Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ of The Multiversal Communist Collective ::: mcc.MarkFoster.red

Hammer, Sickle, and Star Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ in Arabic calligraphy Fist
Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ of
The Multiversal Communist Collective
Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ•Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl
Píra ū Mur°šida Bullet Píra ū Mur°šida Bullet Pír–o–Murshid
The Muliversal Communist Collective
١. Brief Prologue to the Monograph
Social fiction tackles significant social and personal issues using various entertainment media. From a sociological standpoint, the value of social fiction should not be underestimated. The subjects addressed, sometimes hidden in metaphor, can frequently be serious and consequential. Among these fictional genres is online gaming. Like visual and performance art, such gaming frequently brings to the fore topics only rarely considered in everyday lifeworlds (German/Deutsch, Lebenswelten [MP3]). In studying the instrumentality or agency of forming and governing fictional nations, my methodology blends ethnography—also called participant observation—with my twin modes of phenomenological analysis (PA): Heartfulness Inquiry™ and The Echoing Practice™. Linking ethnography with PA is a common strategy, but my approach to that process is relatively unique.
This monograph, or specialized study, includes many lists of translated terms. One of the major objectives of the translations, and the monograph itself, is to suggest a unity in diversity (Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ, وَحِدَة فِي التَنَوُّع [MP3], waḥidaẗ fī ʾal•tanawwuʿ; Hebrew/ʿIḇəriyṯ, אַחְדוּת בְּגִּוּוּן [MP3], ʾạḥəḏūṯ bə•givūn; Persian/Fār°sí, وَحِدَت دَر کَثْرَت [MP3], vaḥidat dar ḱaṯ°rat; Tajik/Toçikī, ваҳдат дар касрат [MP3], vahdat dar kasrat; Pashto/Paṣ̌°tū/Pax̌°tū, تَنَوُّع کَې یَوْوَالِی [MP3], tanawwuʿ ḱaý ýaw°wālí; Urdu/ʾUr°dū, تَنَوُّع مَیں اِتِّحَاد [MP3], tanawwuʿ maýṉ ʾittiḥād; or Sindhi, تَنَوُّع ۾ اِتِّحَاد [MP3], tanawwuʿ mein ʾittiḥād) of languages. If, however, that subject does not interest you, just pass the lists by. And now, using the traditional Arabic numbering system, these are multilingual renderings of some of the major terms which were mentioned in the previous paragraph:
  1. ⫰iṯ°nūġ°rāfiyyaẗ (Arabic, إِثْنُوغْرَافِيَّة [MP3]), “ethnography
  2. ⫯an°ṯ°rūbūlūǧiyyaẗ ʾal•waṣafiyyaẗ (Arabic, أَنْثْرُوبُولُوجِيَّة الوَصْفِيَّة [MP3]), “ethnography (descriptive anthropology)
  3. ʾẹṯə′nōḡərạp̄iyāh (Hebrew, אֶתְ׳נוֹגְרַפִיָה [MP3]), “ethnography
  4. qāw°m•i nigārí (Persian, قَوْمِ نِگَارِی [MP3]), “ethnography
  5. etnografija (Tajik, этнография [MP3]), “ethnography
  6. ḱul°tūrí ṯabat (Pashto, کُلْتُورِی ثَبَت [MP3]), “ethnography
  7. nažāda nāmah (Urdu/ʾUr°dū, نِژَادَ نَامَہ [MP3]), “ethnography
  8. prākritika (Guramukhi Punjabi/Guramukhī Pajābī, ਪ੍ਰਾਕ੍ਰਿਤਿਕ [MP3]), “ethnography
  9. p°rāḱ°ritiḱa (Shahmukhi Punjabi/Šāha Muḱ°hí Pun°ǧābí, پْرَاکْرِتِکَ [MP3]), “ethnography
  10. qaw°mī g°rāf (Sindhi/Sin°dʱī, قَوْمِي گْرَاف [MP3]), “ethnography
  11. nrvaṃśavijñāna (Hindi/Hiṃdī, नृवंशविज्ञान [MP3]), “ethnography
  12. nr̥kulabidyā (Bengali/Bāṅāli/Bānlā, নৃকুলবিদ্যা [MP3]), “ethnography
  1. taḥ°līl min ʾal•ʿil°mu ʾal•ẓẓawāhiru (Arabic, تَحْلِيل مِن العِلْمُ الظَّوَاهِرُ [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  2. nitūḥạ hạ•p̄ēnōmẹnōlōḡ′y (Hebrew, נִתּוּחַ הַפֶנוֹמֶנוֹלוֹג׳י [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  3. taḥ°líl•i padídiha•i šināsā (Persian, تَحْلِیلِ پَدِیدِهَِ شِنَاسِی [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  4. tahlil•i padidaiho•i donistani (Tajik, таҳлили падидаиҳои донистани [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  5. da taǧ°rubih taḥ°líl (Pashto, دَ تَجْرُبِه تَحْلِیل [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  6. ruǧ°ḥāna taǧ°ziýah (Urdu, رُجْحَانَ تَجْزِیَہ [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  7. ghaṭanā dē viśalēśaṇa (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਘਟਨਾ ਦੇ ਵਿਸ਼ਲੇਸ਼ਣ [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  8. g°haṭanā dē višalēšana (Shahmukhi Punjabi, گْھَٹَنَا دَے وِشَلَیشَنَ [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  9. tuǧarribū ǧū ʾim°tiḥān (Sindhi, تُجَرِّبُو جُو اِمْتِحَان [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  10. ghaṭanā–kriyā viśleṣaṇa (Hindi, घटना–क्रिया विश्लेषण [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  11. abhijñatā biślēṣaṇa (Bengali, অভিজ্ঞতা বিশ্লেষণ [MP3]), “phenomenological analysis
  1. Taḥ°qīq min ʾal•Qal°b (Arabic, تَحْقِيق مِن القَلْب [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  2. Ḥăqiyrā šẹl hạ•Lēḇ (Hebrew, חֲקִירָה שֶׁל הַלֵב [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  3. Pur°s va Ǧū•i ʾAz•i Qal°b (Persian, پُرْس وَ جُوِ ازِ قَلْب [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  4. Dilro me•Pursand (Tajik, Дилро меПурсанд [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  5. Da Z°ṛih Pūx̌°tinah (Pashto, دَ زْړِه پُوښْتْنَه [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  6. Dila ḱí ʾIn°ḱ°wā⫯ýirí (Urdu, دِلَ کِی اِنْکْوَائِرِی [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  7. Dila dī Jān̄ca (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਦਿਲ ਦੀ ਜਾਂਚ [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  8. Dila dí Ǧān°ča (Shahumukh Punjabi, دِلَ دِی جَانْچَ [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  9. Dil ǧī Čak̀as (Sindhi, دِل جِي چَڪَاس [MP3]), “Heartfulness Inquiry
  1. Tam°rīn ʾal•Ṣadaỳ (Arabic, تَمْرِين الصَدَى [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  2. Nāhạḡ šẹl hạ•Hēḏ (Hebrew, נָהַג שֶׁל הַהֵד [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  3. Tam°rín•i Piž°vāḱ (Persian, تَمْرِینِ پِژْوَاک [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  4. Tam°rín•i Ṭanín•i ʾAn°dāz (Persian, تَمْرِینِ طَنِینِ انْدَاز [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  5. Taꞌriba•i Takrorī (Tajik, Таьрибаи Такрорӣ [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  6. ʾAn°ǵāzē Faʿāl (Pashto, انْګَازَې فَعَال [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  7. ʿAḱāsí ḱí P°riýaḱ°ṭisa (Urdu, عَکَاسِی کِی پْرِیَکْٹِسَ [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  8. Īkō dā Abhiꞌāsa (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਈਕੋ ਦਾ ਅਭਿਆਸ [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  9. ʾIý°ḱū dā ʾAb°hiýasa (Shahumukh Punjabi, اِیْکُو دَا ابْھِیَاسَ [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  10. Gun°ǧ ǧū Riwaǧ (Sindhi, گُونْج جُو رِوَاج [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  11. Gūṃjane kā Abhyāsa (Hindi, गूंजने का अभ्यास [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
  12. Anuraṇana Anuśīlana (Bengali, অনুরণন অনুশীলন [MP3]), “The Echoing Practice
This monograph is an odd historical novel. The society decribed in the novel and the status or position of the writer are fictitous, but the thoughts expressed in the text, and the personal experiences, are mostly genuine. Whether the perspectives have any value is for you to decide. I would never claim to be an authority on any subject. Honestly, I immediately distrust anyone—other than the Prophets of ʾAllꞌah (Arabic, اللّه [MP3], “the God”) sub°ḥān°h wa•taʿātaỳ (Arabic, سُبْحَانْه وَتَعَالَى [MP3], “glorified and exalted be He” or “SWT”) and Their successors—who makes personal claims. The novel itself is an attempt at concrete utopianism―conceived by German Marxist philosopher Ernst Bloch (MP3), 1885–1977, and later developed by British Marxist philosopher and true libertarian communist Roy Bhaskar (MP3; Hindi, राम रॉय भास्कर [MP3], Rāma Rôya Bhāskara), 1944–2014.
  1. riwāyaẗ ʾal•t⫯ārīẖiyyaẗ (Arabic, رِوَايَة التَأرِيخِيَّة [MP3]), “historical novel
  2. rōmān hạ•hiysəṭōriy (Hebrew, רוֹמָן הַהִיסְטוֹרִי [MP3]), “historical novel
  3. hiysəṭʾāriyš rʾọmʾạn (Yiddish/Yiyḏiyš, הִיסְטאָרִישׁ ראָמאַן [MP3]), “historical novel
  4. rumān•i tāríẖí (Persian, رُمَانِ تَارِیخِی [MP3]), “historical novel
  5. rūjxat•i taꞌrixī (Tajik, рӯйхати таърихӣ [MP3]), “historical novel
  6. tāríẖí nāval (Pashto, تَارِیخَي نَاوَل [MP3]), “historical novel
  7. tāríẖí nāvala (Urdu, تَارِیخَي نَاوَل [MP3]), “historical novel
  8. itihāsaka nāvala (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਇਤਿਹਾਸਕ ਨਾਵਲ [MP3]), “historical novel
  9. ʾitihāsaḱa nāvala (Shahmukhi Punjabi, اِتِہَاسَکَ نَاوَلَ [MP3]), “historical novel
  10. tārīẖī rumān (Sindhi, تَارِيخِي رُمَان [MP3]), “historical novel
  11. roman historique (French/Français [MP3]), “historical novel
  12. historia romano (Esperanto [MP3]), “historical novel
  13. aitihāsika upanyāsa (Hindi, ऐतिहासिक उपन्यास [MP3]), “historical novel
  14. aitihāsika upanꞌyāsa (Bengali, ঐতিহাসিক উপন্যাস [MP3]), “historical novel
  1. ṭūbāwiyyaẗ ʾal•mal°mūsaẗ (Arabic, طُوبَاوِيَّة المَلْمُوسَة [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  2. ʾūṭōpiyizəm hạ•qōnəqərẹṭiy (Hebrew, אוּטוֹפִּיִזְם הַקוֹנְקְרֶטִי [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  3. ẖaýāl•i ʾutūpiýāý•i bituní (Persian, خَیَالِ اُتُوپِیَایِ بِتُنِی [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  4. çahoni•i behtarin (Tajik, ҷаҳонии беҳтарин [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  5. ḱān°ḱ°ríṭ ǧazírah (Pashto, کَانْکْرِیټ جَزِیرَه [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  6. dun°ýāwí miṯālí dun°ýā (Urdu, دُنْیَاوِی مِثَالِی دُنْیَا [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  7. kakarīṭa yūṭōpiꞌānīzama (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕੰਕਰੀਟ ਯੂਟੋਪਿਆਨੀਜ਼ਮ [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  8. ḱan°ḱaríṭa yūṭūpiýānízama (Shahmukhi Punjabi کَنْکَرِیٹَ یُوٹُوپِیَانِیزمَ [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
  9. k̀an°k̀°riʈ k̀āmil pasan°dī (Sindhi, ڪَنْڪْرِٽ ڪَامِل پَسَنْدِي [MP3]), “concrete utopianism
I use my own transliteration system, throughout this monograph, for Arabic and Persian. A few additional modified Arabic scripts have been partially supported. Transliteration differs, both in objective and method, from Romanization. The first is designed to allow the reader to convert between the script used in the transliteration and the original text. Some systems perform better than others in this regard. The second, suitably illustrated in the approach referred to as Bahá’í Orthography, is intended for readability. To put it more simply, Romanization sacrifices a certain degree of accuracy for the sake of readability. Transliteration, in like manner, sacrifices some readability for accuracy. A writer might, depending upon her or his objectives or anticipated audience of readers, select one or the other. They are two functional, but quite different, language tools.
My transliteration scheme began as the Arabic transliteration system of the International Organization for Standardization (the ISO). It is, on its own, an excellent system and is widely used in academic publications, but I very quickly recognized its limitations. Alongside the ISO, some others, including the method developed by the Library of Congress and the American Library Association, are preferred by various book publishers and journal editors. However, there is not a single standard for Arabic transliteration into the Latin alphabet. No particular technique is universal.
By making significant modifications to the ISO, while keeping most of its basic structure, I have emulated the gold standard for the Devanāgarī (Sanskrit, देवनागरी [MP3]) script―the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST). A scholar, adopting my strategy, can errorlessly convert between the Roman and the Arabic or Persian text. This system, which has benefited me and my work (or hobby), will, I hope, also be of help to others. To me, representing a language, fairly and accurately, is a sign of personal respect for the cultures in which that language is used.
In distinguishing Arabic from Persian pronunciation, the only difference I have made, in transliteration, is between the identically spelled Arabic “w” (وَاو [MP3], wāw) and Persian “v” (وَاو [MP3], vāv). Yet, even here, there are exceptions. The Persian cognate for “new” is transliterated as nāw (Persian, وَاو [MP3]), not nāv or, as in Tajik, nav (нав [MP3]). There is a variety of other substantial distinctions when pronouncing the same original letters. However, ISO has placed dots or macrons (lines) under each of those letters’ Latinized transliteration. That leaves the pronunciation unclear. Changing the transliteration, therefore, becomes unnecesssary. In addition, pronunciations vary widely within the Arabic–speaking world alone. The goal, in this case and all others, is to keep the system of transliteration as simple as possible while, at the same time, always completely precise.
The perspectives which are diagrammed, directly below, in the libertarian communist pentad intertwine Islamic studies (Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ, دِّرَاسات الإسْلاميَّة [MP3], Ddirāsāt ʾal•⫰Is°lāmiyyaẗ) with a preternatural praxis (spiritually engaged practice) through an ongoing conversation with these five critical and Marxist frameworks: Marxism–Luxemburgism (MP3), Autonomist Antifa (MP3; Arabic, مُضَادّ الفَاشِيَّة مِن الاِسْتِقْلَال [MP3], muḍād ʾal•fāšiyyaẗ min ʾal•ʾis°tiq°lāl); the originally neo–Trotskyist theory of “socialism from below” (Arabic, اِشْتِرَاكِيَّة مِن الأَسْفَل [MP3], ʾištirākiyyaẗ min ʾal•⫯as°fal) from third–camp Trotskyist Hal Draper and others; Roy Bhaskar’s critical realism (Arabic, وَاقِعِيَّة النَقْدِيَّة [MP3], wāqiʿiyyaẗ ʾal•naq°diyyaẗ); and, moreover, intersectional theory (Arabic, نَظَرِيَّة التَقَاطُعَات [MP3], naẓariyyaẗ ʾal•taqāṭuʿāt) from Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw, Patricia Hill Collins, and others.
