǧaḱa māḍala (Shahmukhi Punjabi, اپَنْگَتَا دَا سَمَاجَکَ مَاڈَلَ [MP3]), “social model of disability
  12. samāǧī namūnī ǧī maʿḏūr (Sindhi, سَمَاجِي نَمُونِي جِي مَعذُور [MP3]), “social model of disability
  13. modèle social de l’incapacité (French [MP3]), “social model of disability
  1. taġīb ʿan ʾal•ġayābāt (Arabic, تَغِيب عَن الغَيَابَات [MP3]), “absenting absences
  2. biṭṭūl šẹl hạ•hēʿāḏərūṯ (Hebrew, בִּטּוּל שֶׁל הַהֵעָדְרוּת [MP3]), “absenting absences
  3. ṣū bʾạzạyəyəṭiyqən diy p̄ẹʿlənədiyq zạʾḵən (Yiddish, צוּ באַזַיְיְטִיקְן דִי פֶֿעלְנְדִיק זַאכְן [MP3]), “absenting absences
  4. ḥaḏaf•i ġaý°bat (Persian, حَذَفِ غَیْبَت [MP3]), “absenting absences
  5. bartaraf kardan•i nabudaniho (Tajik, бартараф кардани набуданиҳо [MP3]), “absenting absences
  6. da lirē ḱiṛəi da maḥ°dūdiýatūnū (Pashto, دَ لِرَې کِړئ دَ مَحْدُودِیَتُونُو [MP3]), “absenting absences
  7. ḱamí ḱū haṭānē (Urdu, کَمِی کُو ہَٹَانَے [MP3]), “absenting absences
  8. gairahāzarīꞌāṁ nū haṭāꞌuṇā (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗੈਰਹਾਜ਼ਰੀਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਹਟਾਉਣਾ [MP3]), “absenting absences
  9. ġaý°r ḥaḍariyāṉ nūṉ haṭā⫯ūnā (Shahmukhi Punjabi, غَیْر حَاضَرِیَاں نُوں ہَٹَاُؤنَا [MP3]), “absenting absences
  10. k̀ūtāhiyūn ǧū haʈā⫯īṉ̣ (Sindhi, ڪُوتَاھِيُون جُو هَٽَاِئڻ [MP3]), “absenting absences
  11. haṭāne parisīmana (Hindi, हटाने परिसीमन [MP3]), “absenting absences
The Libertarian Communist Pentad is a conceptual model for the critical social theory of Dialectical metaRealism™ (MP3) or DmR™. The pun on dialectical materialism was intentional. DmR itself is an original approach to the sociology of everyday life. Here are some relevant translations:
  1. naẓariyyaẗ ʾal•ʾiǧ°timāʿiyyaẗ ʾal•naq°diyyaẗ (Arabic, نَظَرِيَّت الاِجْتِمَاعِيَّة النَقْدِيَّة [MP3]), “critical social theory
  2. tēʾōrəyūṯ hạ•qəriyṭūṯ hạ•ḥẹḇərāṯiyūṯ (Hebrew, תֵּאוֹרְיוּת הַקְרִיטוּת הַחֶבְרָתִיוּת [MP3]), “critical social theory
  3. qəriyṭiyš gẹʿzẹləšạp̄əṭəlẹʿḵ ṭēʿʾọriyʿ (Yiddish, קְרִיטִישׁ גֶּעזֶעלְשׁאַפְֿטְלֶעך טֵעאָרִיע [MP3]), “critical social theory
  4. kritische Gesellschaftstheorie (German [MP3]), “critical social theory
  5. naẓariýah•i ʾiǧ°timāʿí•i ʾin°tiqādī (Persian, نَظَرِیَه اِنْتِقَادِی اِجْتِمَاعِی [MP3]), “critical social theory
  6. naẓariýah•i ʾiǧ°timāʿí•i taḥ°lílí (Persian, نَظَرِیَه اِنْتِقَادِی تَحْلِیلِی [MP3]), “critical social theory
  7. nazariýa•i iǧtimoī•i tahlilī (Tajik, назарийаи иц̧тимоӣи таҳлилӣ [MP3]), “critical social theory
  8. da taḥ°lílí ʾiǧ°timāʿí naẓariýah (Pashto, دَ تَحْلِیلِی اِجْتِمَاعِی نَظَرِیَه [MP3]), “critical social theory
  9. tan°qídí samāǧí naẓariýah (Urdu, تَنْقِیدِی سَمَاجِی نَظَرِیَه [MP3]), “critical social theory
  10. nāzuka samājika sidhānta (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਨਾਜ਼ੁਕ ਸਮਾਜਿਕ ਸਿਧਾਂਤ [MP3]), “critical social theory
  11. nāzuḱa samāǧiḱa sid°hān°ta (Shahmukhi Punjabi, نَازُکَ سَمَاجِکَ سِدْھَانْتَ [MP3]), “critical social theory
  12. nāzuk̀ samāǧī ʾuṣūl (Sindhi, نَازُڪ سَمَاجِي اُصُول [MP3]), “critical social theory
  13. théorie sociale critique (French [MP3]), “critical social theory
  1. Ǧadaliyyaẗ ẖāriǧa ʾal•Waqiʿiyyaẗ (Arabic, جَدَلِيَّة خَارِجَ الوَاقِعِيَّة [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  2. ʾal•Ǧadaliyyaẗ ʾal•ttil°wiyyaẗ ʾal•Wāqiʿiyyaẗ (Arabic, الجَدَلِيَّة التِّلْوِيَّة الْوَاقِعِيَّة [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  3. Diyʾālẹqəṭiyqāh mēʿēḇẹr lə•Rēʾāliyzəm (Hebrew, דִּיאָלֶקְטִיקָה מֵעֵבֶר לְרֵאָלִיזְם [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  4. miʿẹḇẹr lə•hạ•Məṣiyʾūṯiyūṯ hạ•Diyʾālẹqəṭiy (Hebrew, מִעֶבֶר לְהַמְצִיאוּתִיוּת הַדִּיאָלֶקְטִי [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  5. diy Diyʾạlẹʿqəṭiq ʾạwiysẹr Rēʿʾạliyzəm (Yiddish, דִּי דִּיאַלֶעקְטִיק אַוִיסֶער רֵעאַלִיזְם [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  6. dialektischen MetaRealismus (German [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  7. der dialektische Metarealismus (German [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  8. Guýíší•i māfūq•i Vāqiʿ°bíní (Persian, گُوِیشِیِ مَافُوقِ وَاقِعْبِینِی [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  9. mitā•i Vāqiʿ•i Grāýí•i Ǧadalí (Persian مِتَاِ وَاقِعِ گْرَایِیِ جَدَلِی [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  10. Dialektikī berun az•i Voqeiyat (Tajik, Диалектикӣ берун ази Воқеият [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  11. da Diýāliḱ°tíḱ da Wāqiʿ bíní (Pashto, دَ دِیَالِکْتِیکِیک دَ وَاقِع بِینِی [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  12. Ǧadaliýat daw°r maḏ°hab Ḥaqíqí (Urdu, جَدَلِیَت دَوْر مَذْهَب حَقِیقِی [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  13. Ǧadaliýātí mēṭā Ḥaqíqat (Urdu, جَدَلِیَاتِی مَیٹَا حَقِیقَت [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  14. Davadavādī Yathārathavāda tōṁ bāhara (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਦਵੰਦਵਾਦੀ ਯਥਾਰਥਵਾਦ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਹਰ [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  15. Davan°davādí Ýat°hārat°havāda tūṉ bāhara (Shahmukhi Punjabi, دَوَنْدَوَادِی یَتھَارَتھَوَاد تُوں بَاہَرَ [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  16. Davadavādī maiṭā–Yathārathavāda (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਦਵਦਵਾਦੀ ਮੈਟਾ–ਯਥਾਰਥਵਾਦ [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  17. Davadavādí mēṭā–Yat°hārat°havāda (Shahmukhi Punjabi, دَوَندَوَادِی مَیْٹَا ـ یَتْھارتْھَوَادَ [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  18. ʿIl°m man°ṭiq baʿ°d Ḥaqīqat Šanāsī (Sindhi, عِلْم مَنْطِق بَعْد حَقِيقَت شَنَاسِي [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  19. le métaRéalisme Dialectique (French [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  20. metaRealismo Dialéctico (Spanish [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  21. metaRealismo Dialético (Portugese [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  22. metaRealismo Dialettica (Italian [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  23. Dialektika metaRealismo (Esperanto [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  24. Dialektikḗ métaRealismoú (Modern Greek, Διαλεκτική μέταΡ̓εαλισμού [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  25. Dvaṃdvātmaka meṭā–Yathārthavāda (Hindi, द्वंद्वात्मक मेटा–यथार्थवाद [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  26. Dialektičeskij meta–Realizm (Russian/Rossiâne, Диалектический мета–Реализм [MP3]), “Dialectical metaRealism
  1. māddiyyaẗ ʾal•ǧadaliyyaẗ (Arabic, مَادِّيَّة الجَدَلِيَّة [MP3]), “dialectical materialism
  2. ḥāmərānūṯ hạ•diyʾālẹqəṭiyṯ (Hebrew, חָמְרָנוּת הַדִּיאָלֶקְטִית [MP3]), “dialectical materialism
  3. diy diyʾạlẹʿqəṭiq p̄ōn diy mʾạtiʿriyʾạliyzəmus (Yiddish, דִּי דִּיאַלֶעקְטִיק פֿוֹן דִּי מאַטִערִיאַלִיזְמֻס [MP3]), “dialectical materialism (the dialectic of the materialism)
  4. dẹʿr diyʾạlẹʿqəṭiyš mʾạtiʿriyʾạliyzəmus (Yiddish, דֶּער דִּיאַלֶעקְטִישׁ מאַטִערִיאַלִיזְמֻס [MP3]), “dialectical materialism
  5. der dialektische Materialismus (German [MP3]), “dialectical materialism
  6. māddih•i paras°tí•i guýíší (Persian, مَادِّهِ پَرَسْتِیِ گُوِیشِی [MP3]), “dialectical materialism
  7. moddaho•i dialektikī (Tajik, моддаҳои диалектикӣ [MP3]), “dialectical materialism
  8. da diýāliḱ°tíḱ da māddíz°m (Pashto, دَ دِیَالِکْتِیکِیک دَ مَادِّيزْم [MP3]), “dialectical materialism
  9. ǧadaliýat māddíyat (Urdu, جَدَلِیَت مَادِّییَت [MP3]), “dialectical materialism
  10. davadavādī padārathavāda (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਦਵੰਦਵਾਦੀ ਪਦਾਰਥਵਾਦ [MP3]), “dialectical materialism
  11. davan°davādí padārat°havāda (Shahmukhi Punjabi, دَوَنْدَوَادِی پَدَرَارتْھَوَادَ [MP3]), “dialectical materialism
  12. ʿil°m man°ṭiq ʾanātam mat vād (Sindhi, عِلْم مَنْطِق انَاتَم مَت وَاد [MP3]), “dialectical materialism
  13. dialektíčeskij materialízm (Russian, диалектіческий материалізм [MP3]), “dialectical materialism
  1. ʿil°mu ʾal•ʾiǧ°timāʿiyy min ʾal•ḥayyaẗ ʾal•yaw°miyyaẗ (Arabic, عِلْمُ الاِجْتِمَاعِيّ مِن الحَيَاة اليَوْمِيَّة [MP3]), “sociology of everyday life
  2. sōṣəyōlōḡə′yāh šẹl hạ•ḥāyiym hạ•yōməyōm (Hebrew, סוֹצְיוֹלוֹגְ׳יָה שֶׁל הַחַיִּים הַיוֹמְיוֹם [MP3]), “sociology of everyday life
  3. sọsạyʾọlʾọgiy p̄ōn vʾọḵạʿdiyq lẹʿbən (Yiddish, סאָסַיאָלאָגִּי פֿוֹן וואָכַעדִּיק לֶעבְן [MP3]), “sociology of everyday life
  4. ǧamiʿah•i šināsí•i zin°dagí•i rūz°marrih (Persian, جامِعَهِ شِنَاسِیِ زِنْدَگِیِ رُوزْمَرِّه [MP3]), “sociology of everyday life
  5. ǧomeašinosī•i hayot•i harrūza (Tajik, ҷомеашиносӣи ҳаёти ҳаррӯза [MP3]), “sociology of everyday life
  6. da ṭūlan°pūhinah da harih w°raź ž°win°d (Pashto, دَ ټُولَنْپُوهِنَه دَ هَرِه وْرَځ ژْوِنْد [MP3]), “sociology of everyday life
  7. rūz°marrih zin°dagí ḱí samāǧiýāta (Urdu, رُوزْمَرِّہ زِنْدَگِی کِی سَمَاجِیَاتَ [MP3]), “sociology of everyday life
  8. rōzānā zidagī dē samāja śāsatarī (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਰੋਜ਼ਾਨਾ ਜ਼ਿਦਗੀ ਦੇ ਸਮਾਜ ਸ਼ਾਸਤਰੀ [MP3]), “sociology of everyday life
  9. rūzāna zin°dagí dē samāǧa šāsatarí (Shahmukhi Punjabi, رُوزَانَہ زِنْدَگِی دَے سَمَاجَ شَاسَتَرِی [MP3]), “sociology of everyday life
  10. rūz°marrih zin°dagī ǧī samāǧiyāt (Sindhi, رُوزْمَرِّہ زِنْدَگِي جِي سَمَاجَِيَات [MP3]), “sociology of everyday life
  11. sociologie de la vie quotidienne (French [MP3]), “sociology of everyday life

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٢. Transliteration: Arabo–Perso (AP)
For transliterating Arabic and Persian, I use my Arabo–Perso™ system throughout this monograph and in the rest of the Concrete Utopianism through Libertarian Marxist Communist Social Fiction website. Three mutually intelligible Persian dialectics, with two different scripts, have been supported: Persian or Iranian Persian (Persian, فَاْرسِیِ اِیْرَانِی [MP3], Fār°sí•i ʾIý°rāní), Dari or Dari Persian (Dari Persian, فَارْسِیِ دَرِی [MP3], Fār°sí•i Darí), and Tajik or Tajiki Persian (Tajik, Форсіи Тоҷикӣ́ [MP3], Forsí•i Toǧikī́). Through incorporating Tajiki Persian into AP, I have substituted the pre–Soviet method for Anglicizing Tajik with this new system. That trio of mutually intelligible Persian dialects now appear similar in the Latin alphabet. Dari should not be confused with the distinct, and less utilized, Pashto in Afghanistan (Persian and Pashto, افغَانِستَان [MP3], ʾAf°ġānis°tān).
In addition to Iranian Persian, a few other modified Arabic scripts have only been partially accommodated. If, on the other hand, your scholarship focuses on, or includes, Pashto, Urdu, Shahmukhi Punjabi, or Sindhi, you can obviously take Arabo–Perso, possibly along with the generally modest accommodations I have made for each of those languages, and then expand upon it. When you have a chance, please drop me a line and let me know about your enhancements to AP.
Transliteration differs, both in objective and method, from Romanization. The first is designed to allow the reader to convert between the script used in the transliteration and the original text. Some techniques will obviously outperform others in this regard. The second, suitably illustrated in the approach referred to as Bahá’í Orthography, is principally intended to facilitate the readability of a document. To put the matter more simply, Romanization sacrifices a certain degree of accuracy for the sake of readability. Transliteration, in like manner, sacrifices a measure of enhanced readability for accuracy. A writer might, depending upon her or his objectives or anticipated audience of readers, select one or the other. They are two functional, but quite different, language tools.
My transliteration scheme began as the Arabic transliteration system of the International Organization for Standardization (the ISO). It is, on its own, an excellent system and is widely used in academic publications, but I very quickly recognized its limitations. Alongside the ISO, some others, including the method developed by the Library of Congress and the American Library Association, are preferred by various book publishers and journal editors. However, there is not a uniform standard for Arabic transliteration into the Latin alphabet. No particular technique is universal.
By making significant modifications to the ISO, while keeping most of its basic structure, I have emulated the gold standard for the Devanāgarī (Sanskrit/Saṃskrtam, देवनागरी [MP3]) script―the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST). A scholar, adopting my strategy, can errorlessly convert between the Roman and the Arabic or Persian text. This system, which has benefited me and my work (or hobby), will, I hope, also be of help to others. To me, representing a language, fairly and accurately, is a sign of personal respect for the cultures in which that language is used.
In distinguishing Arabic from Persian pronunciation, the only difference I have made, in transliteration, is between the identically spelled Arabic “w” (وَاو [MP3], wāw) and Persian “v” (وَاو [MP3], vāv). Yet, even here, there are exceptions. The Persian cognate for “new” is transliterated as nāw (Persian, وَاو [MP3]), not nāv or, as in Tajik, nav (нав [MP3]). There is a variety of other substantial distinctions when pronouncing the same original letters. However, this system, following ISO, places dots or lines (“macrons below”) under each of those letters’ Latinized transliteration. That leaves the pronunciation unclear. Changing the transliteration becomes unnecesssary. In addition, pronunciations vary widely within the Arabic–speaking world alone. The goal, in this case and all others, is to keep the transliteration as simple as possible while, at the same time, always completely precise.
Here are some additional notes on AP transliteration:
  1. ʾAl•llꞌah SWT is transliterated as the word is literally spelled in Arabic (اللّٰه, اللّٰه), not from either the abbreviated set of four Unicode characters (الله, الله) or the Unicode glyph (, ﷲ) for that abbreviation which can, as simple alternatives, be used to reproduce the word.
  2. ʾAl•llꞌah SWT also demonstrates the dagger ⫯alif (Arabic, أَلِف الخَنْجَرِيَّة [MP3], ⫯alif ʾal•ẖanǧariyyaẗ). It is, in Unicode, ٰ (◌ٰ ) placed after a Persian or Arabic letter. That ⫯alif is represented by either the lower-case Mexican Indigenous (Spanish, Indígenas [MP3]) saltillo (Spanish [MP3], “a little leap or a little hop”) character (ꞌ as ꞌ), not by the corresponding upper–case form (Ꞌ, Ꞌ), or by straight–line apostrophe (' as ' or on a standard Western keyboard) before the vowel.
  3. The bullet (•, •) replaces the hypen, as a word separator, in order to avoid confusion with an actual hypen or dash (Arabic, ـ, ـ). It is more common in Arabic than in Persian.
  4. I have adopted the right half–ring diacritic, ʾ (ʾ), to indicate that a non–initial ⫯alif (Arabic, أَلِف [MP3]) has been diacritically (or dialectically) altered from the usual “ā.” With Bahāˁ•ʾUl•llꞌah (Persianized Arabic, بَهَاءاُلله [MP3], “Glory of ʾAl•llꞌah”), the ⫯alif (represented as “ʾu”) is modified into a “u” sound. When a non–initial ⫯alif changes in its spelling to “i” or to “u,” the Unicode for the right–half–ring glyph (ʾ, ʾ) immediately precedes the Roman letter.
  5. V́ (V́) or v́ (v́) is used for transliterating the letter ڤ (ڤ). That Hijazi Arabic (Arabic, عَرَبِيَّة الحِجَازِيَّة [MP3], ʿArabiyyaẗ ʾal•Ḥiǧāziyyaẗ) character is sometimes adopted for Arabizing words with a “v” sound, such as in Persian or English.
  6. In Latinizing the silent ⫯alif (اْ, اْ), such as at the end of ʾâmanūˀ (آمَنُواْ [MP3], “they believe”), I have adopted the International Phonetic Alphabet’s lower–casemodifier letter glottal stop” symbol (ˀ, ˀ), not the capitalized version (Ɂ, Ɂ).
  7. The “degrees” symbol (°, °), a transliteration of the Arabic ◌ْ (ْ), is used to separate two side–by–side Latinized consonants without a short vowel.
  8. The lower ham°zaẗ (Arabic, حَمْزَة [MP3]) is represented by ⫰ (⫰) before the letter. The more common upper ham°zaẗ is correspondingly indicated by ⫯ (⫯).
  9. For a ham°zaẗ which is not associated with a letter (ء, ء), the visually similar International Phonetic Alphabet’s “modifier letter reversed glottal stop” symbol (ˁ, ˁ) is adopted. There is also a superscripted version of that diacritic (ˤ, ˤ) as well as a fuller–sized Latin letter pharyngeal voiced fricative (ʕ, ʕ). Neither of these glyphs is used in AP.
  10. In order to distinguish Persian from Arabic, the Persian و (و) is represented by a v or V. The Persian پ (پ) is a p or P. The Persian چ (چ) uses either č (č) or Č (Č). The ژ (ژ) is indicated by the ž (ž) or Ž (Ž). The Persian ی (ی) or ýā (Persian, یَا [MP3]) is Latinized with an acute accent, i.e., ý (ý), Ý (Ý), í (í), or, when spelling in all capital letters, Í (Í). The Persian ک (ک) is Latinized as ḱ (ḱ) or Ḱ (Ḱ).
  11. ʾal•Tan°wīn (Arabic, التَنْوِين‎ [MP3]), “nominative” or “intend,” is called nūnation or nunation (in the English language). It is the addition of a nūn (Arabic, نُون [MP3]) diacritic to the end of a word. Although nūnation is ordinarily represented by the letter n, that is confusing and imprecise. Therefore, I have Latinized nūn, as a diacritic, using the character, (ṇ). ً◌ (ً) becomes aṇ. ٍ◌ (ٍ) becomes iṇ. And finally, ٌ◌ (ٌ) becomes uṇ. ʾal•Tan°wīn can be used to indicate the nominative grammatical case. The individual letter nūn, however, is ن (ن).

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٣. Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS
Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ (Arabic, طَرِيقَة البَاهُوِيَّة [MP3]), the namesake of Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū (Arabo–Persian/Fārisiyyaẗ–ʿArabiyyaẗ, حَضْرَت سُلْطَان بَاهُو [MP3]), ʿalay°hi ʾal•ssalām (Arabic, عَلَيْهِ السَّلَام [MP3], “upon Him be peace” or “AS”), has been established, metaphorically, as a Western branch of Bāhū’s AS Punjabi (Persian, پِنْجَابِی [MP3], Pun°ǧābí; Urdu, پُنْجَابِی [MP3], Pun°ǧābí; Shahmukhi Punjabi, پَنْجَابِی [MP3], Pan°ǧābí; and Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ [MP3] order. Although it is an imaginative and a fictitious, not a genuine, spiritual path, its basics, not including the silly statements concerning this servant’s pretended position of leadership, have been gathered from historical source materials. ʾAl•llꞌah SWT willing (Arabic, إِن شَاءَ ﷲُ [MP3], ⫰in Šāˁa ʾAl•llꞌahu or inshallah), may you find a real path, not this made–up one.
Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ of The Multiversal Communist Collective™ (MP3) is a puppet nation which has remained attached to Ṣạdiyqiym hạ•Dāṯ hạ•Bāhāʾiyṯ of Democratic Communist Federation (Spartakusland)™. The Collective belongs, on NationStates, to The Confederation of Traditional Socialist Nations, which is a signatory to The Vanguard Treaty. Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ™, Path of Bāhūism, governs The Multiversal Communist Collective™ through a radical proletarian democracy. In such a radical democracy, dissent would not simply be tolerated but also encouraged and embraced. The perspectives of various races, genders, ethnicities, castes, and tribes must be lovingly welcomed. Etymologically, radical comes from the Latin/Lingua Latīna, rādīcālis (MP3), “having roots.” A radical democracy would connect us with our shared roots in the nondual ground state.