Tetrad
  1. H̱umāsiyyaẗ ʾal•Šuyūʿiyyaẗ ʾal•Lībir°tāriyyaẗ (Arabic, خُمَاسِيَّة الشُيُوعِيَّة اللِيبِرْتَارِيَّة [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  2. Məḥūmāš hạ•Qōmūniysəṭiyṭ hạ•Ḥērūṯ (Hebrew, מְחוּמָשׁ הַקוֹמוּנִיסְטִי הַחֵרוּת [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  3. Pan°ǧ Ḍilʿí•i Ḱumūnís°t•i Líbir°tāriýan (Persian, پَنْج ضِلعِیِ کُمُونِیسْتِ لِیبِرتَارِیَن [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  4. Panç Tarafho•i Kommunistī•i Ozodī (Tajik, Панҷ Тарафҳои Коммунистӣи Озодӣ [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  5. ʾÂzādí Ḱumūnís°ṭ Pay°n°ṭūǵun (Pashto, آزَادِی کُمُونِیسْټ پَیْنْټُوګُن [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  6. ʾÂzādí Pasan°da Ḱam°ýūnis°ṭa Paý°n°tāg°rāma (Urdu, آزَادِی پَسَنْدَ کُمْیُونِسْٹَ پَیْنْٹَاگْرَامَ [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  7. Āzādī dē Kamiꞌūnisaṭa Pajabhuja (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਆਜ਼ਾਦੀ ਦੇ ਕਮਿਊਨਿਸਟ ਪੰਜਭੁਜ [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  8. ʾÂzādí dē Ḱam°ýūnis°ṭa Pan°ǧab°huǧa (Shahmukhi Punjabi, آزَادِی دَے کَمْیُونِسْٹَ پَنْجَبْھُجَ [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  9. ʾÂzādí K̀am°yūnis°ʈ Pay°n°ṭagū⫯yn (Sindhi, آزَادِی ڪَمْيُونِسْٽ پَيْنْٽَگُوئن [MP3]), “libertarian communist pentad
  1. taṭ°bīq ʾal•ʿamaliyy mutaʿaddid ẖāriq lil•ṭabīʿaẗ (Arabic, تَطْبِيق العَمَلِيّ مُتَعَدِّد خَارِق لِلطَبِيعَة [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  2. nōhāḡ mərubẹh ʿạl ṭibʿiy (Hebrew, נוֹהָג מְרֻבֶּה עַל טִבעִי [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  3. ʿur°f•i čan°d°gānih•i fūqāl°ʿādih (Persian, عُرْفِ چَنْدگَانِهِ فُوقَالْعَادِه [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  4. taꞌriba•i balandtarin•i bisjor (Tajik, таьрибаи баландтарини бисёр [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  5. da ʿamal ṭabíʿí ḱaṯír ʾâýat (Pashto, دَ عَمَل طَبِیعِی کَثِیر آیَت [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  6. māfūqa ʾal•fiṭ°rata maš°qa (Urdu, مَافُوقَ الفِطْرَتَتَ مَشق [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  7. abhiꞌāsa malaṭīpala brahimaḍa (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਅਭਿਆਸ ਮਲਟੀਪਲ ਬ੍ਰਹਿਮੰਡ [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  8. ʾab°hiýāsa malaṭípala brahim°naḍa (Shahmukhi Punjabi, ابھِیَاسَ مَلَٹِیپَلَ برَہِمْنَڈَ [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
  9. māfūq maš°q (Sindhi, مَافُوق مَشْق [MP3]), “preternatural praxis
Bhaskarian critical realism is a metatheory and a critical theory which, like all critical theories, incorporates a methodology for emancipation or, in this case, a methodology for actualizing libertarian communism. Intersectionality, wonderfully grounded in Black feminism (Arabic, نِسْوِيَّة مِن السَوْدَاء [MP3], nis°wiyyaẗ min ʾal•saw°dāˁ) and critical race theory (Arabic, نِسَائِيَّة الْعُنْصُرِيَّة النَقْدِيَّة [MP3], nisā⫯yiyyaẗ ʾal•ʿunṣuriyyaẗ ʾal•naq°diyyaẗ), is legal scholar Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw’s (born 1959) critical theory. According to this perspective, individuals and cohorts of one sort of another will traverse diverse intersections on a metaphorical roadmap. Sociologist Patricia Hill Collins (born 1948) invites her readers to recognize the matrix of domination, shift the centers of their thinking to the other or the socially marginalized peoples of the world, and, finally, reconstruct their knowledge.
Luxemburgism is a libertarian communist tendency which, unlike some other left–libertarian currents, acknowledges the importance of direct as well as indirect democracy. Autonomist Antifa is a libertarian communist commitment to fighting fascism and its evil cousins. Third–camp socialist Hal Draper’s (1914–1990) socialism from below, later adopted by those within a broad cross section of currents, is a left–libertarian rejection of that socialism from above, or so–called authoritarian socialism, which single–handedly wreaked havoc on the 20ᵗʰ century. Each one of those approaches, from critical realism to socialism from below, has contributed to the development of left–libertarian Marxism.
  1. ʾiš°tirākiyyaẗ ʾal•ṯāliṯaẗ lil•muẖayyam (Arabic, اِشْتِرَاكِيَّة الثَالِثَة لِلمُخَيَّم [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  2. sōṣəyāʾliyzəm šẹl ha•mạḥănẹh hạ•šəliyšiy (Hebrew, סוֹצְיָאלִיזְם שֶׁל הַמַחֲנֶה הַשְׁלִישִׁי [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  3. dəriyṭ–lʾạgẹʿr sʾọṣiyʾạliyzəm (Yiddish, דְּרִיט־לאַגֶּער סאָצִיאַלִיזְם [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  4. Sozialismus im dritten Lager (German [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  5. sūsiýāliýs°m•i sivvum ʾur°dūgāh (Persian, سُوسِیَالِیسْمِ سِوُّم اُرْدُوگَاه [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  6. sotsializm•i sejum–ūrdugoh (Tajik, сотсиализми сеюм–ӯрдугоҳ [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  7. da d°ray°m pin°ḍ°ġālaý sūsiýāliýz°m (Pashto, دَ دْرَیْم پِنْډْغَالَی سُوسِیَالِیزْم [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  8. tís°rí ẖaý°mah sūšaliz°m (Urdu, تِیسْرِی خَیْمَہ سُوشَلِزم [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  9. tījī–ḍērē samājavāda (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਤੀਜੀ–ਡੇਰੇ ਸਮਾਜਵਾਦ [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  10. tíǧí–ḍērē samāǧa vāda (Shahmukhi Punjabi, تِیجِی-ڈَیرَے سَمَاجَ وَادَ [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  11. ʈiyūn man°zil sūšaliz°m (Sindhi, ٽِيُون مَنزِل سُوشَلِزم [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
  12. üçüncü kamp sosyalizm (Turkish [MP3]), “third–camp socialism
Draper’s socialism from below is post–Trotskyist. Post–Trotskyism and neo–Trotskyism are terms given by some writers to tendencies which, while beginning in Trotskyism, either try to move beyond it or to renew it. Among those tendencies are international socialism and third–camp socialism. Draper was a leader of third–camp socialism. I alternated between identifying with third–camp socialism and international socialism. That is to say, I have also been a post–Trotskyist. From within post–Trotskyism, I then turned to Luxemburgism. Trotskyism has been the only major alternative to Stalinism and Maoism for organizing. Near the end of Trotsky’s life, while exiled in North America, he had already adopted the informal, egalitarian style of libertarian Marxism. If he were not, sadly, assassinated in Mexico by a Soviet operative, Trotsky might have become a post–Trotskyist, too.
Authoritarianism has, mysteriously to me, appealed to some people. It may be fine if the authoritarians are your friends. What happens, however, if the authoritarians are your sworn enemies? A genuine libertarian communism will, optimistically, promote a positive vision of communism and its incredible possibilities. Left–libertarianism is, therefore, socialism from below. Authoritarianism is socialism from above. Libertarian communists do not buy into the make–believe logic of right–libertarianism. Because full freedom, full liberty, or full emancipation now escapes us, capitalism must be eliminated. Communism is freedom. Capitalism is chains. Communism, the views of some right–wingers notwithstanding, would be only “make–believe” if communists, negating the struggle, argued that communism is preordained rather than a good possibility. Communists are not prophets.
A complete economic, social, and political emancipation would require the elimination of intersectionality, the capitalist word–system, and the establishment of a communist word–system. On the other hand, individual libertation or emancipation is possible, to a degree, even now. Personal emancipation is a libertation from one’s absences. An absence, from a critical realist standpoint, is an lack of emancipation. Racism, sexism, ageism, ableism (disablism) may be seen as absences embedded within the capitalist world–system. Anti–racism, feminism, age inclusiveness, and the social model of disability (disability seen as social oppression) can absent those absences. Consciously struggling for one’s own self–realization, through a regular spiritual practice and by encouraging the emancipation of others, is an everyday methodology for absenting one’s own absences.

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٢. Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS
Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ (Arabic, طَرِيقَة البَاهُوِيَّة [MP3]), the namesake of Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū (Arabo–Persian/Fārisiyyaẗ–ʿArabiyyaẗ, حَضْرَت سُلْطَان بَاهُو [MP3]), ʿalay°hi ʾal•ssalām (Arabic, عَلَيْهِ السَّلَام [MP3], “upon Him be peace” or “AS”), has been established as an allegorical Western branch of Bāhū’s AS Punjabi (Persian/Fār°sí, پِنْجَابِی [MP3], Pun°ǧābí; Urdu, پُنْجَابِی [MP3], Pun°ǧābí; Shahmukhi Punjabi, پَنْجَابِی [MP3], Pan°ǧābí; and Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ [MP3] order. Although it is an imaginative and a fictitious, not a genuine, spiritual path, its basics, not including the silly statements concerning this servant’s pretended position of leadership, have been gathered from historical source materials. Find a real path, not this one.
Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ of The Multiversal Communist Collective™ (MP3) is a puppet nation which has remained attached to Ṣạdiyqiym hạ•Dāṯ hạ•Bāhāʾiyṯ of Democratic Communist Federation (Spartakusland)™. The Collective belongs, on NationStates, to The Confederation of Traditional Socialist Nations, which is a signatory to The Vanguard Treaty. Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ™, Path of Bāhūism, governs The Multiversal Communist Collective™ through a radical proletarian democracy. In such a radical democracy, dissent would not simply be tolerated but also encouraged and embraced. The perspectives of various races, genders, ethnicities, castes, and tribes must be lovingly welcomed. Etymologically, radical comes from the Latin/Lingua Latīna, rādīcālis (MP3), “having roots.” A radical democracy would connect us with our shared roots in the nondual ground state.
  1. dīmūq°rāṭiyyaẗ ʾal•rādīkāliyyaẗ (Arabic, دِيمُقْرَاطِيَّة الرَادِيكَالِيَّة [MP3]), “radical democracy
  2. demōqərāṭiyṯ hạ•rāḏiyqāliyṯ (Hebrew, דֶּמוֹקְרָטִית הַרָדִיקָלִית [MP3]), “radical democracy
  3. dimūḱ°rāsí•i rādíḱālí (Persian, دِمُوکْرَاسِیِ رَادِیکَالِی [MP3]), “radical democracy
  4. demokrasī•i radikalī (Tajik, демокрасӣи радикалӣ [MP3]), “radical democracy
  5. ʾif°rāṭí ḍimūḱ°rāsí (Pashto, اِفْرَاطِی ډِمُوکْرَاسِی [MP3]), “radical democracy
  6. ʾin°tahā pasan°dí ǧam°hūriýata (Urdu, اِنْتَہَا پَسَنْدِی جَمْہُورِیَتَ [MP3]), “radical democracy
  7. krāntīkārī lōkatatara (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕ੍ਰਾਂਤੀਕਾਰੀ ਲੋਕਤੰਤਰ [MP3]), “radical democracy
  8. ḱ°rān°tīḱārī lūḱatatara (Shahmukhi Punjabi, کْرَانْتِیکَارِی لُوکَتَتَرَ [MP3]), “radical democracy
  9. ʾin°qilābī ǧam°hūriyat (Sindhi, اِنْقِلَابِي جَمْهُورِيَت [MP3]), “radical democracy
  10. kaṭṭarapaṃthī lokataṃtra (Hindi, कट्टरपंथी लोकतंत्र [MP3]), “radical democracy
  11. maulabādī gaṇatantra (Bengali, মৌলবাদী গণতন্ত্র [MP3]), “radical democracy
  12. tīviravāta jaṉanāyakam (Tamil/Tamiḻ, தீவிரவாத ஜனநாயகம் [MP3]), “radical democracy
  13. rāḍikal prajāsvāmyaṁ (Telugu, రాడికల్ ప్రజాస్వామ్యం [MP3]), “radical democracy
  1. ḥālaẗ min ʾal•⫯ar°ḍ ġay°r muz°dawiǧ (Arabic, حَالَة مِن الأَرْض غَيْر مُزْدَوِج [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  2. maṣṣāḇ hạ•qạrəqạʿ lōʾ dūʾāliy (Hebrew, מַצָּב הַקַרְקַע לֹא דּוּאָלִי [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  3. ḥālat•i dūgānih•i zamín•i nísat (Persian, حَالَتِ دُوگَانِهِ زَمِینِ نِیسَت [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  4. holat•i zamin•i na du barobar (Tajik, ҳолати замини на ду баробар [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  5. d°wah ǵūní da ban°saṭ ḥālat nah (Pashto, دْوَه ګُونِی دَ بَنْسَټ حَالَت نَه [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  6. ġaý°ra dūharí zamína kí ḥālata (Urdu, غَیْرَ دُوہَرِی زَمِینَ کِی حَالَتَ [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  7. gaira–dōharī garāꞌuṇḍa saṭēṭa (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗੈਰ–ਦੋਹਰੀ ਗਰਾਉਂਡ ਸਟੇਟ [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  8. ġaý°ra dūharí garā⫯wun°ḍa saṭēṭa (Shahmukhi Punjabi, غَیْر دُوہَرِی گَرَاؤُنْڈَ سَٹَیٹَ [MP3]), “nondual ground state
  9. zamīn ǧī ṭīˁ šar°t nah ʾâhī (Sindhi, زَمِين جِي ٻِيء شَرْط نَه آهِي [MP3]), “nondual ground state
Therefore, Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ, as a communist internationalist coördinating body, now enters the sil°silaẗ (Arabic, سِلْسِلَة [MP3], “chain”) of Qād°riyyaẗ (Arabic, قَدْرِيَّة [MP3], “capability” or “competence”) and the branch sil°silaẗ (Arabic, سِلْسِلَة الشُعْبَة [MP3], sil°silaẗ ʾal•šuʿ°baẗ) as well as the branch ṭarīqaẗ (Arabic, طَرِيقَة الطَرِيقَة MP3], ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•ṭarīqaẗ, “path of the path”) of Sarvari (originally Persian, سَارْوَارِی [MP3], Sār°vārí; Urdu, سَارَوَارِی [MP3], Sārawārí; Hindi, सरवारी [MP3], Saravārī; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਰਵਰੀ [MP3], Saravarī; or Arabization/تَعْرِيب [MP3]/taʿ°rīb, سَارْوَارِيَّة [MP3], Sār°wāriyyaẗ, “mastery”). (For exceptional guidance on pronouncing the Arabic letter ʿay°n [Arabic, عيْن; MP3], as in ʾal•šuʿ°baẗ, listen to this well–explained MP3 audio presentation converted from a YouTube video.)
The following list contains translations of Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ into a wide variety of languages:
  1. Ṭaríqat•i Bāhū⫯ýiýat (Arabo–Persian, طَرِیقَتِ بَاهُوِئیَت [MP3])
  2. Rāh•i Bāhū (Persian, رَاهِ بَاهُو [MP3])
  3. Roh•i Bāhū (Tajik, Роҳи Ба̄ҳӯ [MP3])
  4. Ṭaríqata•i ʾal•Bāhū⫯ýiýýata (Arabo–Urdu, طَرِیقَتَِ البَاهُوِئیَّتَ [MP3])
  5. Ṭaríqah di Bāhū⫯ýiýat (Arabo–Pashto/Bāš°tuwiyyaẗ–ʿArabiyyaẗ, طَرِیقَه دِ بَاهُوِئیَت [MP3])
  6. Bāhū Lārah (Pashto, بَاهُو لَارَه [MP3])
  7. Ras°tū mān Bāhū⫯yiyat (Sindhi, رَسْتُو مَان بَاُوِئيَت [MP3])
  8. Bāhū dē Tāriḱaṭa (Arabo–Shahmukhi Punjabi/Ban°ǧābiyyaẗ Šāh Mūkiyyaẗ–ʿArabiyyaẗ, بَاهُو دَے تَارِکَٹَ [MP3])
  9. Bāhū dē Tārikaṭa (Arabo–Guramukhi Punjabi/Ban°ǧābiyyaẗ Ǧūra Mūkiyyaẗ–ʿArabiyyaẗ, ਬਾਹੂ ਦੇ ਤਾਰਿਕਟ [MP3])
  10. Bāhū Dharama (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਬਾਹੂ ਧਰਮ [MP3]
  11. Bāhū D°harama (Shahmukhi Punjabi, بَاہُو دْہَرَمَ [MP3])
  12. Bāhū Dharma (Hindi, बाहू धर्म [MP3]; Nepali/Nēpālī, बाहू धर्म [MP3]; Marathi/Marāṭhī, बाहू धर्म [MP3]; Bengali, বাহূ ধর্ম [MP3]); or Telugu, బాహూ ధర్మ [MP3])
  13. Pāhū Tarmā (Tamil, பாஹூ தர்மா [MP3])
  14. Bāhú•Zhīlù (Mandarin Chinese/Zhōngguó•Guānhuà, 巴胡之路 [MP3])
  15. Bāhū Pasu (Japanese/Nihongo, バーヘゥー パス [MP3])
  16. Pahu T’ongno (Korean/Han’gugŏ/Chosŏnmal, 바후 통로 [MP3])
  17. Bahu Pāt (Sinhalese/Siṁhala, බහු පාත් [MP3])
  18. Bahui Čanaparh (Armenian/Hayeren, Բահուի ճանապարհ [MP3])
  19. Đường Bắhủ (Vietnamese/Tiếng Việt [MP3])
  20. Bahu Putʹ (Russian/Rossiâne, Баху Путь [MP3])
  21. Bahu Šlâh (Ukrainian/Ukraí̈nsʹka Mova, Баху Шлях [MP3])
  22. Bahu Pateka (Macedonian/Makedonski, Баху Патека [MP3])
  23. Bahu Ceļš (Latvian/Latviešu Valoda [MP3])
  24. Bahu Vojo (Esperanto [MP3])
  25. Bahu Voyo (Ido [MP3])
  26. Bahu Dao (Lingwa de Planeta/Lidepla/LdP [MP3])
  27. Dẹrẹḵiyṯ hạ•Bāhūʾiyṯ (Hebrew, דֶּרֶכִית הַבָּהוּאִית [MP3])
Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ of The Multiversal Communist Collective™ is a continuation of the order or path founded by Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS. Here is a lineup of that path’s name, the Qadri–Sarvari Path, in numerous languages:
  1. Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Qād°riyyaẗ ʾal•Sār°wāriyyaẗ (Perso–Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ–Fārisiyyaẗ, طَرِيقَة القَادْرِيَّة السَارْوَارِيَّة [MP3]).
  2. Ṭaríqat•i Qād°riýah•i Sār°vāriýah (Arabo–Persian, طَرِيقَتِ قَادْرِیِیَهِ سَارْوَارِیَهِ [MP3]).
  3. Roh•i Kadri•i Sarvari (Tajik, Роҳи Кадрии Сарвари [MP3]).
  4. Qād°rí Sār°wārí Lārah (Pashto, قَادْرِی سَارْوَارِی لَارَه [MP3]).
  5. Ṭaríqata•i ʾal•Qād°riýýah ʾal•Sārawāriýýah (Arabo–Urdu/⫯Ur°diyyaẗ–ʿArabiyyaẗ, طَرِيقَتِ القَادْرِیَّہ‬ السَارَوَارِیَّہ‬ [MP3]).
  6. Qādriyah–Sārwāriyah Ṭarīqū (Sindhi, قَادرِيَه ـ سَاروَارِيَه طَرِيقُو [MP3]),
  7. Kādarī–Sāravārī Māraga (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕਾਦਰੀ–ਸਾਰਵਾਰੀ ਮਾਰਗ [MP3]).
  8. Qādarí–Sāravārí Māraga (Shahmukhi Punjabi, قَادَرِی ـ سَارَوَارِی مَارَگَ [MP3]).
  9. Qadərəyə–Sarəvārəyə Mänəgädə (Amharic/ʾÄmarəña, ቃድርይ፡ሳርቫርይ መንገድ [MP3]).
  10. Tarīkata kā Kādarī–Sāravārī (Hindi, तरीकत का कादरी–सारवारी [MP3]).
  11. Mārga kā Kādarī–Sāravārī (Hindi, मार्ग का कादरी–सारवारी [MP3]).
  12. Qadri–Sarvari Yolu (Turkish/Türk dili [MP3]).
  13. Patthara ala Kādarī–Sāravārī (Marathi, पत्थर अल कादरी–सारवारी [MP3]).
  14. Pathēra ēra Kādarī–Sārabārī (Bengali, পথের এর কাদরী–সারবারি [MP3]).
  15. Pattār āl Kādrī–Sārvārī (Malayalam/Malayaḷaṃ, പത്താര് ആല് കാദ്രീ–സാര്വാരീ [MP3]).
  16. Kātarī–Sāravārī iṉ Pātai (Tamil, காதரீ–ஸாரவாரீ இன் பாதை [MP3]).
  17. Kādarī–Sārvārī yokka Mārgaṁ (Telugu, కాదరీ–సర్వారీ యొక్క మార్గం [MP3]).
According to tradition, ʿAb°d ʾal•Qad°r ʾal•Ǧīlāniyy (Arabic, عَبد القَادْر الجِيلَانِيّ [MP3]), the Ṣūfiyy (Arabic, صُوفِيّ, Ṣūfiyy [MP3], wearingwoolengarments) forebear of Bāhū’s AS own ṭarīqaẗ, was the founder (Arabic, الإِمَام [MP3] ʾal•⫰imām, “the pathfinder”) of Qād°riyyaẗ. He is commonly referred to by the honorific pír•i pírān (Persian, پِیر‎ِ پِیرَان [MP3], “elder of elders”). Etymologically:
  1. ʿAb°d (Arabic, عَبْد [MP3]) is “servant” or “slave.”
  2. Qād°riyyaẗ is a form of Qadir (Arabic, قَدِر [MP3]) or Qad°r (Arabic, قَادْر [MP3]), “capable one” or “competent one.” Qadir, from ʿAb°d ʾal•Qad°r ʾal•Ǧīlāniyy, is one of the 99 names of ʾAllꞌah.
  3. Ǧílān (Persian, جِيلَان [MP3]), “courtier,” is a city in Iran (Persian, اِیْرَان) [MP3], ʾIý°rān or, though not a transliteration I prefer, ʾÍrān).
  4. Ṭarīqaẗ (Arabic, طَرِيقَة [MP3]), ṭaríqat (Persian, طَرِیقَت [MP3]), ṭaríqata (Urdu, طَرِیقَتَ [MP3]), or tarīkata (Hindi, तरीकत [MP3]) is “path” or, by implication, “order.”
Bāhū AS was born in the Punjabi village of Angah (Urdu, انْگَہ [MP3], ʾAn°gāh), Soon Valley (Urdu, وَادْیِ سُون [MP3], Wād°ý•i Sūn), Khushab District (Urdu, ضِلَع خُوشَابَ [MP3], Ḍilaʿ H̱ūšāba), which is located in today’s Pakistan (Urdu and Shahmukhi Punjabi, پَاكِسْتَانَ [MP3], Pākis°tāna, “land of the pure”). Indeed, He spent His entire life, circa 1628–1691, in present–day Pakistan’s portion of a not–yet–divided Punjab (originally Persian, پُنْجَاب [MP3], Pun°ǧāb; Urdu, پُنْجَابَ [MP3], Pun°ǧāba; Shahmukhi Punjabi, پَنْجَابَ [MP3], Pan°ǧāba; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪੰਜਾਬ [MP3], Pajāba; or Arabic, Ban°ǧāb, بَنْجَاب [MP3]), the “five–waterland).
Map of the Punjab
These five waters—rivers or waterways—which flow through the Punjab are themselves tributaries of the Indus River (Urdu, دَرِیَائَِے سِنْدْھَ [MP3], Dariýā⫯ýē Sin°d°ha; Shahmukhi Punjabi, سِنْدْھَ دَرِیَا [MP3], Sin°d°ha Dariýā; or Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਿੰਧ ਦਰਿਆ [MP3], Sidha Dariꞌā). The tributaries are:
  1. the Jhelum River (Urdu, دَرِیَائَِے وْیِتْھَ [MP3], Dariýā⫯ýē V°ýit°ha)
  2. the Chenab River (Urdu, دَرِیَائَِے چَنَابَ [MP3], Dariýā⫯ýē Čanāba)
  3. the Ravi River (Urdu, دَرِیَائَِے رَاوِی [MP3], Dariýā⫯ýē Raví)
  4. the Sutlej River (Urdu, دَرِیَائَِے سُتْلِجَ [MP3], Dariýā⫯ýē Sut°liǧa)
  5. the Beas River (Urdu, دَرِیَائَِے بْیَاسَ [MP3], Dariýā⫯ýē B°ýāsa)
Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS was, truly, among the leading Exemplars of the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy (bhakti as originally Sanskrit/Saṃskrtam, भक्ति [MP3], bhakti; or Urdu, بْھَکْتِی [MP3], b°haḱ°tí, “involvementwith the beloved) movement. Bāhū AS, “with ʾAllꞌah” SWT, was a very cleverly, perhaps even a predictively, formulated portmanteau (Arabic, مَزْج كَلِمَات [MP3], maz°ǧ kalimāt, “blending of words”) by His magnificent mother, Bíbí Rās°tí (Persian, بِیبِی رَاسْتِی; MP3, “Grande Dame; MP3, Truth”) ssalām ʾAllꞌah ʿalay°hā (Arabic, سَّلَام الله عَلَيْهَا; MP3, “peace of ʾAllꞌah be upon her” or “SAA”). In her exalted rank as the virtuous, sanctified, and loving mother of Bāhū AS, she eternally abides, without any exception which I can personally imagine, within the exalted company of the most blessed women to have inhabited the Earth.
Linguistically, the name Bāhū AS was formulated by Bíbí Rās°tí SAA from the Indo–European “bā” (Persian, بَا; MP3, “with”) and the Semitic “Hū” (Arabic, هُوَ; MP3, Huwa or , “He,” i.e., ʾAllꞌah, SWT). Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS wrote principally in Persian. Some translated samples of his writing have been incorporated into this monograph. Here is the first wonderful illustration of His work:
With one dot, Bā Hū [Perso–Arabic, بَا هُو; MP3, “With He”) becomes Yā Hū [Arabic, يَا هُو; MP3), “O He”] ….
And Bāhū is always steeped in the remembrance of Yā Hū.
〜 Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū. Source unknown. Undated.
Furthermore, Bāhū AS has made the following extraordinary promises, regarding the establishment of a mystical and heart–centered relationship with Him, to His beloveds:
O seeker! Thou hast requested permission [Arabic, إِجَازَة, ⫰iǧāzaẗ] for mystical knowledge [Arabic, مَعْرِفَة; MP3, maʿ°rifaẗ] from me ….
I will show thee ʾAllꞌah as nearer to thee than thy jugular [or life] vein [Persian, šāh°rag شَاهْرَگ; MP3], king vein].
〜 Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū, Kalām•i Bāhū. Translation significantly modified by Mark A. Foster (Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ•Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹl).
Whoso shalt study this book, by day and by night, with sincerity, certitude, and conviction will become cognizant of the divine [Arabic, إِلهِيّ; MP3, ⫰ilhiyy] secrets. He hath no need of instruction [Arabic, تَلْقِين; MP3, tal°qīn] and teaching [Arabic, تَعْلِيم; MP3, taʿ°līm] from a living guide [Arabic, مُرْشِد; MP3], mur°šid].
〜 Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū, Kalām•i Bāhū. Translation significantly modified by Mark A. Foster (Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ•Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹl).
Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū
Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū

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٣. Greater and Lesser Prophets
So what is a libertarian communist and Marxist sociologist doing in bringing up religion? Perhaps the most universal left–anarchist motto is “No gods, no masters.” Many urban legends have been associated with Karl Marx (MP3) or Friedrich Engels (MP3). Neither man opposed, in principle, all religions. One might respond by quoting Marx’s well–known assertion that “religion is the opium of the masses.” Of course, opium is a pain killer. It reduces both physical and emotional pain. When some plantation owners, in the U.S., encouraged their human property, their slaves, to practice Protestant Christianity, they were exemplifying Marx’s words. Therefore, if those slaves hoped for a a rewarding life in Heaven, and then identified their situations with the sufferings of Christ, they might think twice before challenging the oppressive authority of the “master” and the “mistress.”
  1. ddiyānaẗ (Arabic, دِّيَانَة [MP3]), “religion or obligation
  2. ddīn (Arabic, دِّين [MP3]), “religion or obligation
  3. maḏ°hab (Arabic, مَذْهَب [MP3]), “religion or ideology
  4. dāṯ (Hebrew, דָּת [MP3]), “religion or obligation
  5. rēʿliygəyẹʿ (Yiddish, רֵעלִיגּ‬ְיֶע [MP3]), “religion
  6. hayəmanotə (Amharic, ሃይማኖት [MP3]), “religion
  7. dín (Persian and Pashto, دِین [MP3]), “religion or obligation
  8. din (Tajik, дин [MP3]), “religion or obligation
  9. din (Turkish [MP3]), “religion or obligation
  10. maḏ°hab (Urdu, مَذْہَب [MP3]), “religion or ideology
  11. dharama (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਧਰਮ [MP3]), “religion or support
  12. d°harama (Shahmukhi Punjabi, دْھَرَمَ [MP3]), “religion or support
  13. maḏ°hab (Sindhi, مَذْهَب [MP3]), “religion or ideology
  14. réligion (French [MP3]), “religion
However, Marx was, like all of us, referring only to his personal experiences. In Germany, those experiences would certainly have included the Lutheran Church and, in the UK, the Anglican Communion. Obviously, he was not an all–knowing person. Marx could not have been familiar with all of the religions which existed over his lifetime. About a decade after his death, in Brooklyn, New York, the son of a Reform (or Liberal) Jewish rabbi, Felix Adler, started the religion, as he defined it, of Ethical Culture. It is now, officially, the American Ethical Union (AEU). Ethical Culture does not require a belief in any god or goddess and, generally speaking, adopts a natural law approach to ethics. That is to say, our moral codes, to the members of AEU whom I have spoken with, are revealed, not by a supernatural being, by nature. Marx and Engels might have joined AEU.