  1. dīmūq°rāṭiyyaẗ ʾal•rādīkāliyyaẗ (Arabic, دِيمُقْرَاطِيَّة الرَادِيكَالِيَّة [MP3]), “radical democracy
  2. demōqərāṭiyṯ hạ•rāḏiyqāliyṯ (Hebrew, דֶּמוֹקְרָטִית הַרָדִיקָלִית [MP3]), “radical democracy
  3. rʾạdiyqʾạl dēʿmʾọqərʾạṭiy (Yiddish, ראַדִּיקאַל דֵּעמאָקְראַטִי [MP3]), “radical democracy
  4. radikale Demokratie (German [MP3]), “radical democracy
  5. dimūḱ°rāsí•i rādíḱālí (Persian, دِمُوکْرَاسِیِ رَادِیکَالِی [MP3]), “radical democracy
  6. demokrasī•i radikalī (Tajik, демокрасӣи радикалӣ [MP3]), “radical democracy
  7. ʾif°rāṭí ɖimūḱ°rāsí (Pashto, اِفْرَاطِی ډِمُوکْرَاسِی [MP3]), “radical democracy
  8. ʾin°tahā pasan°dí ǧam°hūriýata (Urdu, اِنْتَہَا پَسَنْدِی جَمْہُورِیَتَ [MP3]), “radical democracy
  9. krāntīkārī lōkatatara (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕ੍ਰਾਂਤੀਕਾਰੀ ਲੋਕਤੰਤਰ [MP3]), “radical democracy
  10. ḱ°rān°tīḱārī lūḱatatara (Shahmukhi Punjabi, کْرَانْتِیکَارِی لُوکَتَتَرَ [MP3]), “radical democracy
  11. ʾin°qilābī ǧam°hūriyat (Sindhi, اِنْقِلَابِي جَمْهُورِيَت [MP3]), “radical democracy
  12. kaṭṭarapaṃthī lokataṃtra (Hindi, कट्टरपंथी लोकतंत्र [MP3]), “radical democracy
  13. maulabādī gaṇatantra (Bengali, মৌলবাদী গণতন্ত্র [MP3]), “radical democracy
  14. tīviravāta jaṉanāyakam (Tamil/Tamiḻ, தீவிரவாத ஜனநாயகம் [MP3]), “radical democracy
  15. rāḍikal prajāsvāmyaṁ (Telugu, రాడికల్ ప్రజాస్వామ్యం [MP3]), “radical democracy
  16. radıkal demokrası (Turkish [MP3]), “radical democracy
  1. ḥālaẗ min ʾal•⫯ar°ḍ ġay°r muz°dawiǧ (Arabic, حَالَة مِن الأَرْض غَيْر مُزْدَوِج [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  2. maṣṣāḇ hạ•qạrəqạʿ lōʾ dūʾāliy (Hebrew, מַצָּב הַקַרְקַע לֹא דּוּאָלִי [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  3. ḥālat•i dūgānih•i zamín•i nísat (Persian, حَالَتِ دُوگَانِهِ زَمِینِ نِیسَت [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  4. holat•i zamin•i na du barobar (Tajik, ҳолати замини на ду баробар [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  5. d°wah ǵūní da ban°saṭ ḥālat nah (Pashto, دْوَه ګُونِی دَ بَنْسَټ حَالَت نَه [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  6. ġaý°ra dūharí zamína kí ḥālata (Urdu, غَیْرَ دُوہَرِی زَمِینَ کِی حَالَتَ [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  7. gaira–dōharī garāꞌuṇḍa saṭēṭa (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗੈਰ–ਦੋਹਰੀ ਗਰਾਉਂਡ ਸਟੇਟ [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  8. ġaý°ra dūharí garā⫯wun°ḍa saṭēṭa (Shahmukhi Punjabi, غَیْر دُوہَرِی گَرَاؤُنْڈَ سَٹَیٹَ [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  9. zamīn ǧī ʈīˁ šar°t nah ʾâhī (Sindhi, زَمِين جِي ٻِيء شَرْط نَه آهِي [MP3]), “nondual ground state
Therefore, Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ, as a communist internationalist coördinating body, now enters the sil°silaẗ (Arabic, سِلْسِلَة [MP3], “chain”) of Qād°riyyaẗ (Arabic, قَدْرِيَّة [MP3], “capability” or “competence”), as well as the branch sil°silaẗ (Arabic, سِلْسِلَة الشُعْبَة [MP3], sil°silaẗ ʾal•šuʿ°baẗ) and the branch ṭarīqaẗ (Arabic, طَرِيقَة الطَرِيقَة MP3], ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•ṭarīqaẗ, “path of the path”), of Sarvari (originally Persian, سَارْوَارِی [MP3], Sār°vārí; Urdu, سَارَوَارِی [MP3], Sārawārí; Hindi, सरवारी [MP3], Saravārī; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਰਵਰੀ [MP3], Saravarī; or Arabization/تَعْرِيب [MP3]/taʿ°rīb, سَارْوَارِيَّة [MP3], Sār°wāriyyaẗ, “mastery”). (For exceptional guidance on pronouncing the Arabic letter ʿay°n [Arabic, عيْن; MP3], as in ʾal•šuʿ°baẗ, listen to this well–explained MP3 audio presentation converted from a YouTube video.)
The following list contains translations of Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ into a wide variety of languages:
  1. Ṭaríqat•i Bāhū⫯ýiýat (Arabo–Persian, طَرِیقَتِ بَاهُوِئیَت [MP3])
  2. Rāh•i Bāhū (Persian, رَاهِ بَاهُو [MP3])
  3. Roh•i Bāhū (Tajik, Роҳи Ба̄ҳӯ [MP3])
  4. Ṭaríqata•i ʾal•Bāhū⫯ýiýýata (Arabo–Urdu, طَرِیقَتَِ البَاهُوِئیَّتَ [MP3])
  5. Ṭaríqah di Bāhū⫯ýiýat (Arabo–Pashto/Bāš°tuwiyyaẗ–ʿArabiyyaẗ, طَرِیقَه دِ بَاهُوِئیَت [MP3])
  6. Bāhū Lārah (Pashto, بَاهُو لَارَه [MP3])
  7. Ras°tū mān Bāhū⫯yiyat (Sindhi, رَسْتُو مَان بَاُوِئيَت [MP3])
  8. Bāhū dē Tāriḱaṭa (Arabo–Shahmukhi Punjabi/Ban°ǧābiyyaẗ Šāh Mūkiyyaẗ–ʿArabiyyaẗ, بَاهُو دَے تَارِکَٹَ [MP3])
  9. Bāhū dē Tārikaṭa (Arabo–Guramukhi Punjabi/Ban°ǧābiyyaẗ Ǧūra Mūkiyyaẗ–ʿArabiyyaẗ, ਬਾਹੂ ਦੇ ਤਾਰਿਕਟ [MP3])
  10. Bāhū Dharama (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਬਾਹੂ ਧਰਮ [MP3]
  11. Bāhū D°harama (Shahmukhi Punjabi, بَاہُو دْہَرَمَ [MP3])
  12. Bāhū Dharma (Hindi, बाहू धर्म [MP3]; Nepali/Nēpālī, बाहू धर्म [MP3]; Marathi/Marāṭhī, बाहू धर्म [MP3]; Bengali, বাহূ ধর্ম [MP3]); or Telugu, బాహూ ధర్మ [MP3])
  13. Pāhū Tarmā (Tamil, பாஹூ தர்மா [MP3])
  14. Bāhú•Zhīlù (Mandarin Chinese/Zhōngguó•Guānhuà, 巴胡之路 [MP3])
  15. Bāhū Pasu (Japanese/Nihongo, バーヘゥー パス [MP3])
  16. Pahu T’ongno (Korean/Han’gugŏ/Chosŏnmal, 바후 통로 [MP3])
  17. Bahu Pāt (Sinhalese/Siṁhala, බහු පාත් [MP3])
  18. Bahui Čanaparh (Armenian/Hayeren, Բահուի ճանապարհ [MP3])
  19. Đường Bắhủ (Vietnamese/Tiếng Việt [MP3])
  20. Bahu Putʹ (Russian, Баху Путь [MP3])
  21. Bahu Šlâh (Ukrainian/Ukraí̈nsʹka Mova, Баху Шлях [MP3])
  22. Bahu Pateka (Macedonian/Makedonski, Баху Патека [MP3])
  23. Bahu Ceļš (Latvian/Latviešu Valoda [MP3])
  24. Bahu Vojo (Esperanto [MP3])
  25. Bahu Voyo (Ido [MP3])
  26. Bahu Dao (Lingwa de Planeta/Lidepla/LdP [MP3])
  27. Dẹrẹḵiyṯ hạ•Bāhūʾiyṯ (Hebrew, דֶּרֶכִית הַבָּהוּאִית [MP3])
Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ of The Multiversal Communist Collective™ is a continuation of the order or path founded by Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS. Here is a lineup of that path’s name, the Qadri–Sarvari Path, in numerous languages:
  1. Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Qād°riyyaẗ ʾal•Sār°wāriyyaẗ (Perso–Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ–Fārisiyyaẗ, طَرِيقَة القَادْرِيَّة السَارْوَارِيَّة [MP3]).
  2. Ṭaríqat•i Qād°riýah•i Sār°vāriýah (Arabo–Persian, طَرِيقَتِ قَادْرِیِیَهِ سَارْوَارِیَهِ [MP3]).
  3. Roh•i Kadri•i Sarvari (Tajik, Роҳи Кадрии Сарвари [MP3]).
  4. Qād°rí Sār°wārí Lārah (Pashto, قَادْرِی سَارْوَارِی لَارَه [MP3]).
  5. Ṭaríqata•i ʾal•Qād°riýýah ʾal•Sārawāriýýah (Arabo–Urdu/⫯Ur°diyyaẗ–ʿArabiyyaẗ, طَرِيقَتِ القَادْرِیَّہ‬ السَارَوَارِیَّہ‬ [MP3]).
  6. Qādriyah–Sārwāriyah Ṭarīqū (Sindhi, قَادرِيَه ـ سَاروَارِيَه طَرِيقُو [MP3]),
  7. Kādarī–Sāravārī Māraga (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕਾਦਰੀ–ਸਾਰਵਾਰੀ ਮਾਰਗ [MP3]).
  8. Qādarí–Sāravārí Māraga (Shahmukhi Punjabi, قَادَرِی ـ سَارَوَارِی مَارَگَ [MP3]).
  9. Qadərəyə–Sarəvārəyə Mänəgädə (Amharic, ቃድርይ፡ሳርቫርይ መንገድ [MP3]).
  10. Tarīkata kā Kādarī–Sāravārī (Hindi, तरीकत का कादरी–सारवारी [MP3]).
  11. Mārga kā Kādarī–Sāravārī (Hindi, मार्ग का कादरी–सारवारी [MP3]).
  12. Qadri–Sarvari Yolu (Turkish [MP3]).
  13. Patthara ala Kādarī–Sāravārī (Marathi, पत्थर अल कादरी–सारवारी [MP3]).
  14. Pathēra ēra Kādarī–Sārabārī (Bengali, পথের এর কাদরী–সারবারি [MP3]).
  15. Pattār āl Kādrī–Sārvārī (Malayalam/Malayaḷaṃ, പത്താര് ആല് കാദ്രീ–സാര്വാരീ [MP3]).
  16. Kātarī–Sāravārī iṉ Pātai (Tamil, காதரீ–ஸாரவாரீ இன் பாதை [MP3]).
  17. Kādarī–Sārvārī yokka Mārgaṁ (Telugu, కాదరీ–సర్వారీ యొక్క మార్గం [MP3]).
According to tradition, ʿAb°d ʾal•Qad°r ʾal•Ǧīlāniyy (Arabic, عَبد القَادْر الجِيلَانِيّ [MP3]), the Ṣūfiyy (Arabic, صُوفِيّ, Ṣūfiyy [MP3], wearingwoolengarments) forebear of Bāhū’s AS own ṭarīqaẗ, was the founder (Arabic, الإِمَام [MP3] ʾal•⫰imām, “the pathfinder”) of Qād°riyyaẗ. He is commonly referred to by the honorific pír•i pírān (Persian, پِیر‎ِ پِیرَان [MP3], “elder of elders”). Etymologically:
  1. ʿAb°d (Arabic, عَبْد [MP3]) is “servant” or “slave.”
  2. Qād°riyyaẗ is a form of Qadir (Arabic, قَدِر [MP3]) or Qad°r (Arabic, قَادْر [MP3]), “capable one” or “competent one.” Qadir, from ʿAb°d ʾal•Qad°r ʾal•Ǧīlāniyy, is one of the 99 names of ʾAl•llꞌah SWT.
  3. Ǧílān (Persian, جِيلَان [MP3]), “courtier,” is a city in Iran (Persian, اِیْرَان) [MP3], ʾIý°rān or, though not a transliteration I prefer, ʾÍrān).
  4. Ṭarīqaẗ (Arabic, طَرِيقَة [MP3]), ṭaríqat (Persian, طَرِیقَت [MP3]), ṭaríqata (Urdu, طَرِیقَتَ [MP3]), or tarīkata (Hindi, तरीकत [MP3]) is “path” or, by implication, “order.”
Bāhū AS was born in the Punjabi village of Angah (Urdu, انْگَہ [MP3], ʾAn°gāh), Soon Valley (Urdu, وَادْیِ سُون [MP3], Wād°ý•i Sūn), Khushab District (Urdu, ضِلَع خُوشَابَ [MP3], Ḍilaʿ H̱ūšāba), which is located in today’s Pakistan (Urdu and Shahmukhi Punjabi, پَاكِسْتَانَ [MP3], Pākis°tāna, “land of the pure”). Indeed, He spent His entire life, circa 1628–1691, in present–day Pakistan’s portion of a not–yet–divided Punjab (originally Persian, پُنْجَاب [MP3], Pun°ǧāb; Urdu, پُنْجَابَ [MP3], Pun°ǧāba; Shahmukhi Punjabi, پَنْجَابَ [MP3], Pan°ǧāba; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪੰਜਾਬ [MP3], Pajāba; or Arabic, Ban°ǧāb, بَنْجَاب [MP3]), the “five–waterland).
Map of the Punjab
These five waters—rivers or waterways—which flow through the Punjab are themselves tributaries of the Indus River (Urdu, دَرِیَائَِے سِنْدْھَ [MP3], Dariýā⫯ýē Sin°d°ha; Shahmukhi Punjabi, سِنْدْھَ دَرِیَا [MP3], Sin°d°ha Dariýā; or Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਿੰਧ ਦਰਿਆ [MP3], Sidha Dariꞌā). The tributaries are:
  1. the Jhelum River (Urdu, دَرِیَائَِے وْیِتْھَ [MP3], Dariýā⫯ýē V°ýit°ha)
  2. the Chenab River (Urdu, دَرِیَائَِے چَنَابَ [MP3], Dariýā⫯ýē Čanāba)
  3. the Ravi River (Urdu, دَرِیَائَِے رَاوِی [MP3], Dariýā⫯ýē Raví)
  4. the Sutlej River (Urdu, دَرِیَائَِے سُتْلِجَ [MP3], Dariýā⫯ýē Sut°liǧa)
  5. the Beas River (Urdu, دَرِیَائَِے بْیَاسَ [MP3], Dariýā⫯ýē B°ýāsa)
Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS was, truly, among the leading Exemplars of the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy (bhakti as originally Sanskrit, भक्ति [MP3], bhakti; or Urdu, بْھَکْتِی [MP3], b°haḱ°tí, “involvementwith the beloved) movement. Bāhū AS, “with ʾAl•llꞌah” SWT, was a very cleverly, perhaps even a predictively, formulated portmanteau (Arabic, مَزْج كَلِمَات [MP3], maz°ǧ kalimāt, “blending of words”) by His magnificent mother, Bíbí Rās°tí (Persian, بِیبِی رَاسْتِی; MP3, “Grande Dame; MP3, Truth”) ssalām ʾAl•llꞌah ʿalay°hā (Arabic, سَّلَام الله عَلَيْهَا; MP3, “peace of ʾAl•llꞌah be upon her” or “SAA”). In her exalted rank as the virtuous, sanctified, and loving mother of Bāhū AS, she eternally abides, without any exception which I can personally imagine, within the exalted company of the most blessed women to have inhabited the Earth.
Linguistically, the name Bāhū AS was formulated by Bíbí Rās°tí SAA from the Indo–European “bā” (Persian, بَا; MP3, “with”) and the Semitic “Hū” (Arabic, هُوَ; MP3, Huwa or , “He,” i.e., ʾAl•llꞌah, SWT). Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS wrote principally in Persian. Some translated samples of his writing have been incorporated into this monograph. Here is the first wonderful illustration of His work:
With one dot, Bā Hū [Perso–Arabic, بَا هُو; MP3, “With He”) becomes Yā Hū [Arabic, يَا هُو; MP3), “O He”] ….
And Bāhū is always steeped in the remembrance of Yā Hū.
〜 Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū. Source unknown. Undated.
Furthermore, Bāhū AS has made the following extraordinary promises, regarding the establishment of a mystical and heart–centered relationship with Him, to His beloveds:
O seeker! Thou hast requested permission [Arabic, إِجَازَة, ⫰iǧāzaẗ] for mystical knowledge [Arabic, مَعْرِفَة; MP3, maʿ°rifaẗ] from me ….
I will show thee ʾAl•llꞌah as nearer to thee than thy jugular [or life] vein [Persian, šāh°rag شَاهْرَگ; MP3], king vein].
〜 Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū, Kalām•i Bāhū. Translation significantly modified by Mark A. Foster (Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ•Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹl).
Whoso shalt study this book, by day and by night, with sincerity, certitude, and conviction will become cognizant of the divine [Arabic, إِلهِيّ; MP3, ⫰ilhiyy] secrets. He hath no need of instruction [Arabic, تَلْقِين; MP3, tal°qīn] and teaching [Arabic, تَعْلِيم; MP3, taʿ°līm] from a living guide [Arabic, مُرْشِد; MP3], mur°šid].
〜 Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū, Kalām•i Bāhū. Translation significantly modified by Mark A. Foster (Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ•Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹl).
Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū
Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū

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٤. Greater and Lesser Prophets
So what is a libertarian communist and Marxist sociologist doing in bringing up religion? Perhaps the most universal left–anarchist motto is “No gods, no masters.” Many urban legends have been associated with Karl Marx (MP3) or Friedrich Engels (MP3). Neither man opposed, in principle, all religions. One might respond by quoting Marx’s well–known assertion that “religion is the opium of the masses.” Of course, opium is a pain killer. It reduces both physical and emotional pain. When some plantation owners, in the U.S., encouraged their human property, their slaves, to practice Protestant Christianity, they were exemplifying Marx’s words. Therefore, if those slaves hoped for a a rewarding life in Heaven, and then identified their situations with the sufferings of Christ, they might think twice before challenging the oppressive authority of the “master” and the “mistress.”
  1. ó̓pion (originally Ancient Greek/A̓rchaía Hellēniká, ὄπιον [MP3]), “opium
  2. ⫯af°yūnuṇ (Arabic, أَفْيُونٌ [MP3]), “opium
  3. ʾaf°ýūn (Persian, افْیُون [MP3]), “opium
  4. afyun (Tajik, афюн [MP3]), “opium
  5. ʾōpiyūm (Hebrew, אוֹפִּיוּם [MP3]), “opium
  6. ʾọpiyūm (Yiddish, אָפִּיוּם [MP3]), “opium
  7. Opium (German [MP3]), “opium
  8. tir°ýāḱ (Persian and Pashto, تِرْیَاک [MP3]), “opium
  9. ʾafíwina (Urdu, افِیوِنَ [MP3]), “opium
  10. ʾafíma (Urdu and Shahmukhi Punjabi, افِیمَ [MP3]), “opium
  11. aphīma (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਅਫੀਮ [MP3]), “opium
  12. ʾafīm (Sindhi, افِيم [MP3]), “opium
  13. ʾam°lu (Sindhi, امْلُ [MP3]), “opium
  1. ddiyānaẗ (originally Arabic, دِّيَانَة [MP3]), “religion or obligation
  2. ddīn (originally Arabic, دِّين [MP3]), “religion or obligation
  3. dín (Persian and Pashto, دِین [MP3]), “religion or obligation
  4. din (Tajik, дин [MP3]), “religion or obligation
  5. din (Turkish [MP3]), “religion or obligation
  6. dāṯ (Hebrew, דָּת [MP3]), “religion or obligation
  7. maḏ°hab (Sindhi and originally Arabic, مَذْهَب [Arabic MP3 and Sindhi MP3]), “religion or ideology
  8. maḏ°hab (Urdu, مَذْہَب [MP3]), “religion or ideology
  9. dharma (Hindi and originally Sanskrit, धर्म [Sanskrit MP3] and [Hindi MP3]), “religion or support
  10. dharama (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਧਰਮ [MP3]), “religion or support
  11. d°harama (Shahmukhi Punjabi, دْھَرَمَ [MP3]), “religion or support
  12. dharma (Bengali, ধর্ম [MP3]), “religion or support
  13. dharma (Telugu, ధర్మ [MP3]), “religion or support
  14. tarman (Tamil, தர்மம் [MP3]), “religion or support
  15. rēʿliygəyẹʿ (Yiddish, רֵעלִיגּ‬ְיֶע [MP3]), “religion
  16. hayəmanotə (Amharic, ሃይማኖት [MP3]), “religion
  17. réligion (French [MP3]), “religion
  1. ʾal•B°rūtis°tān°tiyyaẗ (Arabic, البْرُوتِسْتَانْتِيَّة [MP3]), “Protestantism
  2. hạ•Pərōṭẹsəṭạnəṭiyūṭ (Hebrew, הַפְּרוֹטֶסְטַנְטִיּוּת [MP3]), “Protestantism
  3. dẹʿr Pərʾọṭẹʿsəṭʾạnəṭiyzʾạm (Yiddish, דֶּער פְּראָטֶעסְטאַנְטִיזאַם [MP3]), “Protestantism
  4. der Protestantismus (German [MP3]), “Protestantism
  5. ʾUṣūl•i ʾAýín•i P°rūtis°tān°tí (Persian, اُصُولِ ایِینِ پْرُوتِسْتَانْتِی [MP3]), “Protestantism (Protestant religious doctrine)
  6. Taʿ°lím•i P°rūtis°tān°tí (Persian, تَعْلِیمِ پْرُوتِسْتَانْتِی‎ [MP3]), “Protestantism (Protestant instruction)
  7. Taʿlim•i Protestantī (Tajik, Таълими Протестантӣ [MP3]), “Protestantism (Protestant instruction)
  8. da P°rūtūs°ṭan°ṭí ʾUṣūl (Pashto, دَ پْرُوتُوسْټَنْټِی اُصُول [MP3]), “Protestantism (the Protestant doctrine)
  9. ʾal•P°rūṭis°ṭan°ṭa ʾUṣūla (Urdu, الپْرُوٹِسْٹَنْٹَ اُصُولَ [MP3]), “Protestantism (the Protestant doctrine)
  10. iha Prōṭaisaṭaiṇṭa Sidhānta (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਇਹ ਪ੍ਰੋਟੈਸਟੈਂਟ ਸਿਧਾਂਤ [MP3]), “Protestantism (the Protestant doctrine)
  11. ʾiý°ha P°rūṭís°ṭēn°ta Sid°hān°ta (Shahmukhi Punjabi, اِیْہہَ پْرُوٹِیسْٹَینْٹَ سِدْھَانْتَ [MP3]), “Protestantism (the Protestant doctrine)
  12. ǧī P°rūṭis°ṭan°ṭ ʾUṣūlan (Sindhi, جِي پْرُوٹِسْٹَنْٹ اُصُولَن [MP3]), “Protestantism (the Protestant doctrines)
  13. yaha Proṭais‍ṭaiṃṭamata (Hindi, यह प्रोटैस्‍टैंटमत [MP3]), “Protestantism (the Protestant belief, creed, or doctrine)
A nuanced Marx was, like all of us, referring only to his personal experiences. In Germany, those experiences would certainly have included the Lutheran Church and, in the UK, the Anglican Communion. Obviously, he was not an all–knowing person. Marx could not have been familiar with all of the religions which existed over his lifetime. About a decade after his death, in Brooklyn, New York, the son of a Reform (or Liberal) Jewish rabbi, Felix Adler, started the religion, as he defined it, of Ethical Culture. It is now, officially, the American Ethical Union (AEU). Ethical Culture does not require a belief in any god or goddess and, generally speaking, adopts a natural law approach to ethics. That is to say, our moral codes, to the members of AEU whom I have spoken with, are revealed, not by a supernatural being, by nature. Marx and Engels might have joined AEU.