  1. Ṯaqāfaẗ ʾal•⫯Aẖ°lāqiyyaẗ (Arabic, ثَقَافَة الأَخْلَاقِيَّة [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  2. Tạtəbūṯ hạ•Ẹṯiyṯ (Hebrew, תַּרְבּוּת הַאֶתִית [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  3. ʿĒṭiyšẹʿ Qūləṭūr (Yiddish, עֵטִישֶׁע קוּלְטוּר [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  4. Ethische Kultur (German [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  5. Far°han°g•i ʾAẖ°lāqí (Persian, فَرْهَنْگِ اخْلَاقِی [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  6. Farhang•i Axloqī (Tajik, Фарҳанги Ахлоқӣ [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  7. ʾAẖ°lāqí Far°han°ǵ (Pashto, اخْلَاقِی فَرْهَنْګ [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  8. ʾAẖ°lāqí Ṯaqāfat (Urdu, اخْلَاقِی ثَقَافَت [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  9. Naitika Sabhiꞌācāra (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਨੈਤਿਕ ਸੱਭਿਆਚਾਰ [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  10. Naý°tiḱa Sab°hiýāčāra (Shahmukhi Punjabi, نَیْتِکَ سَبْھِیَاچَارَ [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  11. ʾAẖ°lāqī Ṯaqāfat (Sindhi, اخْلَاقِي ثَقَافَت [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  12. Etık Kültür (Turkish [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
  13. Naitika Tahazība (Hindi, नैतिक तहज़ीब [MP3]), “Ethical Culture
The point is that, while particular faiths or religions are objectively real, the word religion is simply a category. Nobody joins a category. They join a religion. Categories, like words in general, are epistemic, not ontological. To put it more simply, categores are mental perceptions. As perceptions, they are constructed, through language, by our minds. On the other hand, specific religious organizations or groups can be placed into the realm of human experiences or human existence. No one can ever be only a Christian, no matter how hard certain branches of Christianity may try to claim exclusive ownership of the term. A person is, for instance, a Southern Baptist or a Roman Catholic. Just as religion is epistemic, not ontological, so Christianity is epistemic, not ontological. For similar reasons, I wish my field, the sociology of religion, was instead called the sociology of religions.
I humbly regard the sanctified Soul of that Perfect Man (Arabic, إِنْسَان الكَامِل [MP3], ⫰In°sān ʾal•Kāmil, “the complete man”), Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS, considered within the particular context of Sufism (Arabic, تَصَوُّف [MP3], Taṣawwuf, or صُوفِيَّة [MP3], Ṣūfiyyaẗ; Persian, تَصَوُّف [MP3], Taṣavvuf; or Urdu, تَصَوُّفَ [MP3], Taṣawwufa) as well as in the broader scope of Islam (Arabic, إسْلَام [MP3], ⫰Is°lām, “peaceful surrender”), to be a Lesser Apostle―a Muǧaddad (Arabic, مُجَدَّد [MP3], “Reformer or Renewer”) or a Ġaw°ṯ ʾal•Zamān (Arabic, غَوْث الزَمَان [MP3], “Intercessor, Aid, or Succor of the Time”). He was also a pure and receptive Crescent to the resplendent and magnificent Star of the Prophet Muḥammad (Arabic, النَبِيّ مُحَمَّد [MP3], ʾal•Nabiyy Muḥammad) ṣallaỳ ʾAllꞌah ʿalay°hi wa•ssalām (Arabic, صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَّلَام [MP3], “blessings of ʾAllꞌah be upon Him and peace” or “SAW”).
  1. ʾal•Naǧ°m wa•ʾal•Hilāl (Arabic, النَجْم وَالهِلَال [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  2. hạ•Kōḵāḇ wə•hạ•Sạhạr (Hebrew, הַכּוֹכָב וְהַסַהַר [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  3. yä•Kokäbunə ʾəna yä•Gəmašu Čꞌäräqanə (Amharic, የኮከቡን እና የግማሹ ጨረቃን [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  4. Sitārih va Hilāl (Persian, سِتَارِه وَ هِلَال [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  5. Sitora va Haşarot (Tajik, Ситора ва Ҳашарот [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  6. da S°tūraý ʾaw da Nímāýí Čān°d (Pashto, دَ سْتُورَی او دَ نِیمَایِی چَانْد [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  7. Sitāriha ʾaw°ra Hilāla (Urdu, سِتَارِہَ اورَْ هِلَالَ [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  8. Tārā atē Aradha Cada (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਤਾਰਾ ਅਤੇ ਅਰਧ ਚੰਦ [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  9. Tāraha ʾatē ʾArad°ha Čān°da (Shahmukhi Punjabi, تَارَہَ اتَے ارَدْھَ چَنْدَ [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  10. ǧī Tārū ᵃⁱᵐˁ ǧī Hilāl (Sindhi, جِي تَارُو ۽ جِي هَلَال [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  11. Hilal ve Yıldız (Turkish [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
  12. Tārā aura Vardhamāna (Hindi, तारा और वर्धमान [MP3]), “the Star and the Crescent
The standard for being a Muslim (Arabic, مُسْلِم [MP3], Mus°lim, “peacefully surrendering one”), in the Quran (Arabic, القُرْآن [MP3], ʾal•Qur°ʾân, “the Recitation”), would not, with the wisdom of Bāhū (AS), distinguish between souls belonging to any branch, or to no branch, of Islam:
Neither Sunni [Arabic سُنِّيّ; MP3, Sunniyy; or Persian, سُنِی; MP3, Suní] nor Shi‘i [Arabic, شِيعِيّ; MP3, Šīʿiyy; or Persian, شِیعِی; MP3, Šíʿí] am I.
Heartburn doth afflict me with one as with the other.
The moment I cast them aside, my pathway was arid no longer. I found myself immersed in the ocean of divine Unity.
Many souls, poorly prepared for that which awaited them, dived into the ocean and drowned. Few swam successfully to the journey’s end.
Only those who held steadfastly to the Master’s hand reached the heavenly shore in safety.
〜 Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū, Kalām•i Bāhū (Perso–Arabic, کَلَامِ بَاهُو [MP3], Discourse of Bāhū). Translation significantly modified by Mark A. Foster (Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ•Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹl).
Lesser Apostles or Prophets, ʿalay°him ʾal•ssalām (Arabic, عَلَيْهِم السَّلَام [MP3], “upon Them be peace” or “AS”), may appear under the authority of each major Prophet. Subject to the sovereign Will of ʾAllꞌah SWT, that sacred pattern repeats itself again and again. Some lesser Prophets AS, or all of Them during the present age, might not be divinely authorized to readily broadcast their Stations. In either case, a lesser Prophet will remain a lesser Prophet whether, on the one hand, He is afforded the permission, either by ʾAllꞌah SWT or by the Major Prophet, to forthrightly promulgate His Own Prophethood to the entirety of humanity, or, on the other, He is requested to maintain His silence on this matter. To my understanding, one of the eminent personifications of lesser Prophethood, even though He is not usually recognized as occupying that position, is the Apostle Paul AS.
  1. Nubuwwaẗ (Arabic, نُبُوَّة [MP3]), “Prophethood
  2. mạṣṣāḇ hạ•Nəḇiyʾiym (Hebrew, מַצָּב הַנְבִיאִים [MP3]), “Prophethood
  3. Nạbūʾāh (Yiddish, נַבוּאָה [MP3]), “Prophethood
  4. vaḍʿiýat•i Paýām°barān (Persian, وَضعِیَتِ پَیَامْبَرَان [MP3]), “Prophethood
  5. holat•i Pajġambaron (Tajik, ҳолати Пайғамбарон [MP3]), “Prophethood
  6. da Paý°ġam°barān maqām (Pashto, دَ پَیْغَمْبَرَان مَقَام [MP3]), “Prophethood
  7. Nabiýūṉ ḱí ḥālata (Urdu, نَبِیُوں کِی حَالَتَ [MP3]), “Prophethood
  8. Nabīꞌāṁ dī hālata (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਨਬੀਆਂ ਦੀ ਹਾਲਤ [MP3]), “Prophethood
  9. Nabiýāṉ dí ḥālata (Shahmukhi Punjabi, نَبِیَاں دِی حَالَتَ [MP3]), “Prophethood
  10. Nabiyun ǧī ḥālat (Sindhi, نَبِيُن جِي حَالَت [MP3]), “Prophethood
  11. Peygamberlık (Turkish [MP3]), “Prophethood
Books of the Prophets of the Sons of Israel” could be interpreted as a term for Prophethood:
  1. Kutub ʾal•⫯An°biyāˁ ʾal•Banī ʾal•⫰Is°rā⫯yīl (Arabic, كُتُب الأَنْبِيَاء البَنِي إِسْرَائِيل [MP3])
  2. Sēp̄ẹriym hạ•Nəḇiyʾiym hạ•Bēniym hạ•Yiśərāʾēl (Hebrew, סֵפֶרִים הַנְבִיאִים הַבֵּנִים הַיִשְׂרָאֵל [MP3])
  3. yä•ʾƏsəraʾelə Ləǧočə Näbiyatə Mäsꞌahəfətə (Amharic, የእስራኤል ልጆች ነቢያት መጻሕፍት [MP3])
  4. Buyəḵẹʿr [German, Bücher; MP3, “books”] p̄ōn diy Nəb̄iyʾiym p̄ōn diy Bēniym p̄ōn Yiśərāʾēl (Yiddish, בֻיְכֶער פֿוֹן דִּי נְבִֿיאִים פֿוֹן דִּי בֵנִים פֿוֹן יִשְׂרָאֵל [MP3])
  5. Ḱitābān•i Paýām°barān•i Pisarān•i ʾIs°rā⫯ýíl (Persian, کِتَابَانِ پَیَامْبَرَانِ پِسَرَانِ اِسرَائِیَل [MP3])
  6. Ḱitābān•i ʾAn°biýāý•i ʾIb°n°hā•i ʾIs°rā⫯ýíl (Persian, کِتَابَانِ انْبِیَایِ اِبْنْهَاِِ اِسرَائِیَل [MP3])
  7. Kitobho•i Pajġambaron•i Pisaron•i Isroil (Tajik, Китобҳои Пайғамбарони Писарони Исроил [MP3])
  8. da Paý°ġam°barānū Ḱitābūnih da ʾIs°rā⫯ýíl da Zāman (Pashto, دَ پَیْغَمْبَرَانُو کِتَابُونِه دَ اِسرَائِیَلُو دَ زَامَن [MP3])
  9. ʾIs°rā⫯ýíla ḱē Baý°ṭūṉ ḱí Paý°ġam°barūṉ ḱē Ḱitābíṉ (Urdu, اِسرَائِیَلَ کَے بَیْٹُوں کِی پَیْغَمْبَرُوں کَے کِتَابِیں [MP3])
  10. Nabīꞌāṁ dīꞌāṁ Kitābāṁ Izarāꞌīla dē Putarāṁ (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਨਬੀਆਂ ਦੀਆਂ ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ ਇਜ਼ਰਾਈਲ ਦੇ ਪੁੱਤਰਾਂ [MP3])
  11. Nabiýāṉ diýāṉ Ḱitābāṉ ʿIzarā⫯ýíla dē Putarāṉ (Shahmukhi Punjabi, نَبِیَاں دِیَاں کِتَابَاں عِزَرَائِیلَ دَے پُتَرَاں [MP3])
  12. K̀itābun ǧū Nabiyun ǧū Paʈun mān ʾIs°rā⫯yīl (Sindhi, ڪِتَابُن جُو نَبِيُن جُو پَٽُن مَان اِسْرَائِيل [MP3])
  13. Isarāila ke Saṃsa ke Bhaviṣyadvaktāoṃ kī Pustakeṃ (Hindi, इसराइल के संस के भविष्यद्वक्ताओं की पुस्तकें [MP3])
  14. Isrāẏēlēra Santānadēra Nabīgaṇēra Baꞌiguli (Bengali, ইস্রায়েলের সন্তানদের নবীগণের বইগুলি [MP3])
  15. İsrailꞌın Oğulları Peygamberleri Kitapları (Turkish [MP3])
  16. Libroj de la Profetoj de la Izraelidoj (Esperanto [MP3])
A Man born Saul (Hebrew, שָׁאוּל‬ [MP3], Šāʾūl, “Asked or Prayed for”) became, in just a single moment, the Apostle Paul (Latin, Paulus [MP3]; or Hellēnistikḗ Koinḗ/Common Greek, Παῦλος [MP3], Paûlos, “Small or Humble One”) AS. Thus, Paul AS was transfigured from making a heavenly request to attaining self–annihilation (Arabic, فَنَاء [MP3], fanāˁ). Paul AS was not counted among the twelve apostles. No matter, after an initiatory Revelation (Arabic, تَنْزِيل [MP3], Tan°zīl), as with each Prophet, from the Major Prophet Jesus Christ (Latin, Christus Iēsus [MP3]; Common Greek, Ἰησοῦς Χριστός [MP3], I̓ēsoûs Christós; or Hebrew, יֵשׁוּעַ הַמָשִׁיחַ [MP3], Yēšūʿạ hạ•Māšiyḥạ, “Deliverance, the Annointed One or Messiah”) AS on a journey, Paul AS proclaimed Himself an Apostle or a Messenger of ʾAllꞌah SWT. In Paul’s AS heavenly epistles, He elucidated His Own Authority.
Before moving on, a short discussion of the origins of the Bahá’í Faith (Arabic, دِّيَانَة البَهَائِيَّة [MP3], Ddiyānaẗ ʾal•Bahā⫯yiyyaẗ; or Persian, دِیَانَتِ بَهَائِی [MP3], Diýānat•i Bahā⫯ýí, “Religion or Obligation of Glory”) is appropriate. That discussion shall then be followed by a more pointed application to the issue, now under consideration, of the greater and lesser Prophets. Possible relationships between each of these two types of Prophethood will be contemplated. Please bear in mind that the views expressed throughout the monograph are personal and nothing more. They reflect the writer’s own understandings just at the present time. Those understandings do not necessarily represent the official teachings of the Bahá’í Faith or of any other religion or movement referred to in the monograph. For authentic and trustworthy information on the Bahá’í Faith, please go directly to the source.
The Prophet–Founder of the Bahá’í Faith, Bahá’u’lláh (Arabic, بَهَاء الله [MP3], Bahāˁ ʾAllꞌah, “Glory of God”) AQH (Arabic, عَلَيْهِ القُرَّة الحُورِيَّة [MP3], ʿalay°hi ʾal•qurraẗ ʾal•Ḥūriyyaẗ, “upon Him be the solace of the Black–in–White–Eyed Maiden”), lived in this world between the years 1817–1892. His heavenly Precursor, and the first Twin Major Prophet to manifest on this planet, was the Exalted Báb (Arabic, بَاب الأَعْلَى [MP3], Bāb ʾal•⫯Aʿ°laỳ, “the Exalted Gate”) ABYA (Arabic, لَيْهِ البَهَاء مَن يُظْهِر الله [MP3], ʿalay°hi ʾal•Bahāˁ Man Yuẓ°hir ʾAllꞌah, “upon Him be the Glory of Him Whom ʾAllꞌah shall make Manifest”). The martyrdom of the Báb (Arabic, البَاب [MP3], ʾal•Bāb, “the Gate”) ABYA, in Iran’s City of Tabriz (Persian, شَهْرِسْتَانِ تَبْرِیز تُویِ اِیْرَان [MP3], Šah°ris°tan•i Tab°ríz tuý•i ʾIý°rān), brought to a tragic and, truly, heartbreaking close His regrettably brief but momentous life, 1819–1850.
Bahá’u’lláh AQH and the Báb ABYA, the twin Major Prophets of ʾAllꞌah SWT, were perhaps foreshadowed by twin Minor Islamic (Arabic, إِسْلَامِيّ [MP3], ⫰Is°lāmiyy) Prophets, Šay°ẖ ⫯Aḥ°mad ʾib°n Zay°n ʾal•Ddīn ⫰Ib°rāhīm ʾal•⫯Aḥ°sā⫰yiyy (Arabic, شَيخ أَحمَد اِبن زَيْن الدِّين اِبن إِبْرَاهِيم الأَحْسَائِيّ‎ [MP3]) AS, 1753–1826, and Siyyid Kāzim bin Qāsim ʾal•Ḥusay°niyy ʾal•Raš°tiyy (Arabic, سِيِّد كَاظِم بِن قَاسِم الحُسَيْنِيّ الرَشْتِيّ‎ [MP3]) AS, 1793–1843. This pair of truly exceptional Men readied the Islamic Age for the dual advents of the Báb ABYA and Bahá’u’lláh AQH. Given the odd chance that my reading of the pertinent texts is accurate, modernity witnessed the dramatic theophanies of twin Major Prophets and twin Minor Prophets, too. In addition, the Letters of the Living (Arabic, حُرُوف الحَيّ [MP3], Ḥurūf ʾal•Ḥayy), or a select Number of them, may have been Lesser Prophets to the Báb ABYA.
To the best of my knowledge, Bahá’u’lláh AQH never negated the simple possibility of lesser Prophets arising over the course, now concealed from human knowledge, of His divine Dispensation or Age. My personal sense, though not one based upon any textual evidence per se, is that one, possibly more, lesser Prophets—such as Paul Who clearly proclaimed His lesser Prophethood to the major Prophet Jesus Christ—might manifest as receptive Moons to the Sun of Each major Prophet. By the same token, Bahá’u’lláh AQH has covenanted with us, in His Sacred and Holy Texts, that no lesser Prophets will proclaim Their Stations during the present Dispensation of grace. Such adverse and regrettable pronouncements shall instantaneously bring to light that these individuals are nothing more than prevaricators and charlatans. Prayers for their immortal souls might be very appropriate.
Moreover, as penned, in precise and unambiguous terms, by Bahá’u’lláh AQH Himself:
Whoso layeth claim to a Revelation direct from God, ere the expiration of a full thousand years, such a man is assuredly a lying impostor. We pray God that He may graciously assist him to retract and repudiate such claim. Should he repent, God will, no doubt, forgive him. If, however, he persisteth in his error, God will, assuredly, send down one who will deal mercilessly with him. Terrible, indeed, is God in punishing! Whosoever interpreteth this verse otherwise than its obvious meaning is deprived of the Spirit of God and of His mercy which encompasseth all created things. Fear God, and follow not your idle fancies. Nay, rather follow the bidding of your Lord, the Almighty, the All-Wise.
〜 Bahá’u’lláh. Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh. Shoghi Effendi, translator. Wilmette, Illinois: Bahá’í Publishing Trust. 1980. Page 233.
The Universal House of Justice (Arabic, بَيْت العَدْل أَعْظَم [MP3], Bay°t ʾal•ʿAd°l ʾal•⫯Aʿ°ẓam; or in Persianized form/Fār°sí•i šudan/(Persian, فَارْسِیِ شُدَن [MP3]), بَیْت‌َالعَدْل اعْظَم [MP3], Baý°tālʿad°l ʾAʿ°ẓam, “Most Great House of Justice”) is this world of being’s wellspring of eternal life, life–giving waters, or fountain of living waters (Arabic, وِرْد [MP3], wir°d) for authoritative divine guidance to humanity. That guidance must be perpetually impeccable (Arabic, مَعْصُوم [MP3], maʿ°ṣūm), pure and protected (Arabic, عِصْمَة [MP3], ʿiṣ°maẗ), and exempt from the commission of any moral error (Arabic, خَطَأ [MP3], ẖaṭ⫯ā, or خِطْء [MP3], ẖiṭ°ˁ). Therefore, the Universal House of Justice, operating in its exalted station, seems to have made, for the time being, ostensibly functioning lesser Prophets unnecessary. Whether the current pattern will persist through future Dispensations is, of course, an unknown.
The members of the Universal House of Justice, like their forebears in authority under the Bahá’í Covenant (Arabic, عَهْد [MP3], ʿAh°d), have been men. The Universal House of Justice collectively and its predecessors individually might enjoy a polyandry in spirit with the most hallowed, adored, and exalted Guardian Angel (Arabic, مَلَاك الحَارِس [MP3], Malāk ʾal•Ḥaris) of the Bahá’í Dispensation. We know and love Her as the Black–in–White–Eyed Maiden (Arabic, الحُورِيَّة [MP3], ʾal•Ḥūriyyaẗ) SAA. Through the resplendent Maiden SAA, according to ʾAllꞌah’s SWT Will, the male hegemony took place only within the realm of outward appearances, the physical world. That domination is, in short, just an illusion. In reality, it is women, not men, who are elevated in spirituality and excellence. All women, and possibly some men, can, in this Æon of Glory, express the Maiden’s SAA grace.
  1. taʿaddudu ʾal•⫯az°wāǧi (Arabic, تَعَدُّدُ الأَزْوَاجِ [MP3]), “polyandry
  2. ribūy zāḵāriym lə•nəqēḇāh ʾạḥạṭ (Hebrew, רִבּוּי זָכָרִים לְנְקֵבָה אַחַת [MP3]), “polyandry
  3. šūharān•i mutaʿaddid (Persian, شُوهَرَانِ مُتَعَدِّد [MP3]), “polyandry
  4. şavhar•i serşumor (Tajik, шавҳари сершумор [MP3]), “polyandry
  5. ʾaz°wāǧ (Pashto, ازْوَاج [MP3]), “polyandry
  6. ḱaṯíra ʾaz°wāǧí (Urdu, کَثِیرَ ازْوَاجِی [MP3]), “polyandry
  7. kaꞌī patīꞌāṁ (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕਈ ਪਤੀਆਂ [MP3]), “polyandry
  8. ḱa⫯ýí patiýaṉ (Shahmukhi Punjabi, کَئِی پَتِیَاں [MP3]), “polyandry
  9. g°haṉ̇an muḍ̇°san k̀araṅ ǧū rawāǧ (Sindhi, گْھَڻَ;ن مُڙْسَن ڪَرَڻ جُو رَوَاج [MP3]), “polyandry
  1. ʿAẖ°rāˁ (Arabic, عَذْرَاء [MP3]), “Maiden
  2. ʿẠləmāh (Hebrew, עַלְמָה [MP3]), “Maiden
  3. yä•Wätꞌatə Ləǧagärädə (Amharic, የወጣት ልጃገረድ [MP3]), “Maiden
  4. Bəsūlʿ (Yiddish, בְסוּלע [MP3]), “Maiden
  5. Ḥūrí (Persian, حُورِی [MP3]) or pluralized as Ḥūr (Persian, حُور [MP3]), “Black–in–White–Eyed Maiden (from the original Arabic)
  6. Dūšízih (Persian, دُوشِیزِه [MP3]), “Maiden
  7. Duẖ°tar (Persian, دُخْتَر [MP3]), “Maiden
  8. Duxtar (Tajik, духтар [MP3]), “Maiden
  9. Batūl (Pashto, بَتُول [MP3]), “Maiden
  10. Laṛ°ḱí (Urdu, لَڑْکِی [MP3]), “Maiden
  11. Muṭiꞌāra (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਮੁਟਿਆਰ [MP3]), “Maiden
  12. Muṭiýāra (Shahmukhi Punjabi, مُٹِیَارَ [MP3]), “Maiden
  13. K̀an°⫯wārī (Sindhi, ڪَنْؤَارِي [MP3]), “Maiden
  14. Bakire (Turkish [MP3]), “Maiden
  15. Kanya (Hindi, कन्य [MP3]), “Maiden
  16. Kumārī (Bengali, কুমারী [MP3]), “Maiden
  17. Kaṉṉip (Tamil, கன்னிப் [MP3]), “Maiden
  18. Āḍapillanu (Telugu, ఆడపిల్లను [MP3]), “Maiden
  19. Kanꞌyaka (Malayalam, കന്യക [MP3]), “Maiden
  20. K̀an°⫯wārī (Sindhi, ڪَنْؤ‬َارِي [MP3]), “Maiden
  21. Shǎonǚ (Mandarin Chinese, 少女 [MP3]), “Maiden
  22. Siu3•Neoi5 (Cantonese Chinese/Gwong2•Dung1•Waa6, 少女 [MP3]), “Maiden
  23. Sonyŏ (Korean, 소녀 [MP3]), “Maiden
  24. Otome (Japanese, 乙女 [MP3]), “Maiden
  25. Thị Tỳ (Vietnamese [MP3]), “Maiden
  26. la Jeune Fille (French/Français [MP3]), “Maiden
An example of the Maiden’s SAA blessings is my spiritual mother (Arabic, أُمِّي الرُوحَانِيّ [MP3], ⫯ummī rūḥāniyy), Elizabeth Thomas SAA (December 10ᵗʰ, 1906–January 18ᵗʰ, 1991). By the Guardian Angels’ grace, she has regularly visited me in vivid dreams. I have often woken up believing that she had not passed on. In December, 1970, after looking up the Bahá’í Faith in the county phone book, I found Elizabeth’s SAA Long Island, New York, number. The first Bahá’í I ever spoke with was Elizabeth SAA. At fourteen–years old, I joined the Bahá’í Faith the following day. She is an advanced soul, and her kindness to and patience with me, an autistic boy and then man, is not something which I fully appreciated until many years later. May ʾAllꞌah SWT bless Elizabeth Thomas SAA, the most beloved member of my spiritual family, in the Beyond. I look forward to chatting with her again.
Elizabeth Thomas
Click on the Picture for an Enlargement
  1. ⫯umm ʾal•rūḥāniyy (Arabic, أُمّ الرُوحَانِيّ [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  2. wālidaẗ fī ʾal•rūḥāniyyaẗ (Arabic, وَالِدَة فِي الرُوحَانِيَّة [MP3]), “spiritual mother (mother in spirituality)
  3. ʾimmā hạ•rūḥāniy (Hebrew, אִמָּא הַרוּחָנִי [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  4. ʾēm hạ•səpiyriyṭūʾạl (Hebrew, אֵם סְפִּירִיטוּאַל [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  5. mänəfäsawi ʾənatə (Amharic, መንፈሳዊ እናት [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  6. rūḥāniyʾūṯ mūṭẹr (Yiddish, רוּחָנִוּת מוּטֶער [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  7. mādar•i rūḥāní (Persian, مَادَرِ رُوحَانِی [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  8. mādar•i rūḥí (Persian, مَادَرِ رُوحِي [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  9. mādar•i maʿ°naví (Persian, مَادَرِ مَعْنَوِی [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  10. modar•i maꞌnavī (Tajik, модари маънавӣ [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  11. da rūḥāní mūr (Pashto, دَ رُوحَانِی مُور [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  12. rūḥāní mūra (Urdu, رُوحَانِی مُورَ [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  13. rūhānī mātā (Gurumukhi Punjabi, ਰੂਹਾਨੀ ਮਾਤਾ [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  14. rūḥāní mātā (Shahmukhi Punjabi, رُوحَانِی مَاتَا [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  15. rūḥānī māˁa (Sindhi, رُوحَانِي مَاءَ [MP3]), “spiritual mother
  16. manevi anne (Turkish, [MP3]), “spiritual mother

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٤. ⫯Uway°siyy Transmissions
An ⫯Uway°siyy (Arabic, أُوَيْسِيّ [MP3]) transmission is an inward, spiritual communication from Muḥammad (Arabic, مُحَمَّد [MP3], “Praised One”) SAW or other divine beings, to a true believer. Unlike some other spiritual transmissions of grace or sanctity, the bestower of the blessing and its recipient have no physical contact. This heavenly sanctification occurs in the divine stations of Concealment, not in the lowly realms of appearance. ⫯Uway°siyy transmissions may, therefore, be considered, in a certain sense, to be miraculous. Certainly, the mechanisms operating in the celestial, divine Kingdom versus those which function in the worldly, lackluster dimensions can be only be compared with extreme reservation and humility. To put it another way, the divine Realms should not be considered as expressions of our own material existence or experience. The opposite is true.
By “⫯Uway°siyyūna” (Arabic, أُوَيْسِيُّونَ [MP3], “⫯Uway°siyys”) or “⫯Uway°siyyīna” (Arabic, أُوَيْسِيِّينَ [MP3], “⫯Uway°siyys”), some form of sacred or divine permission and authorization (Arabic, إِجَازَة [MP3], ⫰iǧāzaẗ) is conveyed, within occultation (Arabic, غَيْبَة [MP3], ġay°baẗ), from an outwardly unrelated illustrious being (whether living, deceased, or possibly mythological), as in: the Prophet Muḥammad SAW, the legendary, or perhaps semilegendary, ʾal•H̱iḍ°r (الخِضْر [MP3], “the Green One”), venerated departed šuyūẖ (شُيُوخ [MP3], “elders” or “shaykhs”), the founders (Arabic, أَئِمَّة [MP3], ⫯a⫯yimmaẗ, “pathfinders” or imams) of Ṣūfiyy orders, or the Guardian Angels (Arabic, مَلَائِكَة الحَارِسَة [MP3], Malā⫯yikaẗ ʾal•Ḥārisaẗ).
In a outstretched spectrum of diverse mentally abstracted and otherworldly states, including inspired dreams (Arabic, مَنَامَات [MP3], manāmāt; or أَحْلَام [MP3], ⫯aḥ°lām) and luminous visions (Arabic, رُؤًى‏ [MP3], ru⫯waṇỳ; تَصَوُّرَات [MP3], taṣawwurāt; or بَصِيرَات [MP3], baṣīrāt), vows of loyalty, like the oaths of fealty once owed by knights to medieval European feudal lords, are pledged to one another. Yet, a state of receptivity in spirit is negated by gullibility. Since these events take place in unconscious states, hypnotic suggestability may be maximized. It, consequently, becomes important, in my view, that the recipient of the transmission does not allow the bane of wishful thinking, the vainglorious fancies of self–delusion, or the deathbed of egotism to dominate, and to unintentionally distort, that alleged spiritual gnosis or knowledge. Self–deception leads to many downfalls from grace.
The following words are cognates, transliterations, or Romanizations of gnosis (Ancient Greek/A̓rchaía Hellēniká, γνῶσις [MP3], gnō̂sis):
  1. ġunūṣ (Arabic, غُنُوص [MP3]).
  2. g°nūsís (Persian, گْنُوسِیس [MP3]).
  3. g°ýāna (Urdu, گْیَانَ [MP3]) or, phonetically, g°nūsisa (گْنُوسِسَ [MP3]).
  4. gənōsiys (Hebrew, גְּנוֹסִיס [MP3]).
  5. ḡənʾọsiys (Yiddish, גְנאָסִיס [MP3]).
  6. gunōshisu (Japanese, グノーシス [MP3]).
  7. kŭnosisŭ (Korean, 그노시스 [MP3]).
  8. gǎnwù (Mandarin Chinese, 感悟 [MP3]).
  9. jñāna (Sanskrit, ज्ञान [MP3]).
  10. jñāna (Hindi, ज्ञान [MP3]).
  11. gənosisə (Amharic, ግኖሲስ [MP3])
  12. jñāna (Nepali, ज्ञान [MP3])
  13. jñāna (Kannada/Kannaḍa, ಜ್ಞಾನ [MP3])
  14. jñāna (Gujarati/Gujarātī, જ્ઞાન [MP3])
  15. jñāna (Bengali, জ্ঞান [MP3]).
  16. jñāna (Assamese/Asamīẏā, জ্ঞান [MP3]).
  17. jñānamu (Telugu, జ్ఞానము [MP3]).