  1. Ṯaqāfaẗ ʾal•⫯Aẖ°lāqiyyaẗ (Arabic, ثَقَافَة الأَخْلَاقِيَّة [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  2. Tạtəbūṯ hạ•Ẹṯiyṯ (Hebrew, תַּרְבּוּת הַאֶתִית [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  3. ʿĒṭiyšẹʿ Qūləṭūr (Yiddish, עֵטִישֶׁע קוּלְטוּר [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  4. Ethische Kultur (German [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  5. yä•Moralə Bahələ (Amharic, የሞራል ባህል [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  6. Far°han°g•i ʾAẖ°lāqí (Persian, فَرْهَنْگِ اخْلَاقِی [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  7. Farhang•i Aẖloqī (Tajik, Фарҳанги Ахлоқӣ [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  8. Da ʾAẖ°lāqí Far°han°ǵ (Pashto, دَ اخْلَاقِی فَرْهَنْګ [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  9. ʾAẖ°lāqí Ṯaqāfat (Urdu, اخْلَاقِی ثَقَافَت [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  10. Naitika Sabhiꞌācāra (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਨੈਤਿਕ ਸੱਭਿਆਚਾਰ [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  11. Naý°tiḱa Sab°hiýāčāra (Shahmukhi Punjabi, نَیْتِکَ سَبْھِیَاچَارَ [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  12. ʾAẖ°lāqī Ṯaqāfat (Sindhi, اخْلَاقِي ثَقَافَت [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  13. Etık Kültür (Turkish [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  14. Naitika Tahazība (Hindi, नैतिक तहज़ीब [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  1. qānūn ʾal•ṭabīʿiyy (Arabic, قَانُون الطَبِيعِيّ [MP3]), “natural law
  2. ḥōq hạ•ṭibəʿiy (Hebrew, חֹק הַטִבְעִי [MP3]), “natural law
  3. nʾạṭiyrəlẹʿḵ gẹʿzẹʿṣ (Yiddish, נאַטִירְלֶעך גֶּעזֶעץ [MP3]), “natural law
  4. Naturgesetz (German [MP3]), “natural law
  5. qānūn•i ṭabíʿí (Persian, قَانُونِ طَبِیعِی [MP3]), “natural law
  6. qonun•i tabiī (Tajik, қонуни табиӣ [MP3]), “natural law
  7. da ṭabíʿí qānūn (Pashto, دَ طَبِیعِي قَانُون [MP3]), “natural law
  8. qad°ratí ṭabíʿí (Urdu, قَدْرَتِی قَانُون [MP3]), “natural law
  9. kudaratī kānūna (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕੁਦਰਤੀ ਕਾਨੂੰਨ [MP3]), “natural law
  10. qudaratí qānūna (Shahmukhi Punjabi, قُدَرَتِی قَانُونَ [MP3]), “natural law
  11. qad°ratī qānūn (Sindhi, قُدْرَتِي قَانُون [MP3]), “natural law
The Unitarian Universalist Association or the UUA (see this file), Sea of Faith (see this file), Polydoxy (see file 1, file 2, and file 3) from the late Alvin J. Reines (1926–2004), Nontheist Friends or Nontheist Quakers (see file 1 and file 2), and religious naturalism (Religious Naturalist Association and Spiritual Naturalist Society) are similar, in many respects, to Ethical Culture:
  1. Ǧam°ʿiyyaẗ ʾal•Ttaw°ḥīdiyyaẗ ʾal•ʿĀlamiyyaẗ (Arabic, جَمْعِيَّة التَّوْحِيدِيَّة العَالَمِيَّة [MP3]), “Unitarian Universalist Association
  2. ʾIgūḏ šẹl hạ•Ūniyniyṭạriyʾāniyzəm wə•hạ•Ūniyḇẹrəsāliyzəm (Hebrew, אִגּוּד שֶׁל הַאוּנִיטַרִיאָנִיזְם וְהַאוּנִיבֶרְסָלִיזְם [MP3]), “Unitarian Universalist Association
  3. Ūniyniyṭʾạriyʾạn Ūniyniyvẹʿrəsʾạliysəṭ P̄ʾạrəbʾạnəd (Yiddish, וּנִיטאַרִיאַן וּנִיווֶערְסאַלִיסְט פֿאַרְבאַנְדּ [MP3]), “Unitarian Universalist Association
  4. unitarische universalistische Verband (German [MP3]), “Unitarian Universalist Association
  5. ʾAn°ǧuman•i Ǧahāní•i Ýigānigí (Persian, انجُمَنِ جَهَانِیِ یِگَانِگِی [MP3]), “Unitarian Universalist Association
  6. Assotsiatsiya•i Tahidsozī•i Umumī (Tajik, Ассотсиатсияи Таҳидсозӣи Умумӣ [MP3]), “Unitarian Universalist Association
  7. Da Sāz°mān da Ýaw°wālí da Naṛíwāl (Pashto, دَ سَازْمَان دَ یَوْوَالِي دَ نَړِیوَال [MP3]), “Unitarian Universalist Association
  8. ʾIttiḥada ʾaw°ra ʿĀlamí Siṭ°ḥa Para ʾAn°ǧumana (Urdu, اِتِّحَادَ اوْر عَالَمِی سِطحَ پَرَ انجُمَنَ [MP3]), “Unitarian Universalist Association
  9. Ēkīkarana Viꞌāpakatā Sagaṭhana (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਏਕੀਕਰਨ ਵਿਆਪਕਤਾ ਸੰਗਠਨ [MP3]), “Unitarian Universalist Association
  10. ʾĒḱíḱarana Viýāpaḱatā San°gaṭ°hana (Shahmukhi Punjabi, اَیکِیکَرَنَ وِیَاپَکَتَا سَنْگَٹْھَنَ [MP3]), “Unitarian Universalist Association
  11. ʾIš°war ʾĒk Wādī aimʕ⁺ⁱᵃˢᵗ Ǧagg Paḍ°rū ʾIn°t°ẓām (Sindhi, اِيشْوَر ايڪ وَادِي ۽ جَڳّ پَڌْرُو اِنْتْظَام [MP3]), “Unitarian Universalist Association
  1. Baḥ°r ʾal•⫰Iy°mān (Arabic, بَحْر الإِيْمَان [MP3]), “Sea of Faith
  2. Yām šẹl hạ•ʾĔmūnāh (Hebrew, יָם שֶׁל הַאֱמוּנָה [MP3]), “Sea of Faith
  3. Yām p̄ōn ʾĔmūnāh (Yiddish, יָם פֿוֹן אֱמוּנָה [MP3]), “Sea of Faith
  4. Dar°ýāý•i ʾIý°mān (Persian, دَرْیَایِ اِیْمَان [MP3]), “Sea of Faith
  5. Baḥ°r•i ʾIý°mān (Persian, بَحْرِ اِیْمَان [MP3]), “Sea of Faith
  6. Bahr•i Imon (Tajik, Баҳри Имон [MP3]), “Sea of Faith
  7. Da Saman°dar da ʾIý°mān (Pashto, دَ سَمَنْlدَر دَ ايْمَان [MP3]), “Sea of Faith
  8. ʾIý°māna ḱā Saman°dara (Urdu, اِْیمَانَ کَا سَمَنْدَرَ [MP3]), “Sea of Faith
  9. Viśavāsa dā Samudara (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਵਿਸ਼ਵਾਸ ਦਾ ਸਮੁੰਦਰ [MP3]), “Sea of Faith
  10. Višavāsa dā Samun°dara (Shahmukhi Punjabi, وِشَوَاسَ دَا سَمُنْدَرَ [MP3]), “Sea of Faith
  11. Samun°ḍ ǧū ʾIy°mān (Sindhi, سَمُنْڊ جُو اِيْمَان [MP3]), “Sea of Faith
  12. İman Denizı (Turkish [MP3]), “Sea of Faith
  1. ʿAdīd min ʾal•ʾUr°ṯūḏuk°siyyaẗ (Arabic, عَدِيد مِن الأُرْثُوذُكْسِيَّة [MP3]), “Polydoxy
  2. Ōrətōḏōqəsəyāh Merubẹh (Hebrew, אוֹרְתּוֹדוֹקְסְיָה מְרֻבֶּה [MP3]), “Polydoxy
  3. Qiyp̄əl ʾArəṭʾạdʾạqəsiyʿs (Yiddish, קִייפְֿל אַרְטאַדּאַקְסִיעס [MP3]), “Polydoxy
  4. Bis°ýār•i ʾUr°tudūḱ°s°hā (Persian, بِسْیَارِ اُرْتُدُوکْسْهَا [MP3]), “Polydoxy
  5. Bisyor•i Ortodoksizmho (Tajik, Бисёри Ортодоксизмҳо [MP3]), “Polydoxy
  6. Da Ɖírí da ʾAn°dídūḱ°siýā (Pashto, دَ ډِیرِی دَ انْدِیدُوکْسِیَا [MP3]), “Polydoxy
  7. Buhuta sē Qadāmata Pasan°dí (Urdu, بُہُتَ سَے قَدَامَتَ پَسَنْدِی [MP3]), “Polydoxy
  8. Bahuta sārē Ārathōḍākasīꞌāṁ (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਬਹੁਤ ਸਾਰੇ ਆਰਥੋਡਾਕਸੀਆਂ [MP3]), “Polydoxy
  9. Bahuta sārē ʾÂrat°hūḍāḱasiýāṉ (Shahmukhi Punjabi, بَہُتَ سَارَے آرَتھُوڈَاکسِیَاں [MP3]), “Polydoxy
  10. K̀ītarā ʾAw°tʰūḍuk̀°s (Sindhi, ڪِيتَرَا اوْٿُوڊڪْس [MP3]), “Polydoxy
  11. Bırçok Ortodoksluk (Turkish [MP3]), “Polydoxy
  12. Polydoxie (French [MP3]), “Polydoxy
  1. ⫯Aṣ°diqāˁ ġay°r ʾal•M⫯ūmin (Arabic, أَصْدِقَاء غَيْر المُؤْمِن [MP3]), “Nontheist (Nonbeliever) Friends
  2. K°way°kirīna ġay°r ʾal•M⫯ūmin (Arabic, كْوَيْكِرِينَ غَيْر المُؤْمِن [MP3]), “Nontheist (Nonbeliever) Quakers
  3. ⫯Aṣ°diqāˁ ʾal•Kāfiraẗ (Arabic, أَصْدِقَاء الكَافِرَة [MP3]), “Nontheist (Nonbeliever) Friends
  4. K°way°kirīna ʾal•Kāfiraẗ (Arabic, كْوَيْكِرِينَ الكَافِرَة [MP3]), “Nontheist (Nonbeliever) Quakers
  5. Ḥāḇēriym lōʾ–Tēʾiysəṭiym (Hebrew, חָבֵרִים לֹא־תֵּאִיסְטִים [MP3]), “Nontheist Friends
  6. Qəwạyəqẹriym lōʾ–Tēʾiysəṭiym (Hebrew, קְוַיְקֶרִים לֹא־תֵּאִיסְטִים [MP3]), “Nontheist Quakers
  7. Niyṭ Diyiysəṭiyq P̄ərẹyəyənəṭ (Yiddish, נִיט דִּיִיסְטִיק פְֿרֶיְיְנְט [MP3]), “Nontheist Friends
  8. Niyṭ Diyiysəṭiyq Qəvʾạqẹʿrəs (Yiddish, נִיט דִּיִיסְטִיק קְוואַקֶערְס [MP3]), “Nontheist Quakers
  9. Dūs°tān•i nah Ta⫯ýís°tí (Persian, دُوسْتَانِ نَه تَئِیسْتِی [MP3]), “Nontheist Friends
  10. Ḱ°va⫯ýý°ḱir°hā•i nah Ta⫯ýís°tí (Persian, کْوَئیْکِرْهَاِ نَه تَئِیسْتِی [MP3]), “Nontheist Quakers
  11. Dūston•i ne Teistī (Tajik, Дӯстони не Теистӣ [MP3]), “Nontheist Friends
  12. Qaraqqīho•i ne Teistī (Tajik, Қараққӣҳои не Теистӣ [MP3]), “Nontheist Quakers
  13. Dūston•i bo nest H̱udo (Tajik, Дӯстони бо нест Худо [MP3]), “Nontheist Friends
  14. Qaraqqīho•i bo nest H̱udo (Tajik, Қараққӣҳои бо нест Худо [MP3]), “Nontheist Quakers
  15. Da Mil°ǵaraý da nah H̱udāý (Pashto, دَ مِلْګَرَی دَ نَه خُدَای [MP3]), “Nontheist Friends
  16. Da Ḱ°wāḱir da nah H̱udāý (Pashto, دَ کْوَاکِر دَ نَه خُدَای [MP3]), “Nontheist Quakers
  17. Ḱāfira Dūs°tūṉ (Urdu, کَافِرَ دُوسْتُوں [MP3]), “Nontheist (Nonbeliever) Friends
  18. Ḱāfira Ḱ°wa⫯ýý°ḱirūṉ (Urdu, کَافِرَ کْوَئیْکِرُوں [MP3]), “Nontheist (Nonbeliever) Quakers
  19. Kāphira Dōsata (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕਾਫਿਰ ਦੋਸਤ [MP3]), “Nontheist (Nonbeliever) Friends
  20. Ḱāfira Dūsata (Shahmukhi Punjabi, كَافِرَ دُوسَتَ [MP3]), “Nontheist (Nonbeliever) Friends
  21. Kāphira Kōꞌikaraza (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕੋਇਕਰਜ਼ ਦੋਸਤ [MP3]), “Nontheist (Nonbeliever) Quakers
  22. Ḱāfira Ḱū⫯íḱaraza (Shahmukhi Punjabi, کَافِر کُوِئکَرَزَ [MP3]), “Nontheist (Nonbeliever) Quakers
  23. K̀āfir Dūs°tūn (Sindhi, ڪَافِير دُوسْتُون [MP3]), “Nontheist (Nonbeliever) Friends
  24. K̀āfir K̀°wa⫯yy°k̀irūn (Sindhi, ڪَافِير ڪْوَئيڪِرُون [MP3]), “Nontheist (Nonbeliever) Quakers
  25. Kafır Arkadaşlar (Turkish [MP3]), “Nontheist (Nonbeliever) Friends
  26. Kafır Quakerlar (Turkish [MP3]), “Nontheist (Nonbeliever) Quakers
  27. Amis Nonthéistes (French [MP3]), “Nontheist Friends
  28. Quakers Nonthéistes (French [MP3]), “Nontheist Quakers
  1. Ṭabīʿiyyaẗ ʾal•Ddīniyyaẗ (Arabic, طَبِيعِيَّة الدِّينِيَّة [MP3]), “Religious Naturalism
  2. Nāṭūrāliyzəm hạ•Dāṯiy (Hebrew, נָטוּרָלִיזְם הַדָּתִי [MP3]), “Religious Naturalism
  3. Rēʿliygəyẹʿz Nʾạṭūrʾạliyzəm (Yiddish, רֵעלִיגּ‬ְיֶעז נאַטוּראַלִיזְם [MP3]), “Religious Naturalism
  4. religiöser Naturalismus (German [MP3]), “Religious Naturalism
  5. Ṭabíʿí•i G°rāýí•i Maḏ°habí (Persian, طَبِیعِیِ گْرَایِیِ مَذْهَبِی [MP3]), “Religious Naturalism
  6. Ṭabíʿat•i Díní (Persian, طَبِیعَتِ دِینِی [MP3]), “Religious Naturalism
  7. Tabiat•i Dinī (Tajik, Табиати Динӣ [MP3]), “Religious Naturalism
  8. Da Maḏ°habí Ṭabíʿat (Pashto, دَ مَذْهَبِی طَبِیعَت [MP3]), “Religious Naturalism
  9. Maḏ°habí Faṭarata (Urdu, مَذْہهَبِی فَطَرَتَ [MP3]), “Religious Naturalism
  10. Dhāramika Prakiratī (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਧਾਰਮਿਕ ਪ੍ਰਕਿਰਤੀ [MP3]), “Religious Naturalism
  11. D°hāramiḱa P°raḱiratí (Shahmukhi Punjabi, دْھَارَمِکَ پرَکِرَتِی [MP3]), “Religious Naturalism
  12. Maḏ°habī Ʈuḍī Vād (Sindhi, مَذْهَبِي ٻُڌِي وَاد [MP3]), “Religious Naturalism
  13. Dıni Doğalcılık (Turkish [MP3]), “Religious Naturalism
The point is that, while particular faiths or religions are objectively real, the word religion is simply a category. Nobody joins a category. They join a religion. Categories, like words in general, are epistemic, not ontological. To put it more simply, categories are mental perceptions. As perceptions, they are constructed, through language, by our minds. On the other hand, specific religious organizations or groups can be placed into the realm of human experiences or human existence. No one can ever be only a Christian, no matter how hard certain branches of Christianity may try to claim exclusive ownership of the term. A person is, for instance, a Southern Baptist or a Roman Catholic. Just as religion is epistemic, not ontological, so Christianity is epistemic, not ontological. For similar reasons, I wish my field, the sociology of religion, were instead called the sociology of religions.
  1. nnaẓariyyaẗ ʾal•maʿ°rifaẗ (Arabic, نَّظَرِيَّة المَعْرِفَة [MP3]), “epistemology (theory of knowledge)
  2. ṯōrạṯ šẹl hạ•hạkārāh (Hebrew, תוֹרַת שֶׁל הַהַכָּרָה [MP3]), “epistemology (science of knowledge)
  3. ʿēpiysəṭẹʿmʾọlʾọḡiy (Yiddish, עֵפִּיסְטֶעמאָלאָגִי [MP3]), “epistemology
  4. Epistemologie (German [MP3]), “epistemology
  5. maʿ°rifat•i šināsí (Persian, مَعْرِفَتِ شِنَاسِی [MP3]), “epistemology
  6. ilm•i doniš (Tajik, илми дониш [MP3]), “epistemology (science of knowledge)
  7. da ʿil°m da pūhah (Pashto, دَ عِلْم دَ پُوهَه [MP3]), “epistemology (the science of knowledge)
  8. ʿil°ma ḱí ʾaṣala (Urdu, عِلْمَ کِی اصَلَ [MP3]), “epistemology (source of knowledge)
  9. giꞌāna dā vigiꞌāna (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗਿਆਨ ਦਾ ਵਿਗਿਆਨ [MP3]), “epistemology (science of knowledge)
  10. giýāna dā vigiýāna (Shahmukhi Punjabi, گِیَانَ دَا وِگِیَانَ [MP3]), “epistemology (science of knowledge)
  11. vid°yā ǧū patū (Sindhi, وِدْيَا جُو پَتُو [MP3]), “epistemology (science of knowledge)
  1. ʿil°mu ʾal•wujud (Arabic, عِلْمُ الوُجُود [MP3]), “ontology (science of existence)
  2. ʾōnəṭōlōḡə′yāh (Hebrew, אוֹנְטוֹלוֹגְ׳יָה [MP3]), “ontology
  3. ʾọnəṭʾọlʾọḡiy (Yiddish, אָנְטאָלאָגִי [MP3]), “ontology
  4. Ontologie (German [MP3]), “ontology
  5. has°tí•i šināsí (Persian, هَستِیِ شِنَاسِی [MP3]), “ontology (science of existence)
  6. ilm•i hastī (Tajik, илми ҳастӣ [MP3]), “ontology (science of existence)
  7. ʾun°ṭūlūží (Pashto, اُنْټُولُوژِی [MP3]), “ontology
  8. ʾaw°n°ṭālūǧí (Urdu, اوْنْٹَالُوجِی [MP3]), “ontology
  9. maujūdagī dē vigiꞌāna (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਮੌਜੂਦਗੀ ਦੇ ਵਿਗਿਆਨ [MP3]), “ontology (science of existence)
  10. maw°ǧūdagí dē vigiýāna (Shahmukhi Punjabi, مَوْجُودَگِی دَے وِگِیَانَ [MP3]), “ontology (science of existence)
  11. ʿilim mūǧūdāt yā has°tī (Sindhi, عِلِم مُوجُودَات يَا ھَسْتِي [MP3]), “ontology (science of immediate existence)
I humbly regard the sanctified Soul of that Perfect Man (Arabic, إِنْسَان الكَامِل [MP3], ⫰In°sān ʾal•Kāmil, “the complete man”), Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS, considered within the particular context of Sufism (Arabic, تَصَوُّف [MP3], Taṣawwuf, or صُوفِيَّة [MP3], Ṣūfiyyaẗ; Persian, تَصَوُّف [MP3], Taṣavvuf; or Urdu, تَصَوُّفَ [MP3], Taṣawwufa) as well as in the broader scope of Islam (Arabic, إسْلَام [MP3], ⫰Is°lām, “peaceful surrender”), to be a Lesser Apostle―a Muǧaddad (Arabic, مُجَدَّد [MP3], “Reformer or Renewer”) or a Ġaw°ṯ ʾal•Zamān (Arabic, غَوْث الزَمَان [MP3], “Intercessor, Aid, or Succor of the Time”). He was also a pure and receptive Crescent to the resplendent and magnificent Star of the Prophet Muḥammad (Arabic, النَبِيّ مُحَمَّد [MP3], ʾal•Nabiyy Muḥammad) ṣallaỳ ʾAl•llꞌah ʿalay°hi wa•ssalām (Arabic, صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَّلَام [MP3], “blessings of ʾAl•llꞌah be upon Him and peace” or “SAW”).
  1. ʾal•Naǧ°m wa•ʾal•Hilāl (Arabic, النَجْم وَالهِلَال [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  2. hạ•Kōḵāḇ wə•hạ•Sạhạr (Hebrew, הַכּוֹכָב וְהַסַהַר [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  3. yä•Kokäbunə ʾəna yä•Gəmašu Čꞌäräqanə (Amharic, የኮከቡን እና የግማሹ ጨረቃን [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  4. Sitārih va Hilāl (Persian, سِتَارِه وَ هِلَال [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  5. Sitora va Hilol (Tajik, Ситора ва Ҳилол [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  6. Sitora va Hašarot (Tajik, Ситора ва Ҳашарот [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  7. da S°tūraý ʾaw da Nímāýí Čān°d (Pashto, دَ سْتُورَی او دَ نِیمَایِی چَانْد [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  8. Sitāriha ʾaw°ra Hilāla (Urdu, سِتَارِہَ اورَْ هِلَالَ [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  9. Tārā atē Aradha Cada (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਤਾਰਾ ਅਤੇ ਅਰਧ ਚੰਦ [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  10. Tāraha ʾatē ʾArad°ha Čān°da (Shahmukhi Punjabi, تَارَہَ اتَے ارَدْھَ چَنْدَ [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  11. ǧī Tārū aimʕ⁺ⁱᵃˢᵗ ǧī Hilāl (Sindhi, جِي تَارُو ۽ جِي هَلَال [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  12. Hilal ve Yıldız (Turkish [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  13. Tārā aura Vardhamāna (Hindi, तारा और वर्धमान [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
The standard for being a Muslim (Arabic, مُسْلِم [MP3], Mus°lim, “peacefully surrendering one”), in the Quran (Arabic, القُرْآن [MP3], ʾal•Qur°ʾân, “the Recitation”), would not, with the wisdom of Bāhū (AS), distinguish between souls belonging to any branch, or to no branch, of Islam:
Neither Sunni [Arabic سُنِّيّ; MP3, Sunniyy; or Persian, سُنِی; MP3, Suní] nor Shi‘i [Arabic, شِيعِيّ; MP3, Šīʿiyy; or Persian, شِیعِی; MP3, Šíʿí] am I.
Heartburn doth afflict me with one as with the other.
The moment I cast them aside, my pathway was arid no longer. I found myself immersed in the ocean of divine Unity.
Many souls, poorly prepared for that which awaited them, dived into the ocean and drowned. Few swam successfully to the journey’s end.
Only those who held steadfastly to the Master’s hand reached the heavenly shore in safety.
〜 Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū, Kalām•i Bāhū (Perso–Arabic, کَلَامِ بَاهُو [MP3], Discourse of Bāhū). Translation significantly modified by Mark A. Foster (Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ•Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹl).
Lesser Apostles or Prophets, ʿalay°him ʾal•ssalām (Arabic, عَلَيْهِم السَّلَام [MP3], “upon Them be peace” or “AS”), may appear under the authority of each major Prophet. Subject to the sovereign Will of ʾAl•llꞌah SWT, that sacred pattern repeats itself again and again. Some lesser Prophets AS, or all of Them during the present age, might not be divinely authorized to readily broadcast their Stations. In either case, a lesser Prophet will remain a lesser Prophet whether, on the one hand, He is afforded the permission, either by ʾAl•llꞌah SWT or by the Major Prophet, to forthrightly promulgate His Own Prophethood to the entirety of humanity, or, on the other, He is requested to maintain His silence on this matter. To my understanding, one of the eminent personifications of lesser Prophethood, even though He is not usually recognized as occupying that position, is the Apostle Paul AS.
  1. Nubuwwaẗ (Arabic, نُبُوَّة [MP3]), “Prophethood
  2. mạṣṣāḇ hạ•Nəḇiyʾiym (Hebrew, מַצָּב הַנְבִיאִים [MP3]), “Prophethood
  3. Nạbūʾāh (Yiddish, נַבוּאָה [MP3]), “Prophethood
  4. vaḍʿiýat•i Paýām°barān (Persian, وَضعِیَتِ پَیَامْبَرَان [MP3]), “Prophethood
  5. vaziýat•i Paýġambaron (Tajik, вазийати Пайғамбарон [MP3]), “Prophethood
  6. da Paý°ġam°barān maqām (Pashto, دَ پَیْغَمْبَرَان مَقَام [MP3]), “Prophethood
  7. Nabiýūṉ ḱí ḥālata (Urdu, نَبِیُوں کِی حَالَتَ [MP3]), “Prophethood
  8. Nabīꞌāṁ dī hālata (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਨਬੀਆਂ ਦੀ ਹਾਲਤ [MP3]), “Prophethood
  9. Nabiýāṉ dí ḥālata (Shahmukhi Punjabi, نَبِیَاں دِی حَالَتَ [MP3]), “Prophethood
  10. Nabiyūn ǧī ḥālat (Sindhi, نَبِيُون جِي حَالَت [MP3]), “Prophethood
  11. Peygamberlık (Turkish [MP3]), “Prophethood
Books of the Prophets of the Sons of Israel” could be interpreted as a term for Prophethood:
  1. Kutub ʾal•⫯An°biyāˁ ʾal•Banī ʾal•⫰Is°rā⫯yīl (Arabic, كُتُب الأَنْبِيَاء البَنِي إِسْرَائِيل [MP3])
  2. Sēp̄ẹriym hạ•Nəḇiyʾiym hạ•Bēniym hạ•Yiśərāʾēl (Hebrew, סֵפֶרִים הַנְבִיאִים הַבֵּנִים הַיִשְׂרָאֵל [MP3])
  3. yä•ʾƏsəraʾelə Ləǧočə Näbiyatə Mäsꞌahəfətə (Amharic, የእስራኤል ልጆች ነቢያት መጻሕፍት [MP3])
  4. Buyəḵẹʿr [German, Bücher; MP3, “books”] p̄ōn diy Nəb̄iyʾiym p̄ōn diy Bēniym p̄ōn Yiśərāʾēl (Yiddish, בֻיְכֶער פֿוֹן דִּי נְבִֿיאִים פֿוֹן דִּי בֵנִים פֿוֹן יִשְׂרָאֵל [MP3])
  5. Ḱitābān•i Paýām°barān•i Pisarān•i ʾIs°rā⫯ýíl (Persian, کِتَابَانِ پَیَامْبَرَانِ پِسَرَانِ اِسرَائِیَل [MP3])
  6. Ḱitābān•i ʾAn°biýāý•i ʾIb°n°hā•i ʾIs°rā⫯ýíl (Persian, کِتَابَانِ انْبِیَایِ اِبْنْهَاِِ اِسرَائِیَل [MP3])
  7. Kitobho•i Paýġambaron•i Pisaron•i Isroil (Tajik, Китобҳои Пайғамбарони Писарони Исроил [MP3])
  8. da Paý°ġam°barānū Ḱitābūnih da ʾIs°rā⫯ýíl da Zāman (Pashto, دَ پَیْغَمْبَرَانُو کِتَابُونِه دَ اِسرَائِیَلُو دَ زَامَن [MP3])
  9. ʾIs°rā⫯ýíla ḱē Baý°ṭūṉ ḱí Paý°ġam°barūṉ ḱē Ḱitābíṉ (Urdu, اِسرَائِیَلَ کَے بَیْٹُوں کِی پَیْغَمْبَرُوں کَے کِتَابِیں [MP3])
  10. Nabīꞌāṁ dīꞌāṁ Kitābāṁ Izarāꞌīla dē Putarāṁ (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਨਬੀਆਂ ਦੀਆਂ ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ ਇਜ਼ਰਾਈਲ ਦੇ ਪੁੱਤਰਾਂ [MP3])
  11. Nabiýāṉ diýāṉ Ḱitābāṉ ʿIzarā⫯ýíla dē Putarāṉ (Shahmukhi Punjabi, نَبِیَاں دِیَاں کِتَابَاں عِزَرَائِیلَ دَے پُتَرَاں [MP3])
  12. K̀itābun ǧū Nabiyun ǧū Paʈun mān ʾIs°rā⫯yīl (Sindhi, ڪِتَابُن جُو نَبِيُن جُو پَٽُن مَان اِسْرَائِيل [MP3])
  13. Isarāila ke Saṃsa ke Bhaviṣyadvaktāoṃ kī Pustakeṃ (Hindi, इसराइल के संस के भविष्यद्वक्ताओं की पुस्तकें [MP3])
  14. Isrāẏēlēra Santānadēra Nabīgaṇēra Baꞌiguli (Bengali, ইস্রায়েলের সন্তানদের নবীগণের বইগুলি [MP3])
  15. İsrailꞌın Oğulları Peygamberleri Kitapları (Turkish [MP3])
  16. Libroj de la Profetoj de la Izraelidoj (Esperanto [MP3])
A Man born Saul (Hebrew, שָׁאוּל‬ [MP3], Šāʾūl, “Asked or Prayed for”) became, in just a single moment, the Apostle Paul (Latin, Paulus [MP3]; or Hellēnistikḗ Koinḗ/Common Greek, Παῦλος [MP3], Paûlos, “Small or Humble One”) AS. Thus, Paul AS was transfigured from making a heavenly request to attaining self–annihilation (Arabic, فَنَاء [MP3], fanāˁ). Paul AS was not counted among the twelve apostles. No matter, after an initiatory Revelation (Arabic, تَنْزِيل [MP3], Tan°zīl), as with each Prophet, from the Major Prophet Jesus Christ (Latin, Christus Iēsus [MP3]; Common Greek, Ἰησοῦς Χριστός [MP3], I̓ēsoûs Christós; or originally Hebrew, יֵשׁוּעַ הַמָשִׁיחַ [MP3], Yēšūʿạ hạ•Māšiyḥạ, “Deliverance, the Annointed One or Messiah”) AS on a journey, Paul AS proclaimed Himself as an Apostle or Messenger of ʾAl•llꞌah SWT. In Paul’s AS epistles, He elucidated His Own Authority.
  1. quwwaẗ ʾal•ḥaqqāniyyaẗ (Arabic, قُوَّة الحَقّانِيَّة [MP3]), “authority (legitimate power)
  2. sạməḵūṯ (Hebrew, סַמְכוּת [MP3]), “authority
  3. ʾạwəyəṭʾọriyṭēʿṭ (Yiddish, אַוְיְטאָרִיטֵעט [MP3]), “authority
  4. Autorität (German [MP3]), “authority
  5. ʾiẖ°tiyār (Persian and Sindhi, اِختِیَار [MP3]), “authority
  6. ʾiẖ°tiyāra (Urdu, اِختِیَارَ [MP3]), “authority
  7. ik̲h̲tiyāra (Hindi, इख़्तियार [MP3]), “authority
  8. hāḱimiýat (Persian, هَاکِمِیَت [MP3]), “authority (sovereignty)
  9. hokimiyat (Tajik, ҳокимият [MP3]), “authority (sovereignty)
  10. da wāḱ da qānūní (Pashto, دَ وَاک دَ قَانُونِی [MP3]), “authority (legitimate power)
  11. adhikāra (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਅਧਿਕਾਰ [MP3]), “authority
  12. ʾad°híḱāra (Shahmukhi Punjabi, ادْھِیکَارَ [MP3]), “authority
Before moving on, a short discussion of the origins of the Bahá’í Faith (Arabic, دِّيَانَة البَهَائِيَّة [MP3], Ddiyānaẗ ʾal•Bahā⫯yiyyaẗ; or Persian, دِیَانَتِ بَهَائِی [MP3], Diýānat•i Bahā⫯ýí, “Religion or Obligation of Glory”) is appropriate. That discussion shall then be followed by a more pointed application to the issue, now under consideration, of the greater and lesser Prophets. Possible relationships between each of these two types of Prophethood will be contemplated. Please bear in mind that the views expressed throughout the monograph are personal and nothing more. They reflect the writer’s own understandings just at the present time. Those understandings do not necessarily represent the official teachings of the Bahá’í Faith or of any other religion or movement referred to in the monograph. For authentic and trustworthy information on the Bahá’í Faith, please go directly to the source.
The Bahá’í Faith’s towering Prophet–Founder, Bahá’u’lláh (Arabic, بَهَاء الله [MP3], Bahāˁ ʾAl•llꞌah, “Glory of God”) AQH (Arabic, عَلَيْهِ القُرَّة الحُورِيَّة [MP3], ʿalay°hi ʾal•qurraẗ ʾal•Ḥūriyyaẗ, “upon Him be the solace of the Black–in–White–Eyed Maiden”), lived in this world 1817–1892. His heavenly Precursor, and the first Twin Major Prophet to manifest on this planet, was the Exalted Báb (Arabic, بَاب الأَعْلَى [MP3], Bāb ʾal•⫯Aʿ°laỳ, “the Exalted Gate”) ABYA (Arabic, لَيْهِ البَهَاء مَن يُظْهِر الله [MP3], ʿalay°hi ʾal•Bahāˁ Man Yuẓ°hir ʾAl•llꞌah, “upon Him be the Glory of Him Whom ʾAl•llꞌah shall make Manifest”). The martyrdom of the Báb (Arabic, البَاب [MP3], ʾal•Bāb, “the Gate”) ABYA, in Iran’s City of Tabriz (Persian, شَهْرِسْتَانِ تَبْرِیز تُویِ اِیْرَان [MP3], Šah°ris°tan•i Tab°ríz tuý•i ʾIý°rān), brought to a tragic, an indeed, heartbreaking close His regrettably brief but highly momentous life, 1819–1850.
Bahá’u’lláh AQH and the Báb ABYA, as twin Major Prophets of ʾAl•llꞌah SWT, were perhaps foreshadowed by twin Minor Islamic (Arabic, إِسْلَامِيّ [MP3], ⫰Is°lāmiyy) Prophets, Šay°ẖ ⫯Aḥ°mad ʾib°n Zay°n ʾal•Ddīn ⫰Ib°rāhīm ʾal•⫯Aḥ°sā⫰yiyy (Arabic, شَيخ أَحمَد اِبن زَيْن الدِّين اِبن إِبْرَاهِيم الأَحْسَائِيّ‎ [MP3]) AS, 1753–1826, and Siyyid Kāzim bin Qāsim ʾal•Ḥusay°niyy ʾal•Raš°tiyy (Arabic, سِيِّد كَاظِم بِن قَاسِم الحُسَيْنِيّ الرَشْتِيّ‎ [MP3]) AS, 1793–1843. This pair of truly exceptional Men readied the Islamic Age for the dual advents of the Báb ABYA and Bahá’u’lláh AQH. Given the odd chance that my reading of the pertinent texts is accurate, modernity witnessed the dramatic theophanies of twin Major Prophets and twin Minor Prophets, too. In addition, the Letters of the Living (Arabic, حُرُوف الحَيّ [MP3], Ḥurūf ʾal•Ḥayy), or a select Number of them, may have been Lesser Prophets to the Báb ABYA.
To the best of my knowledge, Bahá’u’lláh AQH never negated the simple possibility of lesser Prophets arising over the course, now concealed from human knowledge, of His divine Dispensation or Age. My personal sense, though not one based upon any textual evidence per se, is that one, possibly more, lesser Prophets—such as Paul Who clearly proclaimed His lesser Prophethood to the major Prophet Jesus Christ—might manifest as receptive Moons to the Sun of Each major Prophet. By the same token, Bahá’u’lláh AQH has covenanted with us, in His Sacred and Holy Texts, that no lesser Prophets will proclaim Their Stations during the present Dispensation of grace. These unfortunate declarations shall bring to light that the so–called prophets are charlatans and prevaricators. They just made the whole thing up or imagined it. Prayers for their immortal souls would be appropriate.
  1. ʾal•Daw°r (originally Arabic, الدَوْر [MP3]), “the Dispensation (the role, part, duration, cycle, period, round, time, or gate)
  2. ʾal•Daw°ra (Urdu, الدَوْرَ [MP3]), “the Dispensation (the role, part, duration, cycle, period, round, time, or gate)
  3. Daw°r (Persian, دَوْر [MP3]), “Dispensation (the role, part, duration, cycle, period, round, time, or gate)
  4. da Daw°r (Pashto, دَ دَوْر [MP3]), “the Dispensation (the role, part, duration, cycle, period, round, time, or gate)
  5. ǧī Da⫯w°rū (Sindhi, گِي دَؤْرُو [MP3]), “the Dispensation (the role, part, duration, cycle, period, round, time, or gate)
  6. ʾiý°ha Davara (Shahmukhi Punjabi, اِیْہہَ دَوَرَ [MP3]), “the Dispensation (the role, part, duration, cycle, period, round, time, or gate)
  7. iha Davara (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਇਹ ਦਵਰ [MP3]), “the Dispensation (the role, part, duration, cycle, period, round, time, or gate)
  8. Davr (Tajik, Давр [MP3]), “Dispensation (role, part, duration, cycle, period, round, time, or gate)
  9. yaha Daura (Hindi, यह दौर [MP3]), “the Dispensation (the role, part, duration, cycle, period, round, time, or gate)
  10. hạ•Tạp̄əqiyḏ (Hebrew, הַתַּפְקִיד [MP3]), “the Dispensation (the role, part, duty, task, or function)
  11. diy Diysəpẹʿnəsʾạṭəyʾọn (Yiddish, דִּי דִּיסְפֶּענְסאַטְיאָן [MP3]), “the Dispensation
  12. die Dispensation (German [MP3]), “the Dispensation
  13. yä•Mägabinätə (Amharic, የመጋቢነት [MP3]), “the Dispensation (the stewardship)
  14. ho Oi̓konomía (Common Greek, ὁ Οἰκονομία [MP3]), “the Dispensation (or the administration)
Some foolish imaginations may be relatively harmless. However, vainly imagining oneself as a prophet of ʾAl•llꞌah SWT has dire implications. An ordinary individual is misrepresenting her or his state of being, whether intentionally or not, as a messenger, or mirror, of ʾAl•llꞌah SWT. In making this fabrication, one is, at the very least, lying to oneself. Others may also be deceived by that false prophet. As penned, in precise and unambiguous terms, by Bahá’u’lláh AQH Himself in two of His Tablets:
Whoso layeth claim to a Revelation direct from God, ere the expiration of a full thousand years, such a man is assuredly a lying impostor. We pray God that He may graciously assist him to retract and repudiate such claim. Should he repent, God will, no doubt, forgive him. If, however, he persisteth in his error, God will, assuredly, send down one who will deal mercilessly with him. Terrible, indeed, is God in punishing! Whosoever interpreteth this verse otherwise than its obvious meaning is deprived of the Spirit of God and of His mercy which encompasseth all created things. Fear God, and follow not your idle fancies. Nay, rather follow the bidding of your Lord, the Almighty, the All-Wise.
〜 Bahá’u’lláh. Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh. Shoghi Effendi, translator. Wilmette, Illinois: Bahá’í Publishing Trust. 1980. Page 233.
They have desired to ascend to that state which the Lord hath ordained to be above their stations.…
Whereupon the burning meteor cast them out from them that abide in the Kingdom of His Presence.
〜 Bahá’u’lláh, “Tablet of the Holy Mariner.” Bahá’í Prayers. Compilation. Wilmette, Illinois: Bahá’í Publishing Trust. 2002. Pages 219–227.
The Universal House of Justice (Arabic, بَيْت العَدْل أَعْظَم [MP3], Bay°t ʾal•ʿAd°l ʾal•⫯Aʿ°ẓam; or in Persianized form/Fār°sí•i šudan/Persian, فَارْسِیِ شُدَن [MP3], بَیْت‌َالعَدْل اعْظَم [MP3], Baý°tālʿad°l ʾAʿ°ẓam, “Most Great House of Justice”) is this world of being’s wellspring of eternal life, life–giving waters, or fountain of living waters (Arabic, وِرْد [MP3], wir°d) for authoritative divine guidance to humanity. That guidance must be perpetually impeccable (Arabic, مَعْصُوم [MP3], maʿ°ṣūm), pure and protected (Arabic, عِصْمَة [MP3], ʿiṣ°maẗ), and exempt from the commission of any moral error (Arabic, خَطَأ [MP3], ẖaṭ⫯ā, or خِطْء [MP3], ẖiṭ°ˁ). Therefore, the Universal House of Justice, operating in its exalted station, seems to have made, for the time being, ostensibly functioning lesser Prophets unnecessary. Whether the current pattern will persist through future Dispensations is, of course, an unknown.
The members of the Universal House of Justice, like their forebears in authority under the Bahá’í Covenant (Arabic, عَهْد [MP3], ʿAh°d), have been men. The Universal House of Justice collectively and its predecessors individually might enjoy a polyandry in spirit with the most hallowed, adored, and exalted Guardian Angel (Arabic, مَلَاك الحَارِس [MP3], Malāk ʾal•Ḥaris) of the Bahá’í Dispensation. We know and love Her as the Black–in–White–Eyed Maiden (Arabic, الحُورِيَّة [MP3], ʾal•Ḥūriyyaẗ) SAA. Through the resplendent Maiden SAA, according to ʾAl•llꞌah’s SWT Will, a male hegemony took place only within the realm of outward appearances, the physical world. That domination is, in short, just an illusion. In reality, it is women, not men, who are elevated in spirituality and excellence. All women, and possibly some men, can, in this Æon of Glory, express the Maiden’s SAA grace.
  1. taʿaddudu ʾal•⫯az°wāǧi (Arabic, تَعَدُّدُ الأَزْوَاجِ [MP3]), “polyandry
  2. ribūy zāḵāriym lə•nəqēḇāh ʾạḥạṭ (Hebrew, רִבּוּי זָכָרִים לְנְקֵבָה אַחַת [MP3]), “polyandry
  3. šūharān•i mutaʿaddid (Persian, شُوهَرَانِ مُتَعَدِّد [MP3]), “polyandry
  4. šavhar•i seršumor (Tajik, шавҳари сершумор [MP3]), “polyandry
  5. ʾaz°wāǧ (Pashto, ازْوَاج [MP3]), “polyandry
  6. ḱaṯíra ʾaz°wāǧí (Urdu, کَثِیرَ ازْوَاجِی [MP3]), “polyandry
  7. kaꞌī patīꞌāṁ (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕਈ ਪਤੀਆਂ [MP3]), “polyandry
  8. ḱa⫯ýí patiýaṉ (Shahmukhi Punjabi, کَئِی پَتِیَاں [MP3]), “polyandry
  9. g°haṉ̇an muḍ̇°san k̀araṅ ǧū rawāǧ (Sindhi, گْھَڻَ;ن مُڙْسَن ڪَرَڻ جُو رَوَاج [MP3]), “polyandry
  1. ʿAẖ°rāˁ (Arabic, عَذْرَاء [MP3]), “Maiden
  2. ʿẠləmāh (Hebrew, עַלְמָה [MP3]), “Maiden
  3. yä•Wätꞌatə Ləǧagärädə (Amharic, የወጣት ልጃገረድ [MP3]), “Maiden
  4. Bəsūlʿ (Yiddish, בְסוּלע [MP3]), “Maiden
  5. Ḥūrí (Persian, حُورِی [MP3]) or pluralized as Ḥūr (Persian, حُور [MP3]), “Black–in–White–Eyed Maiden (from the original Arabic)
  6. Dūšízih (Persian, دُوشِیزِه [MP3]), “Maiden
  7. Duẖ°tar (Persian, دُخْتَر [MP3]), “Maiden
  8. Duẖtar (Tajik, духтар [MP3]), “Maiden
  9. Batūl (Pashto, بَتُول [MP3]), “Maiden
  10. Laṛ°ḱí (Urdu, لَڑْکِی [MP3]), “Maiden
  11. Muṭiꞌāra (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਮੁਟਿਆਰ [MP3]), “Maiden
  12. Muṭiýāra (Shahmukhi Punjabi, مُٹِیَارَ [MP3]), “Maiden
  13. K̀an°⫯wārī (Sindhi, ڪَنْؤَارِي [MP3]), “Maiden
  14. Bakire (Turkish [MP3]), “Maiden
  15. Kanya (Hindi, कन्य [MP3]), “Maiden
  16. Kumārī (Bengali, কুমারী [MP3]), “Maiden
  17. Kaṉṉip (Tamil, கன்னிப் [MP3]), “Maiden
  18. Āḍapillanu (Telugu, ఆడపిల్లను [MP3]), “Maiden
  19. Kanꞌyaka (Malayalam, കന്യക [MP3]), “Maiden
  20. K̀an°⫯wārī (Sindhi, ڪَنْؤ‬َارِي [MP3]), “Maiden
  21. Shǎonǚ (Mandarin Chinese, 少女 [MP3]), “Maiden
  22. Siu3•Neoi5 (Cantonese Chinese/Gwong2•Dung1•Waa6, 少女 [MP3]), “Maiden
  23. Sonyŏ (Korean, 소녀 [MP3]), “Maiden
  24. Otome (Japanese, 乙女 [MP3]), “Maiden
  25. Thị Tỳ (Vietnamese [MP3]), “Maiden
  26. la Jeune Fille (French [MP3]), “Maiden
An example of the Maiden’s SAA blessings is my spiritual mother (Arabic, أُمِّي الرُوحَانِيّ [MP3], ⫯ummī rūḥāniyy), Elizabeth Thomas SAA (December 10ᵗʰ, 1906–January 18ᵗʰ, 1991). By the Guardian Angels’ grace, she has regularly visited me in vivid dreams. I have often woken up believing that she had not passed on. In December, 1970, after looking up the Bahá’í Faith in the county phone book, I found Elizabeth’s SAA Long Island, New York, number. The first Bahá’í I ever spoke with was Elizabeth SAA. At fourteen–years old, I joined the Bahá’í Faith the following day. She is an advanced soul, and her kindness to and patience with me, an autistic boy and then man, is not something which I fully appreciated until many years later. May ʾAl•llꞌah SWT bless dear Elizabeth SAA, the most beloved member of my spiritual family, in the Beyond. I look forward to chatting with her again.
Elizabeth Thomas
Click on the Picture for an Enlargement
  1. ⫯umm ʾal•rūḥāniyy (Arabic, أُمّ الرُوحَانِيّ [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  2. wālidaẗ fī ʾal•rūḥāniyyaẗ (Arabic, وَالِدَة فِي الرُوحَانِيَّة [MP3]), “spiritual mother (mother in spirituality)
  3. ʾimmā hạ•rūḥāniy (Hebrew, אִמָּא הַרוּחָנִי [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  4. ʾēm hạ•səpiyriyṭūʾạl (Hebrew, אֵם סְפִּירִיטוּאַל [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  5. mänəfäsawi ʾənatə (Amharic, መንፈሳዊ እናት [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  6. rūḥāniyʾūṯ mūṭẹr (Yiddish, רוּחָנִוּת מוּטֶער [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  7. mādar•i rūḥāní (Persian, مَادَرِ رُوحَانِی [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  8. mādar•i rūḥí (Persian, مَادَرِ رُوحِي [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  9. mādar•i maʿ°naví (Persian, مَادَرِ مَعْنَوِی [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  10. modar•i maʿnavī (Tajik, модари маънавӣ [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  11. da rūḥāní mūr (Pashto, دَ رُوحَانِی مُور [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  12. rūḥāní mūra (Urdu, رُوحَانِی مُورَ [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  13. rūhānī mātā (Gurumukhi Punjabi, ਰੂਹਾਨੀ ਮਾਤਾ [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  14. rūḥāní mātā (Shahmukhi Punjabi, رُوحَانِی مَاتَا [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  15. rūḥānī māˁa (Sindhi, رُوحَانِي مَاءَ [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  16. manevi anne (Turkish, [MP3]), “spiritual mother

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٥. ⫯Uway°siyy Transmissions
An ⫯Uway°siyy (Arabic, أُوَيْسِيّ [MP3]) transmission is an inward, spiritual communication from Muḥammad (Arabic, مُحَمَّد [MP3], “Praised One”) SAW or other divine beings, to a true believer. Unlike some other spiritual transmissions of grace or sanctity, the bestower of the blessing and its recipient have no physical contact. This heavenly sanctification occurs in the divine stations of Concealment, not in the lowly realms of appearance. ⫯Uway°siyy transmissions may, therefore, be considered, in a certain sense, to be miraculous. Certainly, the mechanisms operating in the celestial, divine Kingdom versus those which function in the worldly, lackluster dimensions can be only be compared with extreme reservation and humility. To put it another way, the divine Realms should not be considered as expressions of our own material existence or experience. The opposite is true.