  18. znanie (Russian, знание [MP3]).
  19. znannâ (Ukrainian, знання [MP3]).
  20. ỵāṇ (Thai/P̣hās̄ʹā Thịy, ญาณ [MP3]).
  21. nhean (Khmer/Pheasaeakhmer, ញាណ [MP3]).
  22. gnosis (Norwegian/Norsk [MP3]).
The term ⫯Uway°siyy is named in honor of the illustrious saint, ⫯Uway°s ʾib°n ⫯Amīr ʾib°n Har°b ʾal•Qar°niyy (Arabic, أُوَيس اِبْن أَمِير اِبْن هَرب القَرْنِيّ [MP3]). He was the first individual known to have experienced such a celestial encounter. Although ⫯Uway°s ʾal•Qar°niyy lived as Muḥammad’s SAW contemporary, the two of them never had the opportunity to meet face to face. Yet, tradition has it, this venerated Yemenite (Arabic, يَمَنِيّ [MP3], Yamaniyy) was the recipient, within the world of spirits (Arabic, العَالَم الأَرْوَاح [MP3], ʾal•ʿālam ʾal•arwāḥ), of a sacred transmission from the beloved Muḥammad SAW. Linguistically, ⫯Uway°s (Arabic, أُوَيس) translates as “wolf cub,” while ʾal•Qar°niyy (Arabic, القَرْنِيّ) is “the centenary.” The blessing of being in his spiritual presence (Arabic, حَضْرَة [MP3], ḥaḍ°raẗ) may be counted as one of my many aspirations for the world to come.
The ⫯Uway°siyy transmission of Muḥammad SAW to Bāhū AS can be compared, mythopœically, to Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ•Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl (Hebrew and Yiddish, מֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן בֶּן הֶערְשֶׁעל [MP3]). After engaging in a spiritually blessed ⫯Uway°siyy communion with Bāhū AS, bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl fictively converted from Judaism (Hebrew, הָיַהֲדוּת [MP3], Yạhăḏōṯ]) to Islam. He then became the founding pír–o–murshid (“elder andguide possessingintegrity, maturity, and sensibility”) of Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ. Various South Asian, West Asian, and Central Asian versions are:
  1. píra ū mur°šida (originally, Urduized Persian and Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ–⫯Ur°diyyaẗ–Fārisiyyaẗ, پِیرَ و مُرْشِدَ [MP3])
  2. píra ʾaw°ra mur°šida (Urdu, پِیرَ اوْرَ مُرْشِدَ [MP3])
  3. pīra aura murśida (Hindi, पीर और मुर्शिद [MP3])
  4. pīra–o–murśida (Hindi, पीर–ओ–मुर्शिद [MP3])
  5. pīara āṇi murśīda (Marathi, पीअर आणि मुर्शीद [MP3])
  6. piẏāra ēbaṁ murśida (Bengali, পিয়ার এবং মুর্শিদ [MP3])
  7. piyar oppaṁ marṣid (Malayalam, പിയർ ഒപ്പം മർഷിദ് [MP3])
  8. pīra atē muraśīda (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪੀਰ ਅਤੇ ਮੁਰਸ਼ੀਦ [MP3])
  9. píra ʾatē murašída (Shahmukhi Punjabi, پِیرَ اتَے مِرَشِیدَ [MP3])
  10. pīr ᵃⁱᵐˁ mur°šid (Sindhi, پِير ۽ مُرْشِد [MP3])
  11. pīr mariyu muṣīd (Telugu, పీర్ మరియు ముషీద్ [MP3])
  12. pir maṟṟum kaiyēṭu (Tamil, பிர் மற்றும் கையேடு [MP3])
  13. pír va hādí (Persian, پِیر وَ هَادِی [MP3])
  14. pir va murşid (Tajik, пир ва муршид [MP3])
  15. pír ʾaw muršíd (Pashto, پِیر او مُورْشِید [MP3])
  16. šay°ẖ wa•mur°šid (Arabic, شَيْخ وَمُرْشِد [MP3])
Customarily, bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl is addressed, all too politely, as píra ū mur°šida. This Urdu honorific is a compound phrase from Persian, Urdu, and Arabic. Pír (Persian, پِیر [MP3]) may be translated as either “elder” or “elderly man.” It fits. Surely, at old with “full–blown osteoporosis” and osteoarthritis, bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl is fast becoming an old man. Ū (و [MP3]), like ʾaw°ra (Urdu, اوْرَ [MP3]), is an Urdu term for “and.” Mur°šid (مُرْشِد [MP3]), finally, remains an Arabic designation for a guide possessingintegrity, maturity, and sensibility.” That being said, bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl remains a simple and modest man. Oblivious to all of the élitist shallowness of worldly salutations, he considers himself, above all, as a servant of ʾAllꞌah SWT and of all humanity (Arabic, عَبْد الله وَالبَشَرِيَّة الجَمْعَاء [MP3], ʿab°d ʾAllꞌah wa•ʾal•bašariyyaẗ ʾal•ǧam°ʿāˁ). There is, in his heart, no more blessed honor.
Another example of an alleged ⫯Uway°siyy transmission from Bāhū AS is Hazrat Syedna Riaz Ahmed Sarkar Gohar Shahi (Urdū, حَضْرَةَ سِیُدْنَا رِیَاضَ احْمَد سَرْکَارَ گُوھَرَ شَاہهِی, Ḥaḍ°rata Siýýid°nā Riýāḍa ʾAḥ°mada Sar°ḱāra Guhara Šāhí [MP3], his holy “presence, our master,” gardens ofparadise, highly prized, overseer, jewel, imperial”). Intriguingly, years before I became consciously aware of beloved Bāhū, I sought out and received personal instruction in my suburban Kansas City home (Olathe, Kansas) from an initiator. He had been authorized by Guhar Šāhí (commonly, Gohar Shahi). This amiable disciple, whose name I unfortunately cannot recall, represented the American Sufi Institute (P.O. Box 462, Devil’s Lake, North Dakota, U.S. 58301).
The American Sufi Institute has since been renamed as ʾal•Mar°ḱāza•i Rūḥāní Qād°rí (Urdu, المَرْکَازَِ رُوحَانِی قَادْرِی [MP3], “the Spiritual Center of Qād°rí”) (Qādirīyyaẗ Sufism). This group, now located in the Jamshoro District (Urdū, ذِلَاِ جَامْشُورُو [MP3], Ḏilā•i Ǧām°šūrū) of Sindh (Sindhi, سِنْڌ [MP3], Sin°dʱ; or Urdu سنْدْھَ [MP3], Sin°d°ha), Pakistan, regards Guhar Šāhí as a Sunni Muslim (Arabic, مُسْلِم السُنِّيّ [MP3], Mus°lim ʾal•Sunniyy)—not as a mih°dí (Urdu, مِہْدِی [MP3]), mih°dí (Persian, مِهْدِی [MP3]), mehdi (Turkish [MP3]), mehdi (Azerbaijani/Azərbaycan dili [MP3]), mahidí (Shahmukhi Punjabi, مَہِدِی [MP3]), or mah°diyy (the original Arabic, مَهْدِيّ [MP3]), rightlyguided one”) or as a messiah: masīḥ (Arabic, مَسِيح [MP3]), masíḥí (Persian, مَسِیحِی [MP3]), masíḥā (Urdu, مَسِیحَا [MP3]), or māšiyḥạ (the original Hebrew, מָשִׁיחַ [MP3], “annointed one”)—who welcomed people from all religions.
Guhar Šāhí taught various meditative practices, including a type of taṣavvur•i ism•i ḏāt. As I discovered much later, Šāhí, after claiming to have had an inward, mystical experience with Bāhū AS, founded a similar and, indeed, likeminded ⫯Uway°siyy branch ṭarīqaẗ of Ṭaríqat•i Qād°riýah•i Sār°vāriýah, ʾal•Qād°riyyaẗ ʾal•Mun°tahiyyaẗ [Arabic, القَادرِيَّة المُنْتَهِيَّة [MP3], the Qādirīyyaẗ of the Uttermost]. Šāhí then developed and presented a comprehensive set of teachings and methods called the Religion of God (Persian, دِينِ اِلَهِی [MP3], Dín•i ʾIlāhí; or Urdu, دِينَِ اِلَہِی [MP3], Dína•i ʾIlāhí). He was, I feel, my personal gateway to Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS.
Born in 1941, and now controversially deceased (2001 or 2003), Šāhí is, I believe, my fellow traveller under Bāhū’s watchful eye:
When … Guhar Šāhí was at about the age of thirty four, at one night Ḥaḍ°rata Barí ʾImāma [Urdu, حَضْرَتَ بَرِی اِمَامَ; MP3] (tomb is in Islamabad [Urdu, اِسْلَامَ آبَادَ; MP3, ʾIs°lāma ʾÂbāda, “city of Islam”]) appeared before him and said: “My son your time has come, you must go to the shrine of Sulṭān Bāhū [AS] to receive the Spiritual Knowledge.” … Guhar Šāhí then left every thing and went to shrine of Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū [AS]. Sulṭān Bāhū [AS] appeared before him and advised to read and act upon his book Nūr ʾal•Hudaỳ [Arabic, نُور الهُدَى; MP3, Light of Guidance] and go to Saý°h°wan Šaríf [Urdū, سَیْہْوَن‬ شَرِيف; MP3], … Dādū [Urdu, دَادُو; MP3], Pakistan.… Guhar Šāhí read the book Nūr ʾal•Hudaỳ and went … for self-purification and peace of heart ….
… [Guhar Šāhí] then left his work, family and parents and went to Šūr°ḱuṭ [Shahmukhi Punjabi, شُورْکُوٹ; MP3], where under the blessful [sic] supervision of … Sulṭān Bāhū [AS] … [Guhar Šāhí] made the book Nūr ʾal•Hudaỳ (a book written by … Bāhū [AS] …), his journey’s companion. He then went to Sayhwan Šarīf for self-mortification and peace of heart and spent a period of three years in the mountains of Sayhwan Šarīf and the [southern Indian] forest of Lālbāg [Kannada, ಲಾಲ್‌ಬಾಗ್; MP3, “Red Garden”] in self-Purification. Thereafter pursuant to a revelation … [Guhar Šāhí] went to Ǧām°šūrū where he spent six months in a hut behind the Textbook Board Building, henceforth, with Almighty ʾAllꞌah’s will, His Holiness … [Guhar Šāhí] started to shower Almighty ʾAllꞌah’s creation with his benevolence.
Guhar Šāhí. 2009. Retrieved on September 8, 2013. Some words have been transliterated differently and spellings corrected.
I have never claimed to be Mih°dí. The false claimant [Younus AlGohar?, Urdu, یُونُسَ الگُوھَرَ [MP3], Ýūnusa ʾal•Gūhara, Joseph the Jewel] is misled and ill–fated. However, I have elaborated the signs of True Mih°dí. As Holy Prophet Muḩammad (peace be upon him) has a seal of prophet at his back. Likewise on the back of Mih°dí there will be a seal of Mih°dí which will be embossed by veins and whosoever will posses this sign we will accept him as … Mih°dí.
〜 Guhar Šāhí, A Great Spiritual Personality. October, 1999. Retrieved on September 8ᵗʰ, 2013. Some words have been transliterated differently and spellings corrected.
With profound humility and spirituality, Bāhū AS, in His lovingkindness or compassion (Pāli, मेत्ता [MP3], mettā; Sanskrit and Hindi, मैत्री [MP3], Marathi, मैत्री [MP3], maitrī; Nepali, मैत्री [MP3], mitratā; Gujarati, મિત્રતા [MP3], mitratā; Sinhalese, මිත්රත්වය [MP3], mitratvaya; Thai, มิตรภาพ [MP3], mitrp̣hāph; Telugu, మైత్రీ [MP3], maitrī; or Khmer, មេត្តា [MP3], mettea), remains, until the end that has no end, the collective center of our obeisance. Although I only recognized the eminent Bāhū’s AS personal agency back in 2011, he may have been with me, guiding me, during my entire life. For some inexplicable reason of the heart, I was drawn, in tremendous love, to beloved Bāhū AS while immersed in studying the exalted tradition of Sufism. He was truly one of the most exceptional Beings to inhabit the Earth over the last several centuries.
Mā šāˁa ʾAllꞌah! or Mashallah! (Arabic, مَا شَاءَ الله! [MP3], “ʾAllꞌah has willed it!”) Later, on September 8ᵗʰ, 2013, during a reflection, I realized that Bāhū AS reached out, though Guhar Šāhí, and connected more deeply with me. Šāhí was, at the time, still, unarguably, in this world:
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٥. Joining Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ
Bis°mi ʾAllꞌah or Bismillah (Arabic, بِسْمِ الله [MP3], “In the Name of ʾAllꞌah”): In the Name of ʾAllꞌah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful! (Arabic, ﷽! [MP3], bis°mi ʾAllꞌah ʾal•Rr°ḥ°man ʾal•Rraḥīmi!). Should one yearn to drink from the life–giving waters or, more literally, wellspring of life (عَيْن الحَيَاة,ʿay°n ʾal•ḥayāẗ [MP3]), one may obtain a fictitious membership in Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ of The Multiversal Communist Collective. The open hand of ʾAllꞌah SWT remains outstretched to all sincere souls. None are ever refused. Bārak ʾAllꞌah fīka! (Arabic, بَارَك الله فِيكَ! [MP3]), “May ʾAllꞌah bless you!” ʾal•Ssalāmu ʿalay°kum wa•rraḥ°maẗ ʾAllꞌah wa•barakāt°h! (Arabic, السَّلامُ عَلَيْكُم وَرَّحْمَة الله وَبَرَكَاتْه! [MP3]), “Peace be upon you and ʾAllꞌah’s mercy and blessings!” ʾÂmīn! (Arabic, آمِين! [MP3]) or ʾĀmēn! (originally Hebrew, אָמֵן! [MP3]), “Amen! (truth or certainty).”
ʾal•Ḥam°du li•llꞌahi! or Alhamdulillah! (Arabic, الْحَمْدُ للهِ! [MP3], “Praise be to ʾAllꞌah!”) and Sub°ḥān ʾAllꞌah! or Subhanallah! (Arabic, سُبْحَان الله! [MP3], “Everyone and everything remains immersed in ʾAllꞌah!”) Only the spiritual aspirant (Arabic, طَمَّاح [MP3], ṭammāḥ; طُمُوح [MP3], ṭumūḥ; or طَامِح [MP3], ṭāmiḥ; Hebrew, שׁוֹאֵף [MP3], šōʾēp̄; Persian, آرْزُومَنْد [MP3], ʾâr°zūman°d; Urdu, آرْزُومَنْدَ [MP3], ʾâr°zūman°da; Shahmukhi Punjabi, بَینَتِیکَرَ [MP3], bēnatíḱara; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਬੇਨਤੀਕਰ [MP3], bēnatīkara; or Hindi, आकांक्षी [MP3], ākāṃkṣī) who is sincerely committed to each of the following reverential activities shall attain, both in spirit and form (Arabic, رُوح وَقَالِب [MP3], rūḥ wa•qālib), to the station (Arabic, المَحَطَّة [MP3], ʾal•maḥaṭṭaẗ), indeed the exalted station (Arabic, مَكَانَاً العَلِيَّاً [MP3], makānāṇ ʾal•ʿaliyyāṇ), of ʾal•murīd (Arabic, المُرِيد [MP3], “the aspirant”):
  1. Bay°ʿaẗ (originally Arabic, بَيْعَة [MP3]), baý°ʿat (Persian, بَیْعَت [MP3]), baý°ʿata (Urdu, بَیْعَتَ [MP3]), or baiata (Hindi, बैअत [MP3]) is a sale, transaction, deal, or bargain with mabīʿāt (Arabic, مَبِيعَات [MP3]) as the plural form. Similarly, the “seller” or “salesman” would be ʾal•bā⫯yiʿ (Arabic, البائِع‎ [MP3]) or ʾal•bāʿaẗ (Arabic, البَاعَة‎ [MP3]) when pluralized. The “saleswoman” is ʾal•bā⫯yiʿaẗ (Arabic, البائِعَة [MP3]) with a plural of ʾal•bā⫯yiʿāt (Arabic, البائِعَات [MP3]). Bayʿaẗ, by itself, is an ordinary Arabic word. It has worldly connotations of merchandizing products and services. In Taṣawwuf or Sufism, however, bay°ʿaẗ or baý°ʿat has been clevarly reimagined. As the beginning of a blissful journal, bayʿaẗ is the spiritual dawning place (Arabic, مَشْرِق [MP3], maš°riq) of a reunion with the Presence of ʾAllꞌah SWT.