By “⫯Uway°siyyūna” (Arabic, أُوَيْسِيُّونَ [MP3], “⫯Uway°siyys”) or “⫯Uway°siyyīna” (Arabic, أُوَيْسِيِّينَ [MP3], “⫯Uway°siyys”), some form of sacred or divine permission and authorization (Arabic, إِجَازَة [MP3], ⫰iǧāzaẗ) is conveyed, in the exalted station of absence or occultation, from an outwardly unrelated illustrious being, as in: the Prophet Muḥammad SAW, the legendary, or perhaps semilegendary, ʾal•H̱iḍ°r (الخِضْر [MP3], “the Green One”), venerated departed šuyūẖ (شُيُوخ [MP3], “elders” or “shaykhs”), the founders (Arabic, أَئِمَّة [MP3], ⫯a⫯yimmaẗ, “pathfinders” or imams) of Ṣūfiyy orders, the Guardian Angels (Arabic, مَلَائِكَة الحَارِسَة [MP3], Malā⫯yikaẗ ʾal•Ḥārisaẗ), a gamut of ʾAl•llꞌah’s (SWT) other Prophets (Arabic, أَنْبِيَاء [MP3], ⫯An°biyāˁ), and a variety of departed spiritual leaders. Therefore, these entities may be living, deceased, or possibly even mythological.
  1. ġay°baẗ (Arabic, غَيْبَة [MP3]), “absence or occultation
  2. ġaý°bat (Persian, Pashto, and Sindhi, غَیْبَت [MP3]), “absence or occultation
  3. ġaý°bata (Urdu, غَیْبَتَ [MP3]), “absence or occultation
  4. ġaýbat (Tajik, ғайбат [MP3]), “absence or occultation
  5. gairahāzarī (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗੈਰਹਾਜ਼ਰੀ [MP3]), “absence or occultation
  6. ġaý°ra ḥaḍārí (Shahmukhi Punjabi, غَیْرَ حَاضَرِی [MP3]), “absence or occultation
  7. gairahājirī (Hindi, गैरहाजिरी [MP3]), “absence or occultation
  8. gıyap (Turkish [MP3]), “absence or occultation
  9. hẹʿədēr (Hebrew, הֶעְדֵּר [MP3]), “absence or occultation
  10. ʾạvēʿq (Yiddish, אַווֵעק [MP3]), “absence or occultation
  11. p̄ēʿlən (Yiddish, פֵֿעלְן [MP3]), “absence or occultation
  12. Fehlen (German [MP3]), “absence or occultation
In a outstretched spectrum of diverse mentally abstracted and otherworldly states, including inspired dreams (Arabic, مَنَامَات [MP3], manāmāt; or أَحْلَام [MP3], ⫯aḥ°lām) and luminous visions (Arabic, رُؤًى‏ [MP3], ru⫯waṇỳ; تَصَوُّرَات [MP3], taṣawwurāt; or بَصِيرَات [MP3], baṣīrāt), vows of loyalty, like the oaths of fealty once owed by knights to medieval European feudal lords, are pledged to one another. Yet, a state of receptivity in spirit is negated by gullibility. Since these events take place in unconscious states, hypnotic suggestability may be maximized. It, consequently, becomes important, in my view, that the recipient of the transmission does not allow the bane of wishful thinking, the vainglorious fancies of self–delusion, or the deathbed of egotism to dominate, and to unintentionally distort, that alleged spiritual gnosis or knowledge. Self–deception leads to many downfalls from grace.
The following words are cognates, transliterations, or Romanizations of gnosis (Ancient Greek, γνῶσις [MP3], gnō̂sis):
  1. ġunūṣ (Arabic, غُنُوص [MP3]).
  2. g°nūsís (Persian, گْنُوسِیس [MP3]).
  3. g°ýāna (Urdu, گْیَانَ [MP3]) or, phonetically, g°nūsisa (گْنُوسِسَ [MP3]).
  4. gənōsiys (Hebrew, גְּנוֹסִיס [MP3]).
  5. ḡənʾọsiys (Yiddish, גְנאָסִיס [MP3]).
  6. gunōshisu (Japanese, グノーシス [MP3]).
  7. kŭnosisŭ (Korean, 그노시스 [MP3]).
  8. gǎnwù (Mandarin Chinese, 感悟 [MP3]).
  9. jñāna (Sanskrit, Hindi, Nepali, and Marathi, ज्ञान [Sanskrit MP3] [Hindi MP3] [Nepali MP3] [Marathi MP3])
  10. gənosisə (Amharic, ግኖሲስ [MP3])
  11. jñāna (Kannada/Kannaḍa, ಜ್ಞಾನ [MP3])
  12. jñāna (Gujarati/Gujarātī, જ્ઞાન [MP3])
  13. jñāna (Bengali, জ্ঞান [MP3]).
  14. jñāna (Assamese/Asamīẏā, জ্ঞান [MP3]).
  15. jñānamu (Telugu, జ్ఞానము [MP3]).
  16. znanie (Russian, знание [MP3]).
  17. znannâ (Ukrainian, знання [MP3]).
  18. ỵāṇ (Thai/P̣hās̄ʹā Thịy, ญาณ [MP3]).
  19. nhean (Khmer/Pheasaeakhmer, ញាណ [MP3]).
  20. gnosis (Norwegian/Norsk [MP3]).
The term ⫯Uway°siyy is named in honor of the illustrious saint, ⫯Uway°s ʾib°n ⫯Amīr ʾib°n Har°b ʾal•Qar°niyy (Arabic, أُوَيس اِبْن أَمِير اِبْن هَرب القَرْنِيّ [MP3]). He was the first individual known to have experienced such a celestial encounter. Although ⫯Uway°s ʾal•Qar°niyy lived as Muḥammad’s SAW contemporary, the two of them never had the opportunity to meet face to face. Yet, tradition has it, this venerated Yemenite (Arabic, يَمَنِيّ [MP3], Yamaniyy) was the recipient, within the world of spirits (Arabic, العَالَم الأَرْوَاح [MP3], ʾal•ʿālam ʾal•arwāḥ), of a sacred transmission from the beloved Muḥammad SAW. Linguistically, ⫯Uway°s (Arabic, أُوَيس) translates as “wolf cub,” while ʾal•Qar°niyy (Arabic, القَرْنِيّ) is “the centenary.” The blessing of being in his spiritual presence (Arabic, حَضْرَة [MP3], ḥaḍ°raẗ) may be counted as one of my many aspirations for the world to come.
The ⫯Uway°siyy transmission of Muḥammad SAW to Bāhū AS can be compared, mythopœically, to Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ•Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl (Hebrew and Yiddish, מֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן בֶּן הֶערְשֶׁעל [MP3]). After engaging in a spiritually blessed ⫯Uway°siyy communion with Bāhū AS, bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl fictively converted from Judaism (Hebrew, הָיַהֲדוּת [MP3], Yạhăḏōṯ]) to Islam. He then became the founding pír–o–murshid (“elder andguide possessingintegrity, maturity, and sensibility”) of Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ. Various South Asian, West Asian, and Central Asian versions are:
  1. píra ū mur°šida (originally, Urduized Persian and Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ–⫯Ur°diyyaẗ–Fārisiyyaẗ, پِیرَ و مُرْشِدَ [MP3])
  2. píra ʾaw°ra mur°šida (Urdu, پِیرَ اوْرَ مُرْشِدَ [MP3])
  3. pīra aura murśida (Hindi, पीर और मुर्शिद [MP3])
  4. pīra–o–murśida (Hindi, पीर–ओ–मुर्शिद [MP3])
  5. pīara āṇi murśīda (Marathi, पीअर आणि मुर्शीद [MP3])
  6. piẏāra ēbaṁ murśida (Bengali, পিয়ার এবং মুর্শিদ [MP3])
  7. piyar oppaṁ marṣid (Malayalam, പിയർ ഒപ്പം മർഷിദ് [MP3])
  8. pīra atē muraśīda (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪੀਰ ਅਤੇ ਮੁਰਸ਼ੀਦ [MP3])
  9. píra ʾatē murašída (Shahmukhi Punjabi, پِیرَ اتَے مِرَشِیدَ [MP3])
  10. pīr aimʕ⁺ⁱᵃˢᵗ mur°šid (Sindhi, پِير ۽ مُرْشِد [MP3])
  11. pīr mariyu muṣīd (Telugu, పీర్ మరియు ముషీద్ [MP3])
  12. pir maṟṟum kaiyēṭu (Tamil, பிர் மற்றும் கையேடு [MP3])
  13. pír va hādí (Persian, پِیر وَ هَادِی [MP3])
  14. pir va hodī (Tajik, пир ва ҳодӣ [MP3])
  15. pír va mur°šid (Persian, پِیر وَ مُرْشِد [MP3])
  16. pir va muršid (Tajik, пир ва муршид [MP3])
  17. pír ʾaw mur°šíd (Pashto, پِیر او مُورْشِید [MP3])
  18. šay°ẖ wa•mur°šid (Arabic, شَيْخ وَمُرْشِد [MP3])
  19. piyr wə•murəšid (Hebrew, פִּיר וְמֻרְשִׁדּ [MP3])
  20. šēyəẖ′ wə•murəšid (Hebrew, שֵׁיְח׳ וְמֻרְשִׁדּ [MP3])
  21. piyr ʾạwən murəšid (Yiddish, פִּיר אַוְן מֻרְשִׁדּ [MP3])
Customarily, bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl is addressed, all too politely, as píra ū mur°šida. This Urdu honorific is a compound phrase from Persian, Urdu, and Arabic. Pír (Persian, پِیر [MP3]) may be translated as either “elder” or “elderly man.” It fits. Surely, at old with “full–blown osteoporosis” and osteoarthritis, bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl is fast becoming an old man. Ū (و [MP3]), like ʾaw°ra (Urdu, اوْرَ [MP3]), is an Urdu term for “and.” Mur°šid (مُرْشِد [MP3]), finally, remains an Arabic designation for a guide possessingintegrity, maturity, and sensibility.” That being said, bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl remains a simple and modest man. Oblivious to all of the élitist shallowness of worldly salutations, he considers himself, above all, as a servant of ʾAl•llꞌah SWT and of all humanity (Arabic, عَبْد الله وَالبَشَرِيَّة الجَمْعَاء [MP3], ʿab°d ʾAl•llꞌah wa•ʾal•bašariyyaẗ ʾal•ǧam°ʿāˁ). There is, in his heart, no more blessed honor.
Another example of an alleged ⫯Uway°siyy transmission from Bāhū AS is Hazrat Syedna Riaz Ahmed Sarkar Gohar Shahi (Urdū, حَضْرَةَ سِیُدْنَا رِیَاضَ احْمَد سَرْکَارَ گُوھَرَ شَاہهِی, Ḥaḍ°rata Siýýid°nā Riýāḍa ʾAḥ°mada Sar°ḱāra Guhara Šāhí [MP3], his holy “presence, our master,” gardens ofparadise, highly prized, overseer, jewel, imperial”). Intriguingly, years before I became consciously aware of beloved Bāhū, I sought out and received personal instruction in my suburban Kansas City home (Olathe, Kansas) from an initiator. He had been authorized by Guhar Šāhí (commonly, Gohar Shahi). This amiable disciple, whose name I unfortunately cannot recall, represented the American Sufi Institute (P.O. Box 462, Devil’s Lake, North Dakota 58301 U.S.A.).
The American Sufi Institute has since been renamed as ʾal•Mar°ḱāza•i Rūḥāní Qād°rí (Urdu, المَرْکَازَِ رُوحَانِی قَادْرِی [MP3], “the Spiritual Center of Qād°rí”) (Qādirīyyaẗ Sufism). This group, now located in the Jamshoro District (Urdū, ذِلَاِ جَامْشُورُو [MP3], Ḏilā•i Ǧām°šūrū) of Sindh (Sindhi, سِنْڌ [MP3], Sin°dʱ; or Urdu سنْدْھَ [MP3], Sin°d°ha), Pakistan, regards Guhar Šāhí as a Sunni Muslim (Arabic, مُسْلِم السُنِّيّ [MP3], Mus°lim ʾal•Sunniyy)—not as a mih°dí (Urdu, مِہْدِی [MP3]), mih°dí (Persian, مِهْدِی [MP3]), mehdi (Turkish [MP3]), mehdi (Azerbaijani/Azərbaycan dili [MP3]), mahidí (Shahmukhi Punjabi, مَہِدِی [MP3]), or mah°diyy (the original Arabic, مَهْدِيّ [MP3]), rightlyguided one”) or as a messiah: masīḥ (Arabic, مَسِيح [MP3]), masíḥí (Persian, مَسِیحِی [MP3]), masíḥā (Urdu, مَسِیحَا [MP3]), or māšiyḥạ (the original Hebrew, מָשִׁיחַ [MP3], “annointed one”)—who welcomed people from all religions.
Guhar Šāhí taught various meditative practices, including a type of taṣavvur•i ism•i ḏāt. As I discovered much later, Šāhí, after claiming to have had an inward, mystical experience with Bāhū AS, founded a similar and, indeed, likeminded ⫯Uway°siyy branch ṭarīqaẗ of Ṭaríqat•i Qād°riýah•i Sār°vāriýah, ʾal•Qād°riyyaẗ ʾal•Mun°tahiyyaẗ [Arabic, القَادرِيَّة المُنْتَهِيَّة [MP3], the Qādirīyyaẗ of the Uttermost]. Šāhí then developed and presented a comprehensive set of teachings and methods called the Religion of God (Persian, دِينِ اِلَهِی [MP3], Dín•i ʾIlāhí; or Urdu, دِينَِ اِلَہِی [MP3], Dína•i ʾIlāhí). He was, I feel, my personal gateway to Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS.
Born in 1941, and now controversially deceased (2001 or 2003), Šāhí is, I believe, my fellow traveller under Bāhū’s watchful eye:
When … Guhar Šāhí was at about the age of thirty four, at one night Ḥaḍ°rata Barí ʾImāma [Urdu, حَضْرَتَ بَرِی اِمَامَ; MP3] (tomb is in Islamabad [Urdu, اِسْلَامَ آبَادَ; MP3, ʾIs°lāma ʾÂbāda, “city of Islam”]) appeared before him and said: “My son your time has come, you must go to the shrine of Sulṭān Bāhū [AS] to receive the Spiritual Knowledge.” … Guhar Šāhí then left every thing and went to shrine of Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū [AS]. Sulṭān Bāhū [AS] appeared before him and advised to read and act upon his book Nūr ʾal•Hudaỳ [Arabic, نُور الهُدَى; MP3, Light of Guidance] and go to Saý°h°wan Šaríf [Urdū, سَیْہْوَن‬ شَرِيف; MP3], … Dādū [Urdu, دَادُو; MP3], Pakistan.… Guhar Šāhí read the book Nūr ʾal•Hudaỳ and went … for self-purification and peace of heart ….
… [Guhar Šāhí] then left his work, family and parents and went to Šūr°ḱuṭ [Shahmukhi Punjabi, شُورْکُوٹ; MP3], where under the blessful [sic] supervision of … Sulṭān Bāhū [AS] … [Guhar Šāhí] made the book Nūr ʾal•Hudaỳ (a book written by … Bāhū [AS] …), his journey’s companion. He then went to Sayhwan Šarīf for self-mortification and peace of heart and spent a period of three years in the mountains of Sayhwan Šarīf and the [southern Indian] forest of Lālbāg [Kannada, ಲಾಲ್‌ಬಾಗ್; MP3, “Red Garden”] in self-Purification. Thereafter pursuant to a revelation … [Guhar Šāhí] went to Ǧām°šūrū [Urdu, جَامْشُورُو; MP3, “Jamshoro”] where he spent six months in a hut behind the Textbook Board Building, henceforth, with Almighty ʾAl•llꞌah’s will, His Holiness … [Guhar Šāhí] started to shower Almighty ʾAl•llꞌah’s creation with his benevolence.
Guhar Šāhí. 2009. Retrieved on September 8, 2013. Some words have been transliterated differently and spellings corrected.
I have never claimed to be Mih°dí. The false claimant [Younus AlGohar?, Urdu, یُونُسَ الگُوھَرَ [MP3], Ýūnusa ʾal•Gūhara, Joseph the Jewel] is misled and ill–fated. However, I have elaborated the signs of True Mih°dí. As Holy Prophet Muḩammad (peace be upon him) has a seal of prophet at his back. Likewise on the back of Mih°dí there will be a seal of Mih°dí which will be embossed by veins and whosoever will posses this sign we will accept him as … Mih°dí.
〜 Guhar Šāhí, A Great Spiritual Personality. October, 1999. Retrieved on September 8ᵗʰ, 2013. Some words have been transliterated differently and spellings corrected.
With profound humility and spirituality, Bāhū AS, in His lovingkindness or compassion (Pāli, मेत्ता [MP3], mettā; Sanskrit and Hindi, मैत्री [MP3], Marathi, मैत्री [MP3], maitrī; Nepali, मैत्री [MP3], mitratā; Gujarati, મિત્રતા [MP3], mitratā; Sinhalese, මිත්රත්වය [MP3], mitratvaya; Thai, มิตรภาพ [MP3], mitrp̣hāph; Telugu, మైత్రీ [MP3], maitrī; or Khmer, មេត្តា [MP3], mettea), remains, until the end that has no end, the collective center of our obeisance. Although I only recognized the eminent Bāhū’s AS personal agency back in 2011, he may have been with me, guiding me, during my entire life. For some inexplicable reason of the heart, I was drawn, in tremendous love, to beloved Bāhū AS while immersed in studying the exalted tradition of Sufism. He was truly one of the most exceptional Beings to inhabit the Earth over the last several centuries.
Mā šāˁa ʾAl•llꞌah! or Mashallah! (Arabic, مَا شَاءَ الله! [MP3], “ʾAl•llꞌah has willed it!”) Later, on September 8ᵗʰ, 2013, during a reflection, I realized that Bāhū AS reached out, though Guhar Šāhí, and connected more deeply with me. Šāhí was, at the time, still, unarguably, in this world:
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٦. Joining Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ
Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ of The Multiversal Communist Collective continues to welcome many followers of a wide variety of faiths or religions and, indeed, even those who do not belong to any particular religious organization. Although these individuals might not be Muslims, they accept the Unification (Arabic, التَّوْحِيد [MP3], ʾal•Ttaw°ḥīd) of ʾAl•llꞌah SWT. They are, therefore, considered to be People of the Unification (Arabic, أَهْل التَّوْحِيد [MP3], ⫯Ah°l ʾal•Ttaw°ḥīd) of ʾAl•llꞌah SWT and People of the Protection (Arabic, أَهْل الذِمَّة [MP3], ⫯Ah°l ʾal•Ḏimmaẗ) by ʾAl•llꞌah SWT. Others are evaluated, fairly and moderately, on their own merits.
  1. taq°yīm (Arabic, تَقْيِيم [MP3]), “evaluation
  2. hạʿărēḵāh (Hebrew, הַעֲרָכָה [MP3]), “evaluation
  3. ʿēvạʿlūṣiy (Yiddish, עֵווַעלוּצִיע [MP3]), “evaluation
  4. Auswertung (German [MP3]), “evaluation
  5. ʾar°z°ýābí (Persian, ارْزْیَابِی [MP3]), “evaluation
  6. arzyobī (Tajik, арзёбӣ [MP3]), “evaluation
  7. da ʾar°zūnih (Pashto, دَ ارْزُونِه [MP3]), “evaluation
  8. taš°ḱíṣ (Urdu, تَشخِیَص [MP3]), “evaluation
  9. mulāṅkaṇa (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਮੁਲਾਂਕਣ [MP3]), “evaluation
  10. mulān°ḱana (Shahmukhi Punjabi, مُلَانْکَنَ [MP3]), “evaluation
  11. ǧamaʿ°ban°dī (Sindhi, جَمَعْبَنْدِي [MP3]), “evaluation
  12. değerlendırme (Turkish [MP3]), “evaluation
  1. ʾiʿtidāl (Persian, Pashto, and originally Arabic, اِعْتِدَال [Arabic MP3] [Persian and Pashto MP3]), “moderation
  2. məṯiynūṯ (Hebrew, מְתִינוּת [MP3]), “moderation
  3. ʾipūq (Hebrew, אִפּוּק [MP3]), “moderation
  4. ʾẹməṣāʿiyūṯ (Hebrew, אֶמְצָעִיוּת [MP3]), “moderation
  5. miýānih•i rūý (Persian, مِیَانِهِ رُوی [MP3]), “moderation
  6. bameꞌyor (Tajik, бамеъёр [MP3]), “moderation
  7. ʾiǧ°tināba (Urdu, اجْتِنَابَ [MP3]), “moderation
  8. sajamatā (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸੰਜਮਤਾ [MP3]), “moderation
  9. sanjamatā (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَنْجَمَتَا [MP3]), “moderation
  10. san°ǧīd°gī (Sindhi, سَنْجِيدْگِي [MP3]), “moderation
  11. ılımlılık (Turkish [MP3]), “moderation
Bis°mi ʾAl•llꞌah or Bismillah (Arabic, بِسْمِ الله [MP3], “In the Name of ʾAl•llꞌah”): In the Name of ʾAl•llꞌah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful! (Arabic, ﷽! [MP3], bis°mi ʾAl•llꞌah ʾal•Rr°ḥ°man ʾal•Rraḥīmi!). Should one yearn to drink from the life–giving waters or, literally, wellspring of life (عَيْن الحَيَاة,ʿay°n ʾal•ḥayāẗ [MP3]), one may obtain a fictitious membership in Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ of The Multiversal Communist Collective. The open hand of ʾAl•llꞌah SWT remains outstretched to all sincere souls. None are ever refused. Bārak ʾAl•llꞌah fīka! (Arabic, بَارَك الله فِيكَ! [MP3]), “May ʾAl•llꞌah bless you!” ʾal•Ssalāmu ʿalay°kum wa•rraḥ°maẗ ʾAl•llꞌah wa•barakāt°h! (Arabic, السَّلامُ عَلَيْكُم وَرَّحْمَة الله وَبَرَكَاتْه! [MP3]), “Peace be upon you and ʾAl•llꞌah’s mercy and blessings!” ʾÂmīn! (Arabic, آمِين! [MP3]) or ʾĀmēn! (originally Hebrew, אָמֵן! [MP3]), “Amen! (truth or certainty).”