    In Taṣawwuf, bay°ʿaẗ is a spiritual transaction. In the sense of chivalry, bay°ʿaẗ refers to a physical or metaphorical handshake or, to be more precise, a handclasp. One pledges one’s allegiance, or homage, to a guide or elder. Thus, joining a ṭarīqaẗ is frequently described as giving bay°ʿaẗ. One may, in a condition of prayerful communion and mediation, offer bay°ʿaẗ to Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS. After having completed this “ritual,” one is now a dervish, a mendicant or beggar, and a spiritually reborn Bāhuwiyy (Arabic, بَاهُوِيّ) [MP3], a disciple of Bāhū AS). The dual form is Bāhuway°ni (بَاهُوَيْنِ [MP3]), while the plural can be either Bāhuwiyyūna (بَاهُِيُّونَ [MP3]) or Bāhuwiyyīna (بَاهُِيِّينَ [MP3]).
  2. Focus, continually, upon visualizing or conceptualizing the performance of devotionally writing the blessed name of ʾAllꞌah (اللّه SWT), in Arabic, upon your own heart (Arabic, تَصَوَّرَ الاِسْم الذَات [MP3], taṣawwara ʾal•ʾis°m ʾal•ḏāt; or Perso–Arabic, تَصَوَّرِ اِسْمِ ذَات [MP3], taṣavvar•i ʾis°m•i ḏāt, “imagining the nameof ʾAllꞌah SWTengraveduponyour ownheart). This practice was developed by the blessed Apostle Bāhū AS. In some Ṣūfiyy paths or orders (Arabic, طُرُق الصُوفِيَّة [MP3], ṭuruq ʾal•Ṣūfiyyaẗ), the heart (Arabic القَلْب, ʾal•qal°b [MP3]) is a subtlety (Arabic, لُطْف [MP3], luṭ°f) and one of the six subtleties (Arabic اللَطَائِف السِتَّة [MP3], ʾal•laṭā⫯yif ʾal•sittaẗ). Remarkably, but perhaps explained by the South Asian Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy interfaith dialogue, the concept of ʾal•laṭā⫯yif ʾal•sittaẗ is strikingly similar to the concept of chakras (Sanskrit, चक्र [MP3], cakra, wheel; or चक्राणि, [MP3], cakrāṇi, wheels) in various other South Asian religious communities.
    ʾal•Qalb ʾal•Laṭāꞌif ʾal•Sittaẗ
  3. Practice ḏik°r (Arabic, ذِكْر [MP3]) or divine remembrance (a cognate of the Hebrew, zēḵẹr, זֵכֶר [MP3], “remembrance,” and zāḵạr, זָכַר [MP3], “remember”). In the daily ḏik°r (Arabic plural, أَذْكَار [MP3], ⫯aḏ°kār) of this ṭarīqaẗ, ḏik°r ʾal•qal°b (Arabic, ذِكْر لُطْف [MP3], “remembrance of the heart”), ʾal•murīd audibly repeats the phrase, Yā ʾAllꞌahu, wa•yā Muḥammad, wa•yā Bāhū! (Arabic, يَا اللّهُ، وَيَا مُحَمَّد، ويَا بَاهُو! [MP3]), for an extended period of time. (The literal English–language translation is O the God, and O Praised One, and O with He!) Stop yourself, however, before becoming exhausted. You may also inscribe the Arabic ḏik°r onto your correspondance and other writing. While reciting or chanting this ḏik°r, turn in the direction (Arabic, القِبْلَة [MP3], ʾal•qib°laẗ) of Garh Maharaja (Urdu or Shahmukhi Punjabi, گَڑْھَ مَہَارَاجَا [MP3], Gaṛ°ha Mahārāǧā; Hindi, गढ़ महाराजा [MP3], Gaṛha Mahārājā; or Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗੜ੍ਹ ਮਹਾਰਾਜਾ [MP3], Gaṛha Mahārājā, “Fort of the Great King”), 30°50′0″ north and 71°54′0″ east. The map directly below might be helpful in this regard.
    Click on the Image to Enlarge
    Ḏik°r, for those individuals unfamiliar with the practice, is similar in convention to repeating a mantra in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and my dearly beloved Sikhism. Here are some renderings of the names of those faiths:
    1. Hiṃdū Dharma (Sanskrit and Hindi, हिंदू धर्म [MP3]), “Hinduism or Indic Support
    2. Sanātana Dharma (Sanskrit and Hindi, सनातन धर्म [MP3]), “Hinduism or Eternal Support
    3. Hin°dūsiyyaẗ (Arabic, هِنْدُوسِيَّة [MP3]), “Hinduism
    4. Hinədūʾiyzəm (Hebrew, הִינְדּוּאִיזְם [MP3]), “Hinduism
    5. Hin°dū⫯yís°m (Persian, هِنْدُوئِیسْم [MP3]), “Hinduism
    6. Hin°dūmata (Urdu, ہِنْدُومَتَ [MP3]), “Hinduism
    7. Hidūvāda (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਹਿੰਦੂਵਾਦ [MP3]), “Hinduism
    8. Hin°dūvāda (Shahmukhi Punjabi, ہِنْدُووَادَ [MP3]), “Hinduism
    1. Buddha Dharma (Sanskrit and Hindi, बुद्ध धर्म [MP3]), “Buddhism or Awakened Support
    2. Buddha Dhamma (Palī, बुद्ध धम्म [MP3]), “Buddhism or Awakened Support
    3. Budha Dharama (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਬੁੱਧ ਧਰਮ [MP3]), “Buddhism or Awakened Support
    4. Bud°ha D°harama (Shahmukhi Punjabi, بُدْھَ دْھَرَمَ [MP3]), “Buddhism or Awakened Support
    5. Buḏiyyaẗ (Arabic, بُوذِيَّة [MP3]), “Buddhism
    6. Būḏəhiyzəm (Hebrew, בּוּדְהִיזְם [MP3]), “Buddhism
    7. Būdís°m (Persian, بُودِیسْم [MP3]), “Buddhism
    8. Bud°hāmata (Urdu, بُدْھَامَتَ [MP3]), “Buddhism
    9. Butparastī (Tajik, Бутпарастӣ [MP3]), “Buddhism
    1. Jaina Dharma (Sanskrit and Hindi, जैन धर्म [MP3]), “Jainism or Victorious Support
    2. Jaina Dharama (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਜੈਨ ਧਰਮ [MP3]), “Jainism or Victorious Support
    3. Ǧaý°na Dharama (Shahmukhi Punjabi, جَیْنَ دهَرَمَ [MP3]), “Jainism or Victorious Support
    4. Ǧay°niyyaẗ (Arabic, جَايْنِيَّة [MP3]), “Jainism
    5. Ḡ′ʾāyĕniyzĕm (Hebrew, ג׳אָיְנִיזְם [MP3]), “Jainism
    6. Ǧaý°nís°m (Persian, جَیْنِیسْم [MP3]), “Jainism
    7. Ǧaý°níz°m (Pashto, جَیْنِیزْم [MP3]), “Jainism
    8. Ǧaý°niz°ma (Urdu, جَیْنِزْمَ [MP3]), “Jainism
    9. Ǧay°nīz°m (Sindhi, جَیْنِيزْم [MP3]), “Jainism
    1. Sikha Dharama (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਿੱਖ ਧਰਮ [MP3]), “Sikhism or Disciple’s Support
    2. Sik°ha D°harama (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سِکْھَ دْھَرَمَ [MP3]), “Sikhism or Disciple’s Support
    3. Sikha Dharma (Hindi, सिख धर्म [MP3]), “Sikhism or Disciple’s Support
    4. Śikha Dharma (Bengali, শিখ ধর্ম [MP3]), “Sikhism or Disciple’s Support
    5. Sīẖiyyaẗ (Arabic, سِيخِيَّة [MP3]), “Sikhism
    6. Siyqiyzəm (Hebrew, סִיקִיזְם [MP3]), “Sikhism
    7. Síḱíz°m (Persian, سِیکِیزْم [MP3]), “Sikhism
    8. Siḱiz°m (Pashto, سِکْهِزْم [MP3]), “Sikhism
    9. Sikiyā (Sindhi, سِکِيَا [MP3]), “Sikhism
    10. Siḱ°hiz°ma (Urdu, سِکْھِزْمَ [MP3]), “Sikhism
    11. Sikəʾizəmə (Amharic, ሲክኢዝም [MP3]), “Sikhism
    One of the more common Hindu mantras, dedicated to the God Shiva (Sanskrit, शिव [MP3], Śiva, “Auspicious One”), is Oṃ Namaḥ Śivāya (Sanskrit, ओं नमः शिवाय [MP3]). My interpretive English–language rendering is: “Oṃ! Obeisance to the Auspicious One of the Heavens.” Another Hindu mantra is the Gāyatrī maṃtra (Sanskrit,गायत्री मंत्र [MP3]). This mantra, named after the Goddesss Gāyatrī (Sanskrit, गायत्री [MP3], song or hymn), reads: Oṃ bhūrbhuvasva:; tatsaviturvareṇyam; bhargo devasya dhīmahi; dhiyo yo na: pracodayāt (Sanskrit, ओं भूर्भुवस्व: । तत्सवितुर्वरेण्यम् । भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि । धियो यो न: प्रचोदयात् [MP3]. My interpretive English–language rendering is: “Oṃ! The Embodiment of spiritual vitality is the Eradicator of all sufferings and the Realization of happiness! The Radiant One is as resplendent as the heavenly sun and is, truly, the Most Exalted! The divine Creator, Reproducer, and Dissolver annihilates all sins! Our inner visions are now wonderfully illuminated!
    A well–known Buddhist example is the Japanese Namu•Myōhō•Renge•Kyō (南無妙法蓮華經 [MP3]) also rendered as Namu Myou Hou Renge Kyo (なむ みょう ほう れんげ きょう or ナム ミョウ ホウ レンゲ [MP3]) or the arguably distorted Japanese Nammyoho Renge Kyo (なっみょほ れんげ きょ or ナッミョホ レンゲ キョ [MP3]). My English–language rendering of the mantra is: “Hail to the inexplicable (or mysterious) law of the Lotus Flower Sutra.” Sūtra (Sanskrit, सूत्र [MP3], sutta (Pāli, सुत्त [MP3]), cūtrā (Tamil, சூத்ரா [MP3]), sūtra (Telugu, సూత్ర [MP3]), sūtra (Malayalam, സൂത്ര [MP3]), sūtra (Kannada, ಸೂತ್ರ [MP3]), s̄ūtr (Thai, สูตร [MP3]), or sūt°ra (Urdu, سُوتْرَ [MP3]) is “thread.”
    A common Tibetan Buddhist mantra, from the original Sanskrit, is Auṃ Maṇipadme Hum (Sanskrit and Nepali, औं मणिपद्मे हुम् [MP3]), Oṃ Maṇipadme Hum (Hindi, ओं मणिपद्मे हुम् [MP3]), oM ma Ni pad+me hU~M (Tibetan, (ཨོཾ་མ་ཎི་པདྨེ་ཧཱུྃ [MP3]), Ommanibanmehum (Korean, 옴마니반메훔 [MP3]), Ǎn•ma•ne•bā•mī•hōng (Mandarin Chinese, 唵嘛呢叭咪吽, [MP3]), Uuံmanibadmehôn (Burmese/Myanmarbharsar, ဥုံမဏိပဒ္မေဟုံ [MP3]), Aum Maṇipadmē Hum̐ (Bengali, ঔম্ মণিপদ্মে হুঁ [MP3]), Ō Maṇipatm Ham (Tamil, ஓ மணிபத்ம் ஹம் [MP3]), Ō Maṇipadmē Ham (Telugu, ఓ మణిపద్మే హమ్ [MP3]), O Maṇippēṁ Haṁ (Malayalam, ഒ മണിപ്പേം ഹം [MP3]), Ō Maṇīpadēmē Hama (Gujarati, ઓ મણીપદેમે હમ [MP3]), Aoum Máni Pántme Choum (Modern Greek/Néa Ellēniká, Αουμ Μάνι Πάντμε Χουμ [MP3]), Úm Ma Ni Bát Ni Hồng (Vietnamese [MP3]), or ʾAw°ma Maní Pad°mē Huma (Urdu, اوْمَ مَنِی پَدْمَے ہُمَ [MP3]). A rough translation is: “Auṃ! Praise to the Jewel in the Lotus Flower!
    Oṃ or Auṃ, as chanted in this MP3 audio file, has no particular or known definition. However, the syllable has sometimes been regarded as the primordial sound of existence, as the original vibration which set the universe in motion, or, in comparison to conventional doctrines in numerous branches of Christianity, as an impassioned expression of the creative Word (Ancient Greek, Λόγος [MP3], Lógos) of God. Commonly referred to as the praṇava mantra (Sanskrit, प्रणव मन्त्र [MP3], “powerful mantra”), Oṃ or Auṃ remains a sacred sound in a variety of respectable South Asian spiritual and faith traditions. Oṃ (Sanskrit, ओं [MP3]) and the common Buddhist spelling Auṃ (Sanskrit, औं [MP3]) are symbolized by the Devanāgarī glyph ॐ (MP3), Oṃ, and the Bengali glyph, ওঁ (MP3), Ōm̐.
    Quite similarly, the pronunciation of YHWH or YHVH (Hebrew, יהוה‎) is frequently approximated as Yahweh or Yahveh (Hebrew, יָהְוֶה [MP3], Yāhəwẹh). These letters, spelled in any fashion, are considered to be so profoundly sacred by some religious Jews that speaking them outloud, or writing them, is prohibited. YHWH, also known as the Tetragrámmaton (Ancient Greek, Τετραγράμματον [MP3], literally, “four letters”), may present us with a useful analogy to Oṃ or Auṃ. Based upon the reflections of the Franciscan Roman Catholic priest, Father Richard Rohr (born in 1943), YHWH literally cannot be voiced. The word, to him, is not a word. Instead, the Yahweh Prayer (MP3), as Rohr calls it, represents the sound of a full breath (yah … weh):
    I cannot emphasize enough the momentous importance of the Jewish revelation of the name of God. It puts the entire nature of our spirituality in correct context and, if it had been followed, could have freed us from much idolatry and arrogance. As we now spell and pronounce it, the word is Yahweh.… It [YHVH] was considered a literally unspeakable word for Jews, and any attempt to know what we were talking about was “in vain,” as the commandment said (Exodus 20:7). Instead, they used Elohim [Hebrew, אֱלֹהִים; MP3, ʾĔlōhiym, “Almighty”] or Adonai [Hebrew, אֲדֹנָי; MP3, ʾĂḏōnāy, “Lord”] in speaking or writing. From God’s side the divine identity was kept mysterious and unavailable to the mind; when Moses asked for the divinity’s name, he got only the phrase that translates something to this effect: “I AM WHO AM.… This is my name forever; this is my title for all generations” (Exodus 3:14–15).