ʾal•Ḥam°du li•Llꞌahi! or Alhamdulillah! (Arabic, الْحَمْدُ للهِ! [MP3], “Praise be to ʾAl•llꞌah!”) and Sub°ḥān ʾAl•llꞌah! or Subhanallah! (Arabic, سُبْحَان الله! [MP3], “everyone and everything remains immersed in ʾAl•llꞌah!”) Only the spiritual aspirant (Arabic, طَمَّاح [MP3], ṭammāḥ; طُمُوح [MP3], ṭumūḥ; or طَامِح [MP3], ṭāmiḥ; Hebrew, שׁוֹאֵף [MP3], šōʾēp̄; Persian, آرْزُومَنْد [MP3], ʾâr°zūman°d; Urdu, آرْزُومَنْدَ [MP3], ʾâr°zūman°da; Shahmukhi Punjabi, بَینَتِیکَرَ [MP3], bēnatíḱara; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਬੇਨਤੀਕਰ [MP3], bēnatīkara; or Hindi, आकांक्षी [MP3], ākāṃkṣī) who is sincerely committed to each of the following reverential activities shall attain, both in spirit and form (Arabic, رُوح وَقَالِب [MP3], rūḥ wa•qālib), to the station (Arabic, المَحَطَّة [MP3], ʾal•maḥaṭṭaẗ), indeed the exalted station (Arabic, مَكَانَاً العَلِيَّاً [MP3], makānāṇ ʾal•ʿaliyyāṇ), of ʾal•murīd (Arabic, المُرِيد [MP3], “the aspirant”):
  1. Bay°ʿaẗ (originally Arabic, بَيْعَة [MP3]), baý°ʿat (Persian, بَیْعَت [MP3]), baý°ʿata (Urdu, بَیْعَتَ [MP3]), or baiata (Hindi, बैअत [MP3]) is a sale, transaction, deal, or bargain with mabīʿāt (Arabic, مَبِيعَات [MP3]) as the plural form. Similarly, the “seller” or “salesman” would be ʾal•bā⫯yiʿ (Arabic, البائِع‎ [MP3]) or ʾal•bāʿaẗ (Arabic, البَاعَة‎ [MP3]) when pluralized. The “saleswoman” is ʾal•bā⫯yiʿaẗ (Arabic, البائِعَة [MP3]) with a plural of ʾal•bā⫯yiʿāt (Arabic, البائِعَات [MP3]). Bayʿaẗ, by itself, is an ordinary Arabic word. It has worldly connotations of merchandizing products and services. In Taṣawwuf or Sufism, however, bay°ʿaẗ or baý°ʿat has been clevarly reimagined. As the beginning of a blissful journal, bayʿaẗ is the spiritual dawning place (Arabic, مَشْرِق [MP3], maš°riq) of a reunion with the Presence of ʾAl•llꞌah SWT.
    In Taṣawwuf, bay°ʿaẗ is a spiritual transaction. In the sense of chivalry, bay°ʿaẗ refers to a physical or metaphorical handshake or, to be more precise, a handclasp. One pledges one’s allegiance, or homage, to a guide or elder. Thus, joining a ṭarīqaẗ is frequently described as giving bay°ʿaẗ. One may, in a condition of prayerful communion and mediation, offer bay°ʿaẗ to Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS. After having completed this “ritual,” one is now a dervish, a mendicant or beggar, and a spiritually reborn Bāhuwiyy (Arabic, بَاهُوِيّ) [MP3], a disciple of Bāhū AS). The dual form is Bāhuway°ni (بَاهُوَيْنِ [MP3]), while the plural can be either Bāhuwiyyūna (بَاهُِيُّونَ [MP3]) or Bāhuwiyyīna (بَاهُِيِّينَ [MP3]).
  2. Focus, continually, upon visualizing or conceptualizing the performance of devotionally writing the blessed name of ʾAl•llꞌah (اللّه SWT), in Arabic, upon your own heart (Arabic, تَصَوَّرَ الاِسْم الذَات [MP3], taṣawwara ʾal•ʾis°m ʾal•ḏāt; or Perso–Arabic, تَصَوَّرِ اِسْمِ ذَات [MP3], taṣavvar•i ʾis°m•i ḏāt, “imagining the nameof ʾAl•llꞌah SWTengraveduponyour ownheart). This practice was developed by the blessed Apostle Bāhū AS. In some Ṣūfiyy paths or orders (Arabic, طُرُق الصُوفِيَّة [MP3], ṭuruq ʾal•Ṣūfiyyaẗ), the heart (Arabic القَلْب, ʾal•qal°b [MP3]) is a subtlety (Arabic, لُطْف [MP3], luṭ°f) and one of the six subtleties (Arabic اللَطَائِف السِتَّة [MP3], ʾal•laṭā⫯yif ʾal•sittaẗ). Remarkably, but perhaps explained by the South Asian Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy interfaith dialogue, the concept of ʾal•laṭā⫯yif ʾal•sittaẗ is strikingly similar to the concept of chakras (Sanskrit, चक्र [MP3], cakra, wheel; or चक्राणि, [MP3], cakrāṇi, wheels) in various other South Asian religious communities.
    ʾal•Qalb ʾal•Laṭāꞌif ʾal•Sittaẗ
  3. Practice ḏik°r (Arabic, ذِكْر [MP3]) or divine remembrance (a cognate of the Hebrew, zēḵẹr, זֵכֶר [MP3], “remembrance,” and zāḵạr, זָכַר [MP3], “remember”). In the daily ḏik°r (Arabic plural, أَذْكَار [MP3], ⫯aḏ°kār) of this ṭarīqaẗ, ḏik°r ʾal•qal°b (Arabic, ذِكْر لُطْف [MP3], “remembrance of the heart”), ʾal•murīd audibly repeats the phrase, Yā ʾAl•llꞌahu, wa•yā Muḥammad, wa•yā Bāhū! (Arabic, يَا اللّهُ، وَيَا مُحَمَّد، ويَا بَاهُو! [MP3]), for an extended period of time. (The literal English–language translation is O the God, and O Praised One, and O with He!) Stop yourself, however, before becoming exhausted. You may also inscribe the Arabic ḏik°r onto your correspondance and other writing. While reciting or chanting this ḏik°r, turn in the direction (Arabic, القِبْلَة [MP3], ʾal•qib°laẗ) of Garh Maharaja (Urdu or Shahmukhi Punjabi, گَڑْھَ مَہَارَاجَا [MP3], Gaṛ°ha Mahārāǧā; Hindi, गढ़ महाराजा [MP3], Gaṛha Mahārājā; or Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗੜ੍ਹ ਮਹਾਰਾਜਾ [MP3], Gaṛha Mahārājā, “Fort of the Great King”), 30°50′0″ north and 71°54′0″ east. The map directly below might be helpful in this regard.
    Click on the Image to Enlarge
    Ḏik°r, for those individuals unfamiliar with the practice, is similar in convention to repeating a mantra (Sanskrit, मन्त्र [MP3], “thought”) in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and my dearly beloved Sikhism. Here are some renderings of the names of those faiths:
    1. Hiṃdū Dharma (Sanskrit and Hindi, हिंदू धर्म [MP3]), “Hinduism or Indic Support
    2. Sanātana Dharma (Sanskrit and Hindi, सनातन धर्म [MP3]), “Hinduism or Eternal Support
    3. Hin°dūsiyyaẗ (Arabic, هِنْدُوسِيَّة [MP3]), “Hinduism
    4. Hinədūʾiyzəm (Hebrew, הִינְדּוּאִיזְם [MP3]), “Hinduism
    5. Hin°dū⫯yís°m (Persian, هِنْدُوئِیسْم [MP3]), “Hinduism
    6. Hin°dūmata (Urdu, ہِنْدُومَتَ [MP3]), “Hinduism
    7. Hidūvāda (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਹਿੰਦੂਵਾਦ [MP3]), “Hinduism
    8. Hin°dūvāda (Shahmukhi Punjabi, ہِنْدُووَادَ [MP3]), “Hinduism
    1. Buddha Dharma (Sanskrit and Hindi, बुद्ध धर्म [MP3]), “Buddhism or Awakened Support
    2. Buddha Dhamma (Palī, बुद्ध धम्म [MP3]), “Buddhism or Awakened Support
    3. Budha Dharama (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਬੁੱਧ ਧਰਮ [MP3]), “Buddhism or Awakened Support
    4. Bud°ha D°harama (Shahmukhi Punjabi, بُدْھَ دْھَرَمَ [MP3]), “Buddhism or Awakened Support
    5. Buḏiyyaẗ (Arabic, بُوذِيَّة [MP3]), “Buddhism
    6. Būḏəhiyzəm (Hebrew, בּוּדְהִיזְם [MP3]), “Buddhism
    7. Būdís°m (Persian, بُودِیسْم [MP3]), “Buddhism
    8. Bud°hāmata (Urdu, بُدْھَامَتَ [MP3]), “Buddhism
    9. Butparastī (Tajik, Бутпарастӣ [MP3]), “Buddhism
    1. Jaina Dharma (Sanskrit and Hindi, जैन धर्म [MP3]), “Jainism or Victorious Support
    2. Jaina Dharama (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਜੈਨ ਧਰਮ [MP3]), “Jainism or Victorious Support
    3. Ǧaý°na Dharama (Shahmukhi Punjabi, جَیْنَ دهَرَمَ [MP3]), “Jainism or Victorious Support
    4. Ǧay°niyyaẗ (Arabic, جَايْنِيَّة [MP3]), “Jainism
    5. Ḡ′ʾāyĕniyzĕm (Hebrew, ג׳אָיְנִיזְם [MP3]), “Jainism
    6. Ǧaý°nís°m (Persian, جَیْنِیسْم [MP3]), “Jainism
    7. Ǧaý°níz°m (Pashto, جَیْنِیزْم [MP3]), “Jainism
    8. Ǧaý°niz°ma (Urdu, جَیْنِزْمَ [MP3]), “Jainism
    9. Ǧay°nīz°m (Sindhi, جَیْنِيزْم [MP3]), “Jainism
    1. Sikha Dharama (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਿੱਖ ਧਰਮ [MP3]), “Sikhism or Disciple’s Support
    2. Sik°ha D°harama (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سِکْھَ دْھَرَمَ [MP3]), “Sikhism or Disciple’s Support
    3. Sikha Dharma (Hindi, सिख धर्म [MP3]), “Sikhism or Disciple’s Support
    4. Śikha Dharma (Bengali, শিখ ধর্ম [MP3]), “Sikhism or Disciple’s Support
    5. Sīẖiyyaẗ (Arabic, سِيخِيَّة [MP3]), “Sikhism
    6. Siyqiyzəm (Hebrew, סִיקִיזְם [MP3]), “Sikhism
    7. Síḱíz°m (Persian, سِیکِیزْم [MP3]), “Sikhism
    8. Siḱiz°m (Pashto, سِکْهِزْم [MP3]), “Sikhism
    9. Sikiyā (Sindhi, سِکِيَا [MP3]), “Sikhism
    10. Siḱ°hiz°ma (Urdu, سِکْھِزْمَ [MP3]), “Sikhism
    11. Sikəʾizəmə (Amharic, ሲክኢዝም [MP3]), “Sikhism
    Ēka Śaraṇa Dharma (in my own ISO transliteration from the Assamese, এক শৰণ ধৰ্ম [MP3], and in Dēvanāgarī Sanskrit script, एक शरण धर्म [MP3]) is a lesser–known indigenous and dharmic religion from India. Kêkôi Xôrnô Dhôrmô is another transliteration of the name of the religion, which I made using the Asamese Romanizing system of the Library of Congress and the American Library Association. The Assamese or Sanskrit Ēka or the Assamese Kêkôi (Assamese, এক শৰণ, or Dēvanāgarī Sanskrit script, एक) is single, solitary, sole, only one, one and only, only, alone, or, literally, the numerical entity of one (1). The Assamese or Sanskrit Śaraṇa or the Assamese Xôrnô (Assamese, শৰণ, or Dēvanāgarī Sanskrit script, शरण) is refuge, shelter, protection, asylum, or rest. The name of the religion translates as the “support of one refuge.” Sensibly, Kêkôi Xôrnô is the movement’s mantra. Ēka Śaraṇa Dharma or Kêkôi Xôrnô Dhôrmô is a beautiful part of the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement.
    The founder of Kêkôi Xôrnô Dhôrmô was Mahāpuruṣa Śrīmanta Śaṅkaradav (my ISO transliteration) or, alternately transliterated, Môhapurux Srimôntô Xônkôrdeu (Assamese, মহাপুৰুষ শ্ৰীমন্ত শঙ্কৰদেৱ [MP3]), 1449–1568 C.E. The equivalent name in Sanskrit is Mahāpuruṣa Śrīmanta Śaṅkaradev (Dēvanāgarī Sanskrit script, महापुरुष श्रीमन्त शङ्करःदेव [MP3]), great soul, affluent, divine bliss–maker. He is commonly known as Śaṅkaradav (Assamese, শঙ্কৰদেৱ) or, in Sanskrit, Śaṅkaradev (Dēvanāgarī Sanskrit script, शङ्करःदेव), literally, bliss–maker (Assamese, শঙ্কৰ, or Dēvanāgarī Sanskrit script, शङ्करः, Śaṅkaraḥ), divine (Assamese, দেৱ, Dav; or Dēvanāgarī Sanskrit script, देव, Dev).
    One of the more common Hindu mantras, dedicated to the God Shiva (Sanskrit, शिव [MP3], Śiva, “Auspicious One”), is Oṃ Namaḥ Śivāya (Sanskrit, ओं नमः शिवाय [MP3]). My interpretive English–language rendering is: “Oṃ! Obeisance to the Auspicious One of the Heavens.” Another Hindu mantra is the Gāyatrī maṃtra (Sanskrit,गायत्री मंत्र [MP3]). This mantra, named after the Goddesss Gāyatrī (Sanskrit, गायत्री [MP3], song or hymn), reads: Oṃ bhūrbhuvasva:; tatsaviturvareṇyam; bhargo devasya dhīmahi; dhiyo yo na: pracodayāt (Sanskrit, ओं भूर्भुवस्व: । तत्सवितुर्वरेण्यम् । भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि । धियो यो न: प्रचोदयात् [MP3]. My interpretive English–language rendering is: “Oṃ! The Embodiment of spiritual vitality is the Eradicator of all sufferings and the Realization of happiness! The Radiant One is as resplendent as the heavenly sun and is, truly, the Most Exalted! The divine Creator, Reproducer, and Dissolver annihilates all sins! Our inner visions are now wonderfully illuminated!
    A well–known Buddhist example is the Japanese Namu•Myōhō•Renge•Kyō (南無妙法蓮華經 [MP3]) also rendered as Namu Myou Hou Renge Kyo (なむ みょう ほう れんげ きょう or ナム ミョウ ホウ レンゲ [MP3]) or the arguably distorted Japanese Nammyoho Renge Kyo (なっみょほ れんげ きょ or ナッミョホ レンゲ キョ [MP3]). My English–language rendering of the mantra is: “Hail to the inexplicable (or mysterious) law of the Lotus Flower Sutra.” Sūtra (Sanskrit, सूत्र [MP3], sutta (Pāli, सुत्त [MP3]), cūtrā (Tamil, சூத்ரா [MP3]), sūtra (Telugu, సూత్ర [MP3]), sūtra (Malayalam, സൂത്ര [MP3]), sūtra (Kannada, ಸೂತ್ರ [MP3]), s̄ūtr (Thai, สูตร [MP3]), or sūt°ra (Urdu, سُوتْرَ [MP3]) is “thread.”
    A common Tibetan Buddhist mantra, from the original Sanskrit, is Auṃ Maṇipadme Hum (Sanskrit and Nepali, औं मणिपद्मे हुम् [MP3]), Oṃ Maṇipadme Hum (Hindi, ओं मणिपद्मे हुम् [MP3]), oM ma Ni pad+me hU~M (Tibetan, (ཨོཾ་མ་ཎི་པདྨེ་ཧཱུྃ [MP3]), Ommanibanmehum (Korean, 옴마니반메훔 [MP3]), Ǎn•ma•ne•bā•mī•hōng (Mandarin Chinese, 唵嘛呢叭咪吽, [MP3]), Uuံmanibadmehôn (Burmese/Myanmarbharsar, ဥုံမဏိပဒ္မေဟုံ [MP3]), Aum Maṇipadmē Hum̐ (Bengali, ঔম্ মণিপদ্মে হুঁ [MP3]), Ō Maṇipatm Ham (Tamil, ஓ மணிபத்ம் ஹம் [MP3]), Ō Maṇipadmē Ham (Telugu, ఓ మణిపద్మే హమ్ [MP3]), O Maṇippēṁ Haṁ (Malayalam, ഒ മണിപ്പേം ഹം [MP3]), Ō Maṇīpadēmē Hama (Gujarati, ઓ મણીપદેમે હમ [MP3]), Aoum Máni Pántme Choum (Modern Greek, Αουμ Μάνι Πάντμε Χουμ [MP3]), Úm Ma Ni Bát Ni Hồng (Vietnamese [MP3]), or ʾAw°ma Maní Pad°mē Huma (Urdu, اوْمَ مَنِی پَدْمَے ہُمَ [MP3]). A rough translation is: “Auṃ! Praise to the Jewel in the Lotus Flower!
    Oṃ or Auṃ, as chanted in this MP3 audio file, has no particular or known definition. However, the syllable has sometimes been regarded as the primordial sound of existence, as the original vibration which set the universe in motion, or, in comparison to conventional doctrines in numerous branches of Christianity, as an impassioned expression of the creative Word (Ancient Greek, Λόγος [MP3], Lógos) of God. Commonly referred to as the praṇava mantra (Sanskrit, प्रणव मन्त्र [MP3], “powerful mantra”), Oṃ or Auṃ remains a sacred sound in a variety of respectable South Asian spiritual and faith traditions. Oṃ (Sanskrit, ओं [MP3]) and the common Buddhist spelling Auṃ (Sanskrit, औं [MP3]) are symbolized by: Devanāgarī glyph (ॐ [MP3], Oṃ), Bengali glyph, (ওঁ [MP3], Ōm̐), Tamil glyph ( [MP3], ōm), or Tibetan glyph (ༀ [MP3], \u0f00).
    Quite similarly, the pronunciation of YHWH or YHVH (Hebrew, יהוה‎) is frequently approximated as Yahweh or Yahveh (Hebrew, יָהְוֶה [MP3], Yāhəwẹh). These letters, spelled in any fashion, are considered to be so profoundly sacred by some religious Jews that speaking them outloud, or writing them, is prohibited. YHWH, also known as the Tetragrámmaton (Ancient Greek, Τετραγράμματον [MP3], literally, “four letters”), may present us with a useful analogy to Oṃ or Auṃ. Based upon the reflections of the Franciscan Roman Catholic priest, Father Richard Rohr (born in 1943), YHWH literally cannot be voiced. The word, to him, is not a word. Instead, the Yahweh Prayer (MP3), as Rohr calls it, represents the sound of a full breath (yah … weh):
    I cannot emphasize enough the momentous importance of the Jewish revelation of the name of God. It puts the entire nature of our spirituality in correct context and, if it had been followed, could have freed us from much idolatry and arrogance. As we now spell and pronounce it, the word is Yahweh.… It [YHVH] was considered a literally unspeakable word for Jews, and any attempt to know what we were talking about was “in vain,” as the commandment said (Exodus 20:7). Instead, they used Elohim [Hebrew, אֱלֹהִים; MP3, ʾĔlōhiym, “Almighty”] or Adonai [Hebrew, אֲדֹנָי; MP3, ʾĂḏōnāy, “Lord”] in speaking or writing. From God’s side the divine identity was kept mysterious and unavailable to the mind; when Moses asked for the divinity’s name, he got only the phrase that translates something to this effect: “I AM WHO AM.… This is my name forever; this is my title for all generations” (Exodus 3:14–15).
    This unspeakability has long been recognized, but we now know it goes even deeper: formally the word was not spoken at all, but breathed! Many are convinced that its correct pronunciation is an attempt to replicate and imitate the very sound of inhalation and exhalation. The one thing we do every moment of our lives is therefore to speak the name of God. This makes it our first and our last word as we enter and leave the world.
    〜 Richard Rohr. The Naked Now: Learning to See as the Mystics See. New York: A Crossroad Book imprint of The Crossroad Publishing Company. 2009. Pages 25–26.
    My own rendering of a Jain mantra’s name is the genuflection mantra (Sanskrit, णमोकार मंत्र [MP3], ṇamokāra maṃtra): “Ṇamo arihaṃtāṇaṃ. Ṇamo siddhāṇaṃ. Ṇamo āyariyāṇaṃ. Ṇamo uvajjhāyāṇaṃ. Ṇamo loe savva sāhūṇaṃ. Esopaṃcaṇamokkāro, savvapāvappaṇāsaṇo. Maṃgalā ṇaṃ ca savvesiṃ. Paḍamama havaī maṃgalaṃ.” (Sanskrit, णमो अरिहंताणं ॥ णमो सिद्धाणं ॥ णमो आयरियाणं ॥ णमो उवज्झायाणं ॥ णमो लोए सव्व साहूणं ॥ एसोपंचणमोक्कारो । सव्वपावप्पणासणो ॥ मंगला णं च सव्वेसिं ॥ पडमम हवई मंगलं ॥ [MP3]) The following is an actual English–language translation of the text of the genuflection mantra: “I bow to the conquerers. I bow to the accomplished ones. I bow to the preceptors. I bow to the monks. I bow to all the sages of the world. This five–fold salutation completely destroys all sins. Of all auspicious mantras, [it] is indeed the most auspicious one.”
    Sikhism was, of course, discussed earlier in this obsequious monograph. Returning to the subject, among the more common Sikh mantras is the mool mantra (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਮੂਲ ਮੰਤਰ [MP3], mūla matara, “root mantra”): (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਇੱਕ ਓਅੰਕਾਰ ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥ [MP3 file contains two renditions of the mantra], Ika Ōꞌakāra Sati Nāmu karatā purakhu nirabhaꞌu niravairu akāla mūrati ajūnī saibha Gura prasādi.). My own interpretive rendering of the mantra is as follows: “One Oṃ–Maker! Through the True, the Ideal, Name of the Personal Creator, may fear and hatred be wiped away forevermore! The manifestation of the Preexistent One is eternally self–subsisting! The grace of Guru, the Enlightener, protects us!
    In the Bahá’í Faith, which was also previously mentioned in the monograph, among the regularly recited mantras is ʾAl•llꞌahu ⫯Ab°haỳ (Arabic, اللهُ أَبْهَى [MP3]). This beautiful form of the Greatest Name (Arabic, اِسْم الأَعْظَم [MP3], ʾIs°m ʾal•⫯Aʿ°ẓam) can be translated as either ʾAl•llꞌah SWT is the Most Glorious or ʾAl•llꞌah SWT is the All–Glorious. In the daily obligatory ḏik°r of the Bahá’í Faith, ʾAl•llꞌahu ⫯Ab°hāỳ is repeated ninety–five times. To do the counting, some Bahá’ís (Arabic, بَهَائِيِّينَ [MP3], Bahā⫯yiyyīna, or بَهَائِيُّونَ [MP3], Bahā⫯yiyyūna; Persian, بَهَائِیَان [MP3], Bahā⫯ýiýān; Urdu, بَہَائِیَتَ [MP3], Bahā⫯ýiýāta; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਬਹਾਇਆ [MP3], Bahāꞌiꞌā; Shahmukhi Punjabi, بَہَائِیَا [MP3], Bahā⫯ýiýā; or Hindi, बहाईयों [MP3], Bahāīyoṃ) use specially designed prayer beads, others juxtapose the fingers of both hands, and still others rely upon additional methods.
  4. Islamophobia (Arabic, خَوْف مِن إِسْلَام [MP3], ẖaw°f min ʾal•⫰Is°lām; Hebrew, אִסְלָאמוֹפוֹבְּיָה [MP3], ʾIsəlāʾmōp̄ōbəyāh; Persian, گَرَایِشِ اِسْلَامِ هَرَاسِی [MP3], garāýiš•i ʾIs°lām•i harāsí; Urdu, اِسْلَامُفُوبِیَا [MP3], ʾIs°lāmufūbiýā; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਇਸਲਾਮਫੋਬਿਆ [MP3], Isalāmaphōbiꞌā; or Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَلَامَفُوبِیَا [MP3], ʾIsalāmafūbiýā), which is rampant on the Right, is obviously forbidden for members of this Islamic ṭarīqaẗ. Unfortunately, I have also occasionally witnessed Islamophobia on the Left (or faux left). Certainly, Leftists, including our members, have no business imitating right–wing bigots and being Islamophobes. Personally speaking, as an sociologist with a specialization in religious studies, Sufism in particular, I have constantly found myself fighting Islamophobia. Muḥammad SAW, to be explicit, did not consummate the relationship with His child bride, Aisha (Arabic, عَائِشَة [MP3], ʿA⫯yišaẗ, “living one”) SAA until she had passed the time of puberty. Bear in mind, however, that the Prophet’s matrimonial practices were virtually universal in premodernity, as with the early U.S. settlers and as reported in the Old Testament. At a four–year college I once worked, in Southern Appalachia, one of the female members of the cleaning staff was married, she told me, at the age of twelve. Furthermore, slavery and marriage practices cannot be, legitimately, compared. Slavery, as a form of oppression, I, as a moral realist, would assert is bad under all circumstances. However, marriage practices, even today, vary widely across the world (even in my own country, the U.S.). As I often say, the past cannot be judged by the standards of the present. The social more, or significant norm, of marrying at older ages is quite recent. Over the long sweep of history, people, particularly females, got married at young ages. I am not arguing against current social mores regarding marriage, only pointing out that they are, in fact, new. Is marrying “girls” evil? In my view, that is the wrong question. A reasonable question might be, Is marrying “girls” is against the law? In some places the answer is “yes.” In others, the answer is “no.” Instead of the focus being on the Prophet Muḥammad SAW, it should instead be on how the practices of marrying at older ages in some, though not all, contemporary societies came to be adopted. The fundamental reasons for the ever–increasing delays in marriage are industrialization, which led to increased urbanization—as young people left farming communities to work in the factories—resulting in the rise of the nuclear, or conjugal, family. More recently, additional delays can be attributed to the rising numbers of women in the workplace. Woman can now be economically independent without surrendering their bodies to male oppression. I blame men for female prostitution, not women.
  5. As a member of a Marxist–Luxemburgist (MP3) communist ṭarīqaẗ, dedicate yourself, in a lifestyle of divine servitude (Arabic, عُبُودِيَّة [MP3], ʿubūdiyyaẗ), to fighting capitalism and all forms of oppression in the capitalist world–system. Practice a pure, sincere, high–minded, and classless etiquette of t°ʿāraf (Persian, تْعَارَف [MP3], “deference or civility”), liḥāẓa (Urdu, لِحَاظَ [MP3], “deference or consideration”), tāwān (Pashto, تَاوَان [MP3], “deference or loss”), farogirī (Tajik, фарогирӣ [MP3], “deference or respect”), kāḇōḏ (Hebrew, כָּבוֹד [MP3], “deference or honor”), ⫰iḏ°ʿānuṇ (Arabic, إِذْعَانٌ [MP3], “deference or compliance”), sūfīr (Sindhi, سُوفِير [MP3], “deference”), rak°hinī (Sindhi, رَكْهِنِي [MP3], “keeping deference”), sanamāna (Gurumakhi Punjabi, ਸਨਮਾਨ [MP3], “deference or respect”), or sanamāna (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَنَمَانَ [MP3], “deference or respect”). Most tʿāraf, unfortunately, is not classless. It is arrogant and pretentious. I have noticed that the Iranians who practice tʿāraf the most are those with the greatest wealth. In such cases, tʿāraf often becomes a way of showing off one’s privilege to others, including having the fanciest home one can manage to afford, under the guise of being generous and accommodating. If someone asks me if I would like tea or coffee, and I decline, it is not kind and humble to repeatedly insist. Rather, tʿāraf is frequently a form of authoritarianism. “I know what thou desireth better than thee.” Honestly, many, though not all, of the Iranians who migrated to the U.S., following the revolution of 1979, were the wealthiest in that society. The poor Iranians, whom most Westerners will never meet, largely remained behind.
    Strive to emulate the great Marxist heroine Rosa Luxemburg ([German/Deutsch; MP3], Róża Luksemburg [Polish/Polski; MP3], Róży Luksemburg [Polish; [MP3], Rōzạh bạṯ ʾĔliyyāhū [Hebrew, רוֹזַה בַּת אֱלִיָּהוּ; MP3], Rʾọsʾạ bạṯ ʾĔliyyāhū [Yiddish/Yiyḏiyš, ראָסאַ בַת אֱלִיָּהוּ; MP3], Rūzaẗ ʾib°naẗ ⫰Iy°liyā [Arabic, رُوزَة اِبْنَة إِيْلِيَا; MP3], or Rūzah duẖ°tar•i ʾIl°ýās [Persian, رُوزَه دُخْتَرِ اِلْیَاس; MP3], Roza duẖtar•i Ilyos [Tajik, Роза духтари Илёс; MP3], ʾIý°laýāh ḱí Bēṭí ḱā Rūzā [Urdu/ʾUr°dū, اِیْلَیَا کِی بَیٹِی کَا رُوزَا; MP3], Ēlīyāha dī dhī Rōzā [Guramukhi Punjabi, ਏਲੀਯਾਹ ਦੀ ਧੀ ਰੋਜ਼ਾ; MP3], ʾAý°líýāha, i.e., ʾĒ°líýāha, dí d°hí Rūzā [Shahmukhi Punjabi, اَیْلِییَاہَ دِی دْھِی رُوزَہ; MP3], or Red Rosa 🌹 [German, rote Rosa [MP3]; or Polish, rudy Rosa [MP3]). Rosa, the daughter of Eliasz (Polish; MP3) and Liny (Polish; MP3), was born, in Poland, on March 5ᵗʰ, 1871.
    At only 48–years old, Rosa became a secular martyr, after being assassinated by rifle, in Berlin, Germany, on January 15ᵗʰ, 1919. That very same year, my Jewish father was born—eight months nine days later—on September 24ᵗʰ, 1919, in Brooklyn, New York. In Rosa’s magnificent spirit, work heartily, and with revolutionary fervor, for democratic libertarian communism. Defend the masses, especially the victims of neofascism, in the Autonomist Antifa Movement (MP3). Bāhū AS Himself, while living centuries before the inception of Marxism, was personally committed to ending sectarian divisions in Islam. Upon rejecting disunity or dualism for unity or nonduality, the dialectical contradictions in His life were absented. He was emancipated through copresence or solidarity. I am writing these words in January of the bittersweet year of 2019. It is the 100ᵗʰ anniversary, the centennial, of the assassination of Rosa Luxemburg. 2019 would also have been my late father’s 100ᵗʰ birthday.
    Conservative religious theology and practice, frequently viewed through the patronizing lens of moral exclusivity by religionists on the right, may receive the majority of the public’s attention. By the same token, historically, many of the greatest saints, heroes, and heroines—those who are presently championed by some of these same conservative religionists—were themselves anything but conservatives. They broke with traditional social norms and, at the same time, openly challenged dominant religious authorities. A similar social narrative holds true today. Unfortunately, “radical” has become little more than an over–used smear word. The term’s frequently twisted usage has made it almost useless. Whatever the language, one should be proudly, and globally, a extremist:
    1. Semitic: mutaṭarrif (Arabic, مُتَطَرِّف [MP3]), qiyṣōniy (Hebrew, קִיצוֹנִי [MP3]), sꞌənəfäña (Amharic, ጽንፈኛ [MP3]), sawpanaʾ (Syriac/Sūryayaʾ, ܣܵܘܦܵܢܵܐ [MP3]), and estremisti (Maltese/Malti [MP3]).
    2. Indo–Iranian: ʾin°tihā pasan°da (Urdu, اِنْتِہَا پَسَنْدَ [MP3]), ʾin°tihāpasan°d (Sindhi, اِنْتِهَاپَسَنْد [MP3]), ʾif°rātí (Persian and Pashto, اِفْرَاطَی [MP3]), ifrotgaro (Tajik, ифротгаро [MP3]), kaṭaṛavādī (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕੱਟੜਵਾਦੀ [MP3]), ḱaṭaṛavādí (Shahmukhi Punjabi, کَٹَڑَوَادِی [MP3]), ativādin (Sanskrit/Saṃskrtam, अतिवादिन् [MP3]), ativādī (Hindi, अतिवादी [MP3]), antavādīn (Sinhalese, අන්තවාදීන් [MP3]), ugravādī (Nepali/Nēpālī, उग्रवादी [MP3]), and caramapanthī (Bengali, চরমপন্থী [MP3]).
    3. Dravidian: oru tīvravādi (Malayalam, ഒരു തീവ്രവാദി [MP3]), ugragāmi (Kannada, ಉಗ್ರಗಾಮಿ [MP3]), ativāda (Telugu, అతివాద [MP3]), and tīviravāti (Tamil, தீவிரவாதி [MP3]).
    4. Sino–Tibetan: jíduān•ēnzi (Mandarin Chinese, 极端分子 [MP3]), gik6•dyun1•zyu12•zi2 (Cantonese Chinese, 极端分子 [MP3]), and hcyan•ayrark•warde (Burmese, အစြန္းေရာက္ဝါဒီ [MP3]).
    5. Kra–Dai: h̄ạw•runræng (Thai, หัวรุนแรง [MP3]) and hua•hunæhng (Lao/Pʰasalav, ຫົວຮຸນແຮງ [MP3]).
    6. Austroasiatic: chroulniyom (Khmer, ជ្រុលនិយម [MP3]) and một kẻ cực đoan (Vietnamese [MP3]).
    7. Italic: ultra (Latin, ultrā [MP3])) or ne plus ultra (Latin, nē plūs ultrā [MP3]), extrémiste (French [MP3]), extremista (Spanish [MP3]), extremista (Portugese/Portuguê [MP3]), extremista (Italian/Italiano [MP3]), and extremist (Romanian/Limba Română [MP3]).
    8. Germanic: Extremist (German [MP3]), extremistische (Dutch/Nederlands [MP3]), ekstremist (Danish/Dansk [MP3]), ekstremistisk (Norwegian [MP3]), extremist (Swedish/Svenska [MP3]), öfgafullur (Icelandic/Íslenska [MP3]), víðgongdur (Faroese/Føroyskt Mál [MP3]), ekstremist (Frisian/Frysk [MP3]), and ekstremistiese (Afrikaans [MP3]).
    9. East Slavic: ékstremistskij (Russian, экстремистский [MP3]), ekstremíst (Ukrainian, екстреміст [MP3]), and ékstrémíst (Belarusian/Belaruskaâ Mova, экстрэміст [MP3]).
    10. West Slavic: extrémista (Slovak/Slovenčina [MP3]), ekstremista (Polish [MP3]), and extrémisty (Czech/Čeština [MP3]).
    11. South Slavic: ekstremista (Bosnian–Serbo–Croatian/Bosanski–Srpski–Hrvatski, ekstremista or екстремиста [MP3]), ekstremistki (Bulgarian/Bǎlgarski, екстремистки [MP3]), skrajnežev (Slovenian/Slovenščina [MP3]) or ekstremistično (Slovenian [MP3]), and ekstremistički (Macedonian/Makedonski, екстремистички [MP3]).
    12. Finnic–Uralic: äärimmäisyysmies (Finnish/Suomi [MP3]) and äärmuslik (Estonian/Eesti keel [MP3]).
    13. Austronesian: seorang ekstremis (Indonesian/bahasa Indonesia [MP3]), lan ekstremis (Javanese/basa Jawa [MP3]), ka poʿe extremist (Hawaiian/ʿŌlelo Hawaiʿi [MP3]), kaiwhakatuma (Māori/Te Reo Māori [MP3]), extremist (Sundanese/Basa Sunda [MP3]), and ekstremista (Filipino/Wikang Filipino [MP3]).
    14. Turkic: aşırılıkçı (Turkish [MP3]), ékstremisttik (Kyrgyz/Kyrgyzča, экстремисттик [MP3]), ekstremistik (Uzbek/Oʻzbek tili [MP3]), ékstremistík (Kazakh/Qazaq Tílí, экстремистік [MP3]), and ifratçı (Azerbaijani [MP3]).
    15. Bantu: wachikulire (Chichewa/Cinyanja/Cinianja [MP3]) and chinopisa (Shona [MP3]).
    16. linguistic isolates: cayraheġakan (Armenian, the lone survivor of the Thraco–Phrygian Indo–European sub–family, ծայրահեղական [MP3]), extremistḗs (Modern Greek, εξτρεμιστής [MP3]), muturreko (Basque/Euskara [MP3]), kŭktan chuŭija (Korean, 극단 주의자 [MP3]), and ekstremist (Albanian/Gjuha Shqipe [MP3]).
    17. constructed languages (conlangs): ekstremisto (Esperanto [MP3]), lölimik (Volapük [MP3]), estremiste (Lingua Franca Nova/Elefen/LFN [MP3]), estremiste (Elefen [MP3]), extremista (Interlingua [MP3]), ekstremist (Interslavic/Medžuslovjansky/Меджусловјанскы [MP3]), extremiste (Sambahsa/Sambahsa–Mundialect [MP3]), extremista (Lingwa de Planeta/Lidepla/LdP [MP3] my own coined term based upon standard LdP rules), ekstremist (Slovio [MP3]), extremist (Unish [MP3]), uvilupuno (Kah [MP3]), and extremarum partium fautor (Neo–Latin [MP3]) or extremarum partium sectator (Neo–Latin [MP3]).
    18. miscellaneous: kageki•ha (Japanese, 過激派 [MP3]), kageki ha (Japanese, かげき は [MP3]), kageki ha (Japanese, カゲキ ハ [MP3]), msimamo mkali (Swahili/Kiswahili [MP3]), xag–jirnimo (Somali/Af–Soomaali [MP3]), extremistas (Yucatec Maya/Màaya tꞌàan [MP3]), and ekstʼremistʼuli (Georgian/Kartuli En, ექსტრემისტული [MP3]).
    Morality, as emancipatory praxis, is spiritually transformative agency. In a theology of liberation, the Apostles became revolutionaries and Leftist extremists. They were not reactionaries. However, some social conservatives have have duped the U.S. public. Presumably to win elections, they equate morality with traditionalism, while the opposite is true. Was Jesus (Hebrew, יֵשׁוּעַ [MP3], Yēšūʿạ; or Arabic, يَسُوعَ [MP3], Yasūʿa) AS in challenging polytheism, a conservative? Muḥammad’s SAW Own followers were clearly not pacifists in the face of injustice. They engaged, instead, in a revolutionary defense, or jihad (Arabic, جِهَاد [MP3], ǧihād, “striving or struggle”), for their community. When Moses (Hebrew, מֹשֶׁה [MP3], Mōšẹh; Arabic, مُوسَى [MP3], Mūsaỳ) AS and His disciples were persecuted in the land of Egypt, they placed their trust in ʾAl•llꞌah SWT and became the emigrants (Arabic, الحُجَاج [MP3], ʾal•ḥuǧāǧ) of the wildernesss. Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS, for His part, challenged, and then rejected, both major branches of Islam.
    Furthermore, the New Testament taught communism:
    All the believers were one in heart and mind. No one claimed that any of their possessions was their own, but they shared everything they had. With great power the apostles continued to testify to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus. And God’s grace was so powerfully at work in them all that there were no needy persons among them. For from time to time those who owned land or houses sold them, brought the money from the sales and put it at the apostles’ feet, and it was distributed to anyone who had need.
    Acts 4:32-35. New International Version.
  6. The official religion of the Collective is Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū’s AS Taṣawwuf ʾal•Qād°riyyaẗ ʾal•Sār°wāriyyaẗ (Perso–Arabic, تَصَوُّف القَادْرِيَّة السَارْوَارِيَّة [MP3]), Taṣavvuf•i Qād°riýah•i Sār°vāriýah (Persian, تَصَوُّفِ قَادْرِیَهِ سَارْوَارِیَه [MP3]), Sārawāriýýata Qād°riýýata Taṣawwufa (Urdu, سَارَوَارِیَّتَ قَادْرِرِیَّتَ تَصَوُّفَ [MP3]), Saravarī–Kādarī Sūfīvāda (Hindi, सरवरी–कादरी सूफ़ीवाद [MP3]; or Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਰਵਰੀ–ਕਾਦਰੀ ਸੂਫ਼ੀਵਾਦ [MP3]), or Saravarí–Kādarí Sūfívāda (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَرَوَرِی ـ قَادَرِی سُوفِیوَادَ [MP3]), “Sufism of the Competence of Mastery”. We live in a libertarian communist collective. Therefore, membership in the religion, a a branch of Taṣawwuf ʾal•Qād°riyyaẗ ʾal•Sār°wāriyyaẗ, will always be voluntary. Since, however, this form of Taṣawwuf guides the philosophy and activity of our ṭarīqaẗ, each of the honored members is expected to earnestly follow the guidance of Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ. It is represented by the democratically elected píra ū mur°šida. More broadly, the most common forms of religious expression within The Multiversal Communist Collective can be found in the diverse traditions and schools of Ṣūfiyy Islam (Arabic, إِسْلَام الصُوفِيَّة [MP3], ⫰Is°lām ʾal•Ṣūfiyyaẗ) and Ismaili Islam (Arabic, إِسْلَام الإِسْمَاعِيلِيَّة [MP3], ⫰Is°lām ʾal•⫰Is°māʿīliyyaẗ). Citizens of the Collective, like the stars in the heavens (Arabic, النُجُوم فِي السَمَاوَات [MP3], ʾal•nuǧūm fī ʾal•samāwāt), are associated with a considerable number of them. Our sisters and brothers (Arabic, أَخَوات وَإِخْوَة [MP3], ⫯aẖawāt wa•⫰iẖ°waẗ) may, in peace (فِي سَّلَام, fī ssalām [MP3]), join as many of these spiritual organizations and movements as they choose.

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٧. Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy Studies and More
This fanciful Collective and its mythical ṭarīqaẗ lovingly commemorate the glorious Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement (Arabic, حَرَكَة البْهَاكْتِيَّة ـ الصُوفِيَّة [MP3], ḥarakaẗ ʾal•B°hāk°tiyyaẗ–ʾal•Ṣūfiyyaẗ), circa 800–1700 C.E. Furthermore, my personal prototype, or ideal type, for devotion is that same Bhakti or Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement. The adorational center, or flowering, of the Golden Age of Islam might be found in this heart–focused movement. It arose chiefly from within the subaltern (MP3), or marginalized, peasant populations of diverse faiths in South Asia (Urdu, جَنُوبِی ایْشِیَا MP3], Ǧanūbí ʾAý°šiýā), including the Indus Valley (Urdu, وَادْیِ سنْدْھَ [MP3], Wād°ý•i Sin°d°ha). It was a wonderful spiritual movement. Sadly, it can never be fully recouped in the wake of the horrendous, reprehensible, and all–pervasive interfaith violence from South Asia’s anticolonial warfare during the mid–20ᵗʰ century.
Here are some renderings of Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy studies:
  1. ddirāsāt ʾal•B°hāk°tiyyaẗ–ʾal•Ṣūfiyyaẗ (Arabic, دِّرَاسَات البْهَاكْتِيَّة ـ الصُوفِيَّة [MP3])
  2. mẹḥəqāriy hạ•Bəhāqəṭiy–hạ•Sūp̄iy (Hebrew, מֶחְקָרִי הַבְּהָקְטִי־הַסוּפִי [MP3])
  3. Bəhʾạqəṭiy–Sūp̄iy bʾạvēʿgūnəg (Yiddish, בְהאַקְטִי־סוּפִֿי באַווֵעגּוּנְגּ [MP3])
  4. Bhakti–Sufi Bewegung (German [MP3])
  5. yä•Bəhakətəyə–Sufəyə tꞌənatoyə (Amharic, የብሃክትይ–ሱፍይ ጥናቶይ [MP3])
  6. muṭāliʿāt•i Baẖ°tí va Ṣūfí (Persian, مُطَالِعَاتِ بَختِی وَ صُوفِی [MP3])
  7. mutoliʿot•i Baẖtī va Sufī (Tajik, мутолиъоти Бахтӣ ва Суфӣ [MP3])
  8. B°haḱ°tí–Ṣūfí muṭāliʿāta (Urdu, بْھَکْتِی ـ صُوفِی مُطَالِعَاتَ [MP3])
  9. da Baḱ°tí ʾaw Ṣūfí muṭāliʿāt (Pashto, دَ بَکْټِی او صُوفِی مُطَالِعَات [MP3])
  10. paṛhāꞌī Bhakti–Sūfī (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਢ਼ਾਈ ਭਕ੍ਤਿ-ਸੂਫ਼ੀ [MP3])
  11. paṛ°hā⫯ýí B°haḱ°tí–Ṣūfí (Shahmukhi Punjabi, پَڈْھَائِی بھَکْتِی ـ صُوفِی [MP3])
  12. B°hak̀°tī–Ṣūfī taḥ°rīk̀ (Sindhi, بْھَڪْتِي ـ صُوفِي تَحْرِيڪ [MP3])
  13. Bhakti–Sūphī paṛhāī (Hindi, भक्ति–सूफी पढ़ाई [MP3])
  14. Bhakti–Suphi āndōlana (Bengali, ভক্তি–সুফি আন্দোলন [MP3])
To put it another way, Sufism developed principally in South Asia. The extended association between devotional Hindus (Sanskrit, हिंदुओं [MP3], Hiṃduoṃ, “rivers” or “oceans”) and Muslims (Arabic, مُسْلِمُونَ [MP3], Mus°limūna, “peacefully surrendering ones”) was largely responsible for this wonderfully transcendent phenomenon. Although aspects of the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement have been carried forward in some contemporary spiritual organizations, the final and unfortunate breakup of India into two, and then three, countries in the 20ᵗʰ century signaled the end of the movement’s prominence as a compelling social force in South Asia. Yet, the regional and Western influence of the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement’s has endured, albeit with a considerably diminished influence, until the present time. I have produced two relevant podcasts (MP3) for The Dr. Mark Foster Show.
Listen to this delightful Hindu (Sanskrit, हिंदू [MP3], Hiṃdū, “river” or “ocean”) bhakti song (MP3). The ecstasy of devotion to God, rather than the tragedy of an empty legalism, empowered this enlightened era of interfaith unity. Given the syncretism, or blending of spiritual traditions, in the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement, terms from Urdu, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Hindi, and so forth are used in certain sections of the monograph. The parent order of Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ, the Ṭaríqat•i Qād°riýah•i Sār°vāriýah, made an important contribution to the vibrancy and long life of that movement. Here is some background information on to the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement’s history of pure light, including the role played by Muḥammad’s SAW beloved Lesser Prophet, the Luminous Moon of the Punjab Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS:
The Bhakti–Sufi movement was … [a] major pan–Indian articulation … of subaltern dissent.
The spokesmen/women of the movement mostly came from the subaltern or marginalised sections of society and were workers, women or Muslims …. Sultan Bahu … and other Sufi poets were Muslims by birth.
〜 K. Satchidanandan, “Between Saints and Secularists.” Belonging. Volume II. Issue 3. Undated. No pagination.
An important landmark in the cultural history of medieval India [Hindi, इंडिया; MP3, Iṃḍiyā, “river” or “ocean”] was the silent revolution in society brought about by a galaxy of socio-religious reformers, a revolution known as the Bhakti Movement. This movement was responsible for many rites and rituals associated with the worship of God by Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs [Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਿੱਖਾਂ; MP3, Sikhāṁ] of [the] Indian subcontinent. For example, Kirtan [Sanskrit, कीर्तन; MP3, kīrtana, “telling”] at a Hindu Temple, Qawaali [Urdu, قَوُّالِی; MP3, qawwālí, “utterance”] at a Dargah [Persian, دَرْگَه; MP3, dar°gah, “threshold” or, by implication, shrine] (by Muslims), and singing of Gurbani [Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗੁਰਬਾਣੀ; MP3, gurabāṇī, “wise speech”] at a Gurdwara [Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ; MP3, guraduꞌārā, “door to the guru”], are all derived from the Bhakti movement of medieval India (800–1700) ….
Sufism represents the inward or esoteric side of Islam or the mystical dimension of Muslim religion. However, the Sufi saints transcending all religious and communal distinctions, worked for promoting the interest of humanity at large. The Sufis [Arabic, صُوفِيُّونَ; MP3, Ṣūfiyyūna] were a class of philosophers remarkable for their religious catholicity …. It [Sufism] rebelled against all forms of religious formalism, orthodoxy, falsehood and hypocrisy and endeavoured to create a new world order in which spiritual bliss was the only and the ultimate goal ….
… Sultan Bahu (ca 1628–1691) was a Muslim Sufi and saint who founded the Sarwari Qadiri Sufi order. Sultan Bahu was born in Anga, Soon Valley, in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Like many other Sufi saints of South Asia Sultan Bahu was a prolific writer. More than forty books on Sufism are attributed to him, mostly in Persian.
〜 Arun Joshi, “Bhakti Movement in India and Punjab.” The Times of India. Undated. No pagination.
India saw a remarkable fusion of Islamic [Arabic, إِسْلَامِيَّة; MP3, ⫰Is°lāmiyyaẗ] and indigenous Hindu traditions, giving rise to a rich composite culture.… One of the best representatives of this confluence of traditions is the Bhakti-Sufi movement, a form of personal piety that challenged the hegemony of the religious orthodoxy and crusaded against caste and community divisions and meaningless ritualism.
A wealth of literature abounds with the teachings and writings of these Hindu and Sufi mystics ….
〜 Laxmi G. Tewari, “Common Grounds between Bhajan and Qawwali.‧ Conference on Music in the World of Islam. Assilah. August 8ᵗʰ–13ᵗʰ, 2007. Assilah, Morocco. Page 1–3. Retrieved on August 17ᵗʰ, 2013.
There have been further expressions of the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement, and its subsequent offshoots, to which I was drawn at various points of my life. For instance, at 12 years old (1968), I nearly joined Sikhism, a progeny of that movement, founded by the magnificent saint, Guru Nanak Dev (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ ਦੇਵ [MP3], Gurū Nānaka Dēva; Shahmukhi Punjabi, گُرُو نَانَک دَیوَ [MP3], Gurū Nānaḱa Dēva; or Hindi, गुरु नानक देव [MP3], Guru Nānaka Deva) AS 1469–1539. Sikhism’s strong monotheism coupled with its doctrine of reincarnation were particularly attractive to me. However, through snail mail correspondence, that same year, with the Sikh Temple in Stockton, California, I was, sadly at the time, convincingly dissuaded by the five Ks (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪੰਜ ਕਕਾਰ [MP3], paja kakāra), which has been illustrated in the image below, for baptised Sikhs.
Reluctantly, I acknowledged that Sikhism, however much I loved it, was rooted in an earlier time and a far different locale. The religion’s mode of dress and hair style was never intended for the student locker room of a 1960s American gymnasium. Attiring myself with such unconventional accoutrements, displayed in the two pictures below left, made no more sense than wearing the medieval European apparel of a traditional Hasidic Jew (Hebrew, יְהוּדִי הַחָסִיד [MP3], Yəhūḏiy hạ•Ḥāsiyḏ), as portrayed below right. Being thus adorned, with the trappings of one faith or the other, would have placed a target on my back. I cannot imagine the reception by my seventh–grade classmates, especially from the school’s many bullies. Wearing such garments would simply have multipled, to unimaginable levels, the discrimination I was already receiving as an Autistic boy.
Sikh man Sikh man Hasidic men
Despite my experience at 12, the interest I had developed in Sikhism has, surprisingly, continued through the years. My heartfelt affection for that religion has remained with me to this day. More recently, in 2018, I established an association with the neo–Sikh Sant Nirankari Mission (Hindi, संत निरंकारी मिशन, Saṃta Niraṃkārī Miśana [MP3]; or Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸੰਤ ਨਿਰੰਕਾਰੀ ਮਿਸ਼ਨ, Sata Nirakārī Miśana [MP3], “Mission of the Truth–Teller of the Formless One”) on April 6ᵗʰ, 2018. It is currently under the direction of Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev Ji (Hindi, सतगुरु माता सविंदर हरदेव जी [MP3], Sataguru Mātā Saviṃdara Haradeva Jī; or Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਮਾਤਾ ਸਾਵਿਤਰੀ ਹਰਦੇਵ ਜੀ [MP3], Satigurū Mātā Sāvitarī Haradēva Jī), born in 1957.
The organization was started, in 1980, by Baba Buta Singh (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਬਾਬਾ ਬੂਟਾ ਸਿੰਘ [MP3], Bābā Būṭā Sigha; or Hindi, बाबा बंटा सिंह [MP3], Bābā Baṃṭā Siṃha), 1954–2016 (perished in an automobile accident):
Baba Buta Singh
Baba Buta Singh
Mata Savinder Hardev Ji
Mata Savinder Hardev Ji
The simran (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਿਮਰਨ [MP3], simarana; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਿਮਰਨਾ [MP3], simaranā; Hindi, सिमरण [MP3], simaraṇa; Hindi, सिमरन [MP3], simarana; or Urdu and Shahmukhi Punjabi, سِمَرَنَ, simarana [MP3], “remembrance”), an originally Guramukhi Punjabi word (from the Sanskrit, स्मरण [MP3], smaraṇa, “remembrance”), of Sant Nirankari Mission is Eka tū hī niraṃkāra, maiṃ terī śaraṇa, menū bakṣa lo (Hindi, एक तू ही निरंकार, मैं तेरी शरण, मेनू बक्ष लो [MP3] or chanted [MP3], “O Thou Formless One, I surrender to Thee. Please forgive me.”).
Decades earlier, unaware of any historical nexus with Sikhism, I was, in approximately 1970, attracted to the religion of Eckankar (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਇੱਕ ਓਅੰਕਾਰ [MP3], Ika Ōꞌakāra; Shahmukhi Punjabi, اِکَ اوَنْکَارَ [MP3], ʾIḱa ʾAwanḱāra; Hindi, एक ओंकार [MP3], Eka Oṃkāra; Urdu, اَیْکَ اَوْنْکَار [MP3], ʾAy°ḱa ʾAwn°ḱāra; Bengali, এক ওয়ানঙ্কার [MP3], Ēka Ōẏānaṅkāra; Telugu, ఒక ఒయాంకర్ [MP3], Oka Oyāṅkar; Tamil, ஒரு ஒயிங்கர் [MP3], Oru Oyiṅkar; Sinhalese, එක ඔයන්කාර් එකක් [MP3], Eka Oyankār Ekak; Malayalam, ഒരു ഓങ്കങ്കർ [MP3], Oru Ōṅkaṅkara, “One Oṃ–Makeror One God, symbolized as ੴ)―an Americanized branch of a heterodox (Arabic, , غَيْر الأُرْثُوذُكْسِيِّينَ [MP3], ġay°r ʾal•⫯ur°ṯūḏuk°siyyīna) and extrasensory (Arabic, خَارِجَ الحَوَاسّ [MP3], ẖāriǧa ʾal•ḥawass) outgrowth from Sikhism and, thence, the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement in the main.
Eckankar was founded, in 1965, by John “Paul” Twitchell (1909–1971). Regrettably, Twitchell brazenly lied when denying any prior involvement with his parent tradition, Radha Soami Satsang (Hindi, राधा स्वामी सत्संग [MP3], Rādhā Svāmī Satsaṃga, “true associationbythe possessor of prosperity”), and its clairvoyant and clairaudient meditation, Surat Shabd Yoga (Hindi, सूरत शब्द योग [MP3], Sūrata Śabda Yōga, “union through attention to the word”). He became an adept of Kirpal Singh (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕਿਰਪਾਲ ਸਿੰਘ [MP3], Kirapāla Sigha), 1894–1974, and his Ruhani Satsang (Hindi, रूहानी सत्संग [MP3], Rūhānī Satsaṃga, “spiritual true association”) in 1955. The latter was an illicit schism, given that the intended successor was named in a will, of Radha Soami Satsang Beas (Hindi, राधा स्वामी सत्संग ब्यास [MP3], Rādhā Svāmī Satsaṃga Byāsa), itself a schism.
Eventually, a photograph featuring Twitchell alongside Singh torpedoed the scam. A considerable number of Eckists, as they are called, dejectedly abandoned the organization. Heartbroken, many felt, legitimately it seems to me, as though Twitchell had duped, even swindled, them. In my own case, I recall that only a minor postal miscommunication between me, at around thirteen-years old, and the movement’s Las Vegas headquarters (subsequently in Menlo Park, California, and presently in Chanhassen, Minnesota) prevented me from obtaining membership in the organization. Their returned letter could have dampened my enthusiasm, but I had already lost interest. Even so, my attraction to Surat Shabd Yoga resumed in earnest, and even stronger than before, several years later.
In the photograph below, Kirpal Singh is in the middle, and Paul Twitchell is on the far right:
Kirpal Singh with Paul Twitchell
Click on the Picture for the Black–and–White Image
I was, therefore, ultimately initiated, following my ethnographic or participant–observational interests as a sociologist, into three other factions of the contemplative Surat Shabd Yoga. However, I stopped practicing the meditation after I developed something like tinnitus (Arabic طَنِينُ الأُذُن [MP3], ṭanīnu ʾal•⫯uḏun), which could have some relation to my Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (Arabic اِضْطِرَاب الوَسْوَاس القَهْرِيّ [MP3], ʾiḍ°ṭirāb ʾal•was°wās ʾal•qah°riyy)—a secondary comorbidity to my Autism Spectrum Disorder (Arabic اِضْطِرَاب الطَيْف التَوَحُّد [MP3], ʾiḍ°ṭirāb ʾal•ṭay°f ʾal•tawaḥḥud)—that might, and bear in mind that I am just speculating here, be results of the mantric aspect of the practice. In any event, I associated with the following groups, at various times, over a considerable number of years:
  1. Sree Sree Thakur Anukulchandra Satsang (Bengali শ্রী শ্রী ঠাকুর অনুকূলচন্দ্র সৎসঙ্গ [MP3], Śrīśrīṭhākura Anukūlacandra Saṯsaṅga) is a peculiarly Indocentric Radhasoami tradition. Anukulchandra (1888–1969) supported the Indian caste system. I was initiated by one of his disciples, Ray Archer Hauserman, in his Glen Cove, Long Island, New York, home.
  2. Sant Mat (Hindi, संत मत [MP3], Saṃta Mata, “truth–teller’s teaching”) was founded by Thakur Singh (Hindi, ठाकुर सिंह [MP3], Ṭhākura Siṃha), 1929–2005, one of Kirpal Singh’s several successors. Thakur Singh, under whose authority I was initiated (in New York, New York), was, in turn, replaced by Baljit Singh (Hindi, बलजीत सिंह [MP3], Balajīta Siṃha), born in 1962.
  3. Spiritual Freedom Satsang (with their Facebook page), founded by Sri Michael Turner (born in 1958), is a small organization which belongs to the Radhasoami Satsang Beas tradition. Specifically, Turner, who personally initiated me over the phone, hails from the offshoot of Eckankar, ATOM: Ancient Teachings of the Masters. That group, now essentially a publishing house, was founded by the late Darwin Gross (1928–2008), a former master in Eckankar who was controversially, and for reasons which are at best unclear, forced out of the organization.
Due to the primarily inward transmissions of successorship, the neo–Sikh Surat Shabd Yoga movement has repeatedly divided. Self–delusion, in personal mysticism, is all too easy. It is extraordinary difficult, perhaps virtually impossible, to clearly distinguish between inspiration and guidance from ʾAl•llꞌah SWT, His Prophets, Guardian Angels, and departed souls, on the one hand, and wishful thinking and a thoroughgoing imagination, on the other. Surat Shabd Yoga began, however, with Agrah (Hindi, आग्रह [MP3], Āgraha), India’s Shri Shiv Dayal Singh Sahab (Hindi, श्री शिव दयाल सिंह साहब [MP3], Śrī Śiva Dayāla Siṃha Sāhaba), 1818–1878. He was, by religion, a Sikh and, by occupation, a banker. Among his many devotees, he is referred to using the reverential title of Soamiji Maharaj (Hindi, स्वामी जी महाराज [MP3], Svāmī Jī Mahārāja, “respectful and sovereign master”).
The mantras recited by devotees vary, sometimes considerably, between the multiple traditions of Radha Soami Satsang. Nevertheless, in Radha Soami Satsang Beas and in many of its branches or sects, the Surat Shabd Yoga tradition with which I am most familiar, five names (Sanskrit, पङ्च नमः [MP3], paṅca namaḥ; Persian, پَنْج نَامَ [MP3], pan°ǧ nāma; Urdu, پَانْچَ نَامُوں [MP3], pan°ča nāmūṉ; Sindhi, پَنْج نَالَا [MP3], pan°ǧ nālā; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪੰਜ ਨਾਮ [MP3], paja nāma; Shahmukhi Punjabi, پَنْجَ نَامَ [MP3], pan°ǧa nāma; or Bengali, পাঁচ নাম্বার [MP3], pām̐ca nāmbāra) have been the conventionally employed mantras. Nevertheless, Eckankar is one well–known exception. In that organization, adherents are instructed to chant Hu (MP3), a word which may be related to Huwa (Arabic, هُوَ [MP3], “He”), frequently a reference to ʾAl•llꞌah SWT.
Surat Shabd Yoga consists of two distinct spiritual methodologies. First, the ears are plugged, and the sound current, supposedly intensifying in frequency as one progresses, is listened to from the right side. Second, the eyes are entirely shut, while reciting the prescribed regimen of mantras, which will permit the meditator to allegedly witness visions of progressively higher celestial planes and the beings residing within them (including, ultimately, one’s spiritual master). Before providing the paṅca namaḥ, here are three preliminary points:
  1. Out of a respect for current meditators, and a sincere desire not to unduly offend them, I shall note that, in some groups of the Radhasoami Satsang Beas tradition, the five names are provided confidentially. An explicit request is made through the initiator, speaking on behalf of the master, not to divulge them to others. However, that practice of surreptitiousness began with Kirpal Singh. It has continued with some of his successors, not all. The insistence on secrecy has never been a universal requirement in the Radhasoami Satsang Beas movement. Similarly, Singh’s claim that every living master changes the name of the organization is simply untrue. His assertion, for one thing, contradicts the movement’s recorded history. As far as I know, Singh was the first individual leader, throughout the course of the Beas tradition, to coin an entirely new name. Since his master, in his will, appointed someone else as the group’s successor. Singh, presumably, had to make up stories.
  2. In the Quan Yin Method (Mandarin Chinese, 观音法 [MP3], Guān•Yīn•Fǎ, “Way of Witnessing Sound”) of Ching Hai (Mandarin Chinese, 驚駭 [MP3], Jīng•Hài, “astonished one”), born in 1950, the paṅca namaḥ have been modified, or perhaps unintentionally distorted, as: Gomtrazan, Gwaarla, Rarunka, Sohuan, Satnum. Ching Hai was, like myself, an initiate of Thakur Singh. Yet, to my knowledge, Ching Hai, as with Twitchell before her, has never publicly acknowledged her autobiographical connection with the Radhasoami Satsang Beas tradition.
  3. The precise Sanskrit and Punjabi (both Guramukhi and Shahmukhi) spellings of the paṅca namaḥ provided here, and the translations of those words, are based upon my own original research. Therefore, and please take my word for it, there will inevitably be errors in these renderings.
With those qualifications now out of the way, the following simran constitutes the most widely taught five–part mantra as presented verbally by the initiator and then silently or inwardly repeated by disciples within the Radha Soami Satsang Beas tradition:
  1. Jyōta Nirañjana (Sanskrit, ज्योत निरंजन [MP3]), Jyoti Niraṃjana, (Sanskrit, ज्योति निरंजन [MP3]), Jōti Nirajana (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਜੋਤਿ ਨਿਰੰਜਨ, [MP3]), or Ǧūtí Niran°ǧana (Shahmukhi Punjabi, جُوتِي نِرَنْجَنَ [MP3], “Jyot Niranjan or Flawless Light.”
  2. Oṃkāra (Sanskrit, ओंकार [MP3]), Ōṅkāra (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਓਂਕਾਰ [MP3]), ʾAw°n°ḱār (Shahmukhi Punjabi, اوْنْکَارَ [MP3]), Ōꞌakāra (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਓਅੰਕਾਰ [MP3]), or ʾAwan°ḱār (Shahmukhi Punjabi, اوَانْکَار [MP3]), “Omkar or Oṃ–Maker.”
  3. Raraṃkāra (Sanskrit, ररंकार [MP3]), Rarakāra (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਰਰੰਕਾਰ [MP3]), or Raran°ḱāra (Shahmukhi Punjabi, رَرَنْکَارَ [MP3]), “Rarankar or Reciting the Name of the Dark One,” i.e., Rāma (Sanskrit, राम [MP3]), Rāma (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਰਾਮ [MP3]), or Rāma (Shahmukhi Punjabi, رَامَ [MP3]).
  4. Sohaṃga (Sanskrit, सोहंग [MP3]), Sōhaga (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸੋਹੰਗ [MP3]), or Sūhan°ga (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سُوہَنْگَ [MP3]), “Sohang, I am He, or I am That.”
  5. Satanāma (Sanskrit, सतनाम [MP3]), Satanāma (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਤਨਾਮ [MP3]), Satanāma (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَتَنَامَ [MP3]), Satināma (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਤਿਨਾਮ [MP3]), or Satināma (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَتِنَامَ [MP3]), “Satnam, True Name, or Ideal Name.”
He [a yogī] preached yoga [Sanskrit, योग, MP3, yoga, “union or yoking”] practice but with a few words of praises to God namely: Jot Niranjan, Onkar, Rarankar, Sohang, Satnam. He believed that that the utterance of these words in the initial stage of smadhi [Sanskrit, समाधि, MP3, samādhi, “contemplation”] will help the yogi [Hindi, योगी, MP3, yogī, “practitioner of union”] to attain higher concentration and there after the yogi has to follow his mind where ever it treads. He met a Sikh, Shiv Dyal of Agra and converted him to yogimat [Hindi, योगी मत, MP3, yogī mata, “doctrine of practitioner of union”]. Swami Shiv Dyal preached this concept on a large and organised scale.
〜 Anonymous, “Dialogue with Yogis: The Sidh Goshat of Guru Nanak.” Punjab Monitor. April, 2015. Retrieved on March 5ᵗʰ, 2018.
By contrast, initiates of certain other Surat Shabd Yoga traditions simply recite “Radhasoami” (Hindi, राधास्वामी [MP3], Rādhāsvāmī, “possessor of prosperity”). In Shabd Pratap Ashram (Hindi, शब्द प्रताप आश्रम [MP3], Śabda Pratāpa Āśrama, “Word of Power Monastery”), yet another Surat Shabd Yoga tradition, devotees are instructed to practice this three–part Dhunyatmak Naam (Hindi, धनात्मक नाम [MP3], Dhanātmaka Nāma; or Urdu, دَنَاتْمَكَ نَامَ [MP3], Danātmaḱa Nāma, “Positive Name”):
  1. Dharā (Sanskrit, धरा [MP3], “Support” or, commonly, “Waterfall”).
  2. Sindhu (Sanskrit, सिन्धु [MP3], “Ocean,” “Stream,” “Flood,” “Waters,” “Sea,” or “Indus River”).
  3. Pratāpa (Sanskrit, प्रताप [MP3], “Heat,” “Warmth,” “Splendor,” “Glory,” “Majesty,” “Power,” “Strength,” or “Energy”).
Furthermore, inspired by my personally transformative experiences with Bāhū AS, I have been engaged in further participant–observational research or ethnographic studies, without becoming a member, of no less than twelve Ṣūfiyy, Ṣūfiyy–influenced, or Muslim–inspired organizations within Islamdom (Arabic, عَالَم الإِسْلَامِيّ [MP3], ʿālam ʾal• ⫰Is°lāmiyy, “the Islamic world”), including:
  1. American Sufi Institute (discussed in a previous section).
  2. Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship (Tamil with my version of “fellowship” added, பாவா முஹையுத்தீன் தோழமை [MP3], Pāvā Muhaiyuttīṉ Tōḻamai).
  3. Naqshbandi Order of Sheikh Taoshobuddha (my Urduization, نَقْشْبَنْدِی طَرِیقَتَِ شَیْخَ تَاوْشُوبُْدّْھَا [MP3], Naq°š°ban°dí Ṭaríqata•i Šaý°ẖa Tāw°šūbudd°hā). I developed an association on June 11ᵗʰ, 2011.
  4. Naqshbandiyya Nazimiyya Sufi Order of America (my Urduization, نَقْشْبَنْدِیَّہ نَاظمِیَّہ صُوفِی طَرِیقَتَِ امْرِیکَہ [MP3], Naq°šban°diýýah Nāẓimiýýah Ṣūfí Ṭaríqata•i ʾAm°ríḱā). I developed an association on December 14ᵗʰ, 2009, and, again, on April 22ʳᵈ, 2010 (through two different websites belonging to the same order).
  5. Sahaj Marg (Sanskrit, सहज मार्ग [MP3], Sahaja Mārga, “Natural Path”) is a Hinduized Naq°š°ban°dī Ṣūfiyy order. I had a meditative session with one of the organization’s preceptor’s shortly after the turn of the 21ˢᵗ century. The founder was Ram Chandra (Sanskrit, रामचन्द् [MP3], Rāmacand, “dark moon”) also known as Lālajī Mahārāja (Sanskrit, लालजी महाराज [MP3], “honored playful one”), 1873–1931. He was allegedly the first non-Muslim šayẖ of the Naq°š°ban°dī Ṣūfiyy order. He was given bay°ʿaẗ by a Muslim. Lālajī’s legacy has been claimed by both Hindus and Muslims. See also Shri Ram Chandra Mission.
  6. The Golden Sufi Center. It is a Naq°š°ban°dí–Muǧaddadí (Urdu, نَقْشْبَنْدِی ـ مُجَدَّدِی, [MP3]) Ṣūfiyy order which is traced back to a nephew of Lālajī Mahārāja, Rādhā Mohana Lāla (Sanskrit, राधा मोहन लाल [MP3]), to Ahmad Ali Khan (Urdu, احْمَدَ عَلِی خَانَ [MP3], ʾAḥ°māda ʿAlī H̱āna), to Fazl Ahmad Khan (Urdu, فَضْلَ احْمَدَ عَلِی خَانَ [MP3], Faḍ°la ʾAḥ°māda H̱āna), 1857–1907, to Irina Tweedie (1907–1999), to, presently, Llewellyn Vaughan–Lee (born in 1953). In Arabic, Muǧaddad, as previously cited, is “renewer.” I was accepted directly by Llewellyn Vaughan–Lee, through an emailed response to a phone call, on June 27ᵗʰ, 2011.
    Dear Mark
    Thank you for your e-mail and enquiry. You ask about having a teacher. You are very welcome to travel with us on this path. When you have come come and visit here in Inverness.
    With best wishes
    Llewellyn
    Ps. Thank you for your excellent Sufi web site.
  7. Naqshbandi Mujaddadi Sardari Tariqah (Urdu, نَقْشْبَنْدِی مُجَدَّدِی سَرْدَارِی طَرِیقَتَ [MP3], Naq°š°ban°dí Muǧaddadí Sar°dārí Ṭaríqata). Sar°dārí (Urdu, سَرْدَارِی [MP3]) is “chiefship.” I developed an association on April 23ʳᵈ, 2010.
  8. Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam (Urdu, احمَدِیَّہَ انْجُمَنَ اِشَاعَتَِ اِسْلَامَ لَاہُورَ [MP3], ʾAḥ°madiýýaha ʾAn°ǧumana ʾIšāʿata•i ʾIs°lāma Lāhūra). I developed an association on January 23ʳᵈ, 2010.
  9. The Rose Sufi Crescent.
  10. United Submitters International of Rashad Khalifa (Arabic, رَشَاد خَلِيفَة [MP3], Rašād H̱alīfaẗ), 1935–1990 (assassinated). I developed an association in March, 2010. The organization’s other websites include: Proclaiming One United Religion for All People, Masjid Tucson (international headquarters), Submission.org, and God’s Mosque.
  11. I developed an association with the Spiritual Order of Faqr of Sultan-ul-Ashiqeen (Urdu, طَرِیقَتَِ سُلْطَانَ العَاشِقِین كَے فَقْرَ [MP3], Ṭaríqata•i Sul°ṭāna ʾal•ʿĀšiqín kē Faq°ra) on February 19ᵗʰ, 2018. I sent my initial email on February 9ᵗʰ, 2018. It is dedicated to, and focused upon, Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS. See the websites: Online Oath of Allegiance and Online Bayat With Sultan ul Ashiqeen Instructions.
  12. I joined with Roohaani (Urdu, رُوحَانِی [MP3], Rūḥāní, “spiritual”), founded by Jahan Qadri (Urdu, جَهَانَ قَادْرِی [MP3], Ǧahāna Qad°rí), on August 14ᵗʰ, 2010. The order, which is in the tradition of Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS, may have folded or, at least, discontinued its former website.
Significantly, four of the organizations mentioned above—Naqshbandi Order of Sheikh Taoshobuddha, Naqshbandiyya Nazimiyya Sufi Order of America, Naqshbandi Mujaddadi Sardari Tariqah, and The Golden Sufi Center—are associated with Naq°š°ban°diyyaẗ (Arabic, نَقْشْبَنْدِيَّة [MP3]), Naq°š°ban°dí (Persian, نَقْشْبَنْدِی [MP3]), Naq°š°ban°diýýah (Urdu, نَقْشْبَنْدِیَّہ [MP3]), or Nàkèshénbāndí (Mandarin Chinese, 納克什班迪 [MP3]). The first portion of the word, naq°š (Persian, نَقْش [