    This unspeakability has long been recognized, but we now know it goes even deeper: formally the word was not spoken at all, but breathed! Many are convinced that its correct pronunciation is an attempt to replicate and imitate the very sound of inhalation and exhalation. The one thing we do every moment of our lives is therefore to speak the name of God. This makes it our first and our last word as we enter and leave the world.
    〜 Richard Rohr. The Naked Now: Learning to See as the Mystics See. New York: A Crossroad Book imprint of The Crossroad Publishing Company. 2009. Pages 25–26.
    My own rendering of a Jain mantra’s name is the genuflection mantra (Sanskrit, णमोकार मंत्र [MP3], ṇamokāra maṃtra): “Ṇamo arihaṃtāṇaṃ. Ṇamo siddhāṇaṃ. Ṇamo āyariyāṇaṃ. Ṇamo uvajjhāyāṇaṃ. Ṇamo loe savva sāhūṇaṃ. Esopaṃcaṇamokkāro, savvapāvappaṇāsaṇo. Maṃgalā ṇaṃ ca savvesiṃ. Paḍamama havaī maṃgalaṃ.” (Sanskrit, णमो अरिहंताणं ॥ णमो सिद्धाणं ॥ णमो आयरियाणं ॥ णमो उवज्झायाणं ॥ णमो लोए सव्व साहूणं ॥ एसोपंचणमोक्कारो । सव्वपावप्पणासणो ॥ मंगला णं च सव्वेसिं ॥ पडमम हवई मंगलं ॥ [MP3]) The following is an actual English–language translation of the text of the genuflection mantra: “I bow to the conquerers. I bow to the accomplished ones. I bow to the preceptors. I bow to the monks. I bow to all the sages of the world. This five–fold salutation completely destroys all sins. Of all auspicious mantras, [it] is indeed the most auspicious one.”
    Sikhism was, of course, discussed earlier in this obsequious monograph. Returning to the subject, among the more common Sikh mantras is the mool mantra (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਮੂਲ ਮੰਤਰ [MP3], mūla matara, “root mantra”): (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਇੱਕ ਓਅੰਕਾਰ ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥ [MP3 file contains two renditions of the mantra], Ika Ōꞌakāra Sati Nāmu karatā purakhu nirabhaꞌu niravairu akāla mūrati ajūnī saibha Gura prasādi.). My own interpretive rendering of the mantra is as follows: “One Oṃ–Maker! Through the True, the Ideal, Name of the Personal Creator, may fear and hatred be wiped away forevermore! The manifestation of the Preexistent One is eternally self–subsisting! The grace of Guru, the Enlightener, protects us!
    In the Bahá’í Faith, which was also previously mentioned in the monograph, among the regularly recited mantras is ʾAllꞌahu ⫯Ab°hāỳ (Arabic, اللهُ أَبْهَى [MP3]). This beautiful form of the Greatest Name (Arabic, اِسْم الأَعْظَم [MP3], ʾIs°m ʾal•⫯Aʿ°ẓam) can be translated as either ʾAllꞌah SWT is the Most Glorious or ʾAllꞌah SWT is the All–Glorious. In the daily obligatory ḏik°r of the Bahá’í Faith, ʾAllꞌahu ⫯Ab°hāỳ is repeated ninety–five times. To do the counting, some Bahá’ís (Arabic, بَهَائِيِّينَ [MP3], Bahā⫯yiyyīna, or بَهَائِيُّونَ [MP3], Bahā⫯yiyyūna; Persian, بَهَائِیَان [MP3], Bahā⫯ýiýān; Urdu, بَہَائِیَتَ [MP3], Bahā⫯ýiýāta; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਬਹਾਇਆ [MP3], Bahāꞌiꞌā; Shahmukhi Punjabi, بَہَائِیَا [MP3], Bahā⫯ýiýā; or Hindi, बहाईयों [MP3], Bahāīyoṃ) use specially designed prayer beads, others juxtapose the fingers of both hands, and still others rely upon additional methods.
  4. Islamophobia (Arabic, خَوْف مِن إِسْلَام [MP3], ẖaw°f min ʾal•⫰Is°lām; Hebrew, אִסְלָאמוֹפוֹבְּיָה [MP3], ʾIsəlāʾmōp̄ōbəyāh; Persian, گَرَایِشِ اِسْلَامِ هَرَاسِی [MP3], garāýiš•i ʾIs°lām•i harāsí; Urdu, اِسْلَامُفُوبِیَا [MP3], ʾIs°lāmufūbiýā; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਇਸਲਾਮਫੋਬਿਆ [MP3], Isalāmaphōbiꞌā; or Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَلَامَفُوبِیَا [MP3], ʾIsalāmafūbiýā), which is rampant on the Right, is obviously forbidden for members of this Islamic ṭarīqaẗ. Unfortunately, I have also occasionally witnessed Islamophobia on the Left (or faux left). Certainly, Leftists, including our members, have no business imitating right–wing bigots and being Islamophobes. Personally speaking, as an sociologist with a specialization in religious studies, Sufism in particular, I have constantly found myself fighting Islamophobia. Muḥammad SAW, to be explicit, did not consummate the relationship with His child bride, Aisha (Arabic, عَائِشَة [MP3], ʿA⫯yišaẗ, “living one”) SAA until she had passed the time of puberty. Bear in mind, however, that the Prophet’s matrimonial practices were virtually universal in premodernity, as with the early U.S. settlers and as reported in the Old Testament. At a four–year college I once worked, in Southern Appalachia, one of the female members of the cleaning staff was married, she told me, at the age of twelve. Furthermore, slavery and marriage practices cannot be, legitimately, compared. Slavery, as a form of oppression, I, as a moral realist, would assert is bad under all circumstances. However, marriage practices, even today, vary widely across the world (even in my own country, the U.S.). As I often say, the past cannot be judged by the standards of the present. The social more, or significant norm, of marrying at older ages is quite recent. Over the long sweep of history, people, particularly females, got married at young ages. I am not arguing against current social mores regarding marriage, only pointing out that they are, in fact, new. Instead of the focus being on the Prophet Muḥammad SAW, it should instead be on how the practices of marrying at older ages in some, though not all, contemporary societies came to be adopted. The fundamental reasons for the ever–increasing delays in marriage are industrialization, which led to increased urbanization—as young people left farming communities to work in the factories—resulting in the rise of the nuclear, or conjugal, family. More recently, additional delays can be attributed to the rising numbers of women in the workplace.
  5. As a member of a Marxist–Luxemburgist (MP3) communist ṭarīqaẗ, dedicate yourself, in a lifestyle of divine servitude (Arabic, عُبُودِيَّة [MP3], ʿubūdiyyaẗ), to fighting capitalism and all forms of oppression in the capitalist world–system. Practice a pure, sincere, high–minded, and classless etiquette of tʿāraf (Persian, تعَارَف [MP3], “deference or civility”), liḥāẓa (Urdu, لِحَاظَ [MP3], “deference or consideration”), tāwān (Pashto, تَاوَان [MP3], “deference or loss”), farogirī (Tajik, фарогирӣ [MP3], “deference or respect”), kāḇōḏ (Hebrew, כָּבוֹד [MP3], “deference or honor”), ⫰iḏ°ʿānuṇ (Arabic, إِذْعَانٌ [MP3], “deference or compliance”), sūfīr (Sindhi, سُوفِير [MP3], “deference”), rak°hinī (Sindhi, رَكْهِنِي [MP3], “keeping deference”), sanamāna (Gurumakhi Punjabi, ਸਨਮਾਨ [MP3], “deference or respect”), or sanamāna (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَنَمَانَ [MP3], “deference or respect”). Strive to emulate the great Marxist heroine Rosa Luxemburg ([German/Deutsch; MP3], Róża Luksemburg [Polish/Polski; MP3], Róży Luksemburg [Polish; [MP3], Rōzạh bạṯ ʾĔliyyāhū [Hebrew, רוֹזַה בַּת אֱלִיָּהוּ; MP3], Rʾọsʾạ bạṯ ʾĔliyyāhū [Yiddish/Yiyḏiyš, ראָסאַ בַת אֱלִיָּהוּ; MP3], Rūzaẗ ʾib°naẗ ⫰Iy°liyā [Arabic, رُوزَة اِبْنَة إِيْلِيَا; MP3], or Rūzah duẖ°tar•i ʾIl°ýās [Persian, رُوزَه دُخْتَرِ اِلْیَاس; MP3], Roza duxtar•i Iljos [Tajik, Роза духтари Илёс; MP3], ʾIý°laýāh ḱí Bēṭí ḱā Rūzā [Urdu/ʾUr°dū, اِیْلَیَا کِی بَیٹِی کَا رُوزَا; MP3], Ēlīyāha dī dhī Rōzā [Guramukhi Punjabi, ਏਲੀਯਾਹ ਦੀ ਧੀ ਰੋਜ਼ਾ; MP3], ʾAý°líýāha, i.e., ʾĒ°líýāha, dí d°hí Rūzā [Shahmukhi Punjabi, اَیْلِییَاہَ دِی دْھِی رُوزَہ; MP3], or Red Rosa 🌹 [German, rote Rosa [MP3]; or Polish, rudy Rosa [MP3]). Rosa, the daughter of Eliasz (Polish; MP3) and Liny (Polish; MP3), was born, in Poland, on March 5ᵗʰ, 1871.
    At only 48–years old, Rosa became a secular martyr, after being assassinated by rifle, in Berlin, Germany, on January 15ᵗʰ, 1919. That very same year, my Jewish father was born—eight months nine days later—on September 24ᵗʰ, 1919, in Brooklyn, New York. In Rosa’s magnificent spirit, work heartily, and with revolutionary fervor, for democratic libertarian communism. Defend the masses, especially the victims of neofascism, in the Autonomist Antifa Movement (MP3). Bāhū AS Himself, while living centuries before the inception of Marxism, was personally committed to ending sectarian divisions in Islam. Upon rejecting disunity or dualism for unity or nonduality, the dialectical contradictions in His life were absented. He was emancipated through copresence or solidarity. I am writing these words in January of the bittersweet year of 2019. It is the 100ᵗʰ anniversary of the assassination of Rosa Luxemburg. 2019 would also have been my late father’s 100ᵗʰ birthday.
    Conservative religious theology and practice, frequently viewed through the patronizing lens of moral exclusivity by religionists on the right, may receive the majority of the public’s attention. By the same token, historically, many of the greatest saints, heroes, and heroines—those who are presently championed by some of these same conservative religionists—were themselves anything but conservatives. They broke with traditional social norms and, at the same time, openly challenged dominant religious authorities. A similar social narrative holds true today. Unfortunately, “radical” has become little more than an over–used smear word. The term’s frequently twisted usage has made it almost useless. Whatever the language, one should be proudly, and globally, a extremist:
    1. Semitic: mutaṭarrif (Arabic, مُتَطَرِّف [MP3]), qiyṣōniy (Hebrew, קִיצוֹנִי [MP3]), sꞌənəfäña (Amharic, ጽንፈኛ [MP3]), sawpanaʾ (Syriac/Sūryayaʾ, ܣܵܘܦܵܢܵܐ [MP3]), and estremisti (Maltese/Malti [MP3]).
    2. Indo–Iranian: ʾin°tihā pasan°da (Urdu, اِنْتِہَا پَسَنْدَ [MP3]), ʾin°tihāpasan°d (Sindhi, اِنْتِهَاپَسَنْد [MP3]), ʾif°rātí (Persian and Pashto, اِفْرَاطَی [MP3]), ifrotgaro (Tajik, ифротгаро [MP3]), kaṭaṛavādī (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕੱਟੜਵਾਦੀ [MP3]), ḱaṭaṛavādí (Shahmukhi Punjabi, کَٹَڑَوَادِی [MP3]), ativādin (Sanskrit/Saṃskrtam, अतिवादिन् [MP3]), ativādī (Hindi, अतिवादी [MP3]), antavādīn (Sinhalese, අන්තවාදීන් [MP3]), ugravādī (Nepali/Nēpālī, उग्रवादी [MP3]), and caramapanthī (Bengali, চরমপন্থী [MP3]).
    3. Dravidian: oru tīvravādi (Malayalam, ഒരു തീവ്രവാദി [MP3]), ugragāmi (Kannada, ಉಗ್ರಗಾಮಿ [MP3]), ativāda (Telugu, అతివాద [MP3]), and tīviravāti (Tamil, தீவிரவாதி [MP3]).
    4. Sino–Tibetan: jíduān•ēnzi (Mandarin Chinese, 极端分子 [MP3]), gik6•dyun1•zyu12•zi2 (Cantonese Chinese, 极端分子 [MP3]), and hcyan•ayrark•warde (Burmese, အစြန္းေရာက္ဝါဒီ [MP3]).
    5. Kra–Dai: h̄ạw•runræng (Thai, หัวรุนแรง [MP3]) and hua•hunæhng (Lao/Pʰasalav, ຫົວຮຸນແຮງ [MP3]).
    6. Austroasiatic: chroulniyom (Khmer, ជ្រុលនិយម [MP3]) and một kẻ cực đoan (Vietnamese [MP3]).
    7. Italic: ultra (Latin, ultrā [MP3])) or ne plus ultra (Latin, nē plūs ultrā [MP3]), extrémiste (French [MP3]), extremista (Spanish [MP3]), extremista (Portugese/Portuguê [MP3]), extremista (Italian/Italiano [MP3]), and extremist (Romanian/Limba Română [MP3]).
    8. Germanic: Extremist (German [MP3]), extremistische (Dutch/Nederlands [MP3]), ekstremist (Danish/Dansk [MP3]), ekstremistisk (Norwegian [MP3]), extremist (Swedish/Svenska [MP3]), öfgafullur (Icelandic/Íslenska [MP3]), víðgongdur (Faroese/Føroyskt Mál [MP3]), ekstremist (Frisian/Frysk [MP3]), and ekstremistiese (Afrikaans [MP3]).
    9. East Slavic: ékstremistskij (Russian, экстремистский [MP3]), ekstremíst (Ukrainian, екстреміст [MP3]), and ékstrémíst (Belarusian/Belaruskaâ Mova, экстрэміст [MP3]).
    10. West Slavic: extrémista (Slovak/Slovenčina [MP3]), ekstremista (Polish [MP3]), and extrémisty (Czech/Čeština [MP3]).
    11. South Slavic: ekstremista (Bosnian–Serbo–Croatian/Bosanski–Srpski–Hrvatski, ekstremista or екстремиста [MP3]), ekstremistki (Bulgarian/Bǎlgarski, екстремистки [MP3]), skrajnežev (Slovenian/Slovenščina [MP3]) or ekstremistično (Slovenian [MP3]), and ekstremistički (Macedonian/Makedonski, екстремистички [MP3]).
    12. Finnic–Uralic: äärimmäisyysmies (Finnish/Suomi [MP3]) and äärmuslik (Estonian/Eesti keel [MP3]).
    13. Austronesian: seorang ekstremis (Indonesian/bahasa Indonesia [MP3]), lan ekstremis (Javanese/basa Jawa [MP3]), ka poʿe extremist (Hawaiian/ʿŌlelo Hawaiʿi [MP3]), kaiwhakatuma (Māori/Te Reo Māori [MP3]), extremist (Sundanese/Basa Sunda [MP3]), and ekstremista (Filipino/Wikang Filipino [MP3]).
    14. Turkic: aşırılıkçı (Turkish [MP3]), ékstremisttik (Kyrgyz/Kyrgyzča, экстремисттик [MP3]), ekstremistik (Uzbek/Oʻzbek tili [MP3]), ékstremistík (Kazakh/Qazaq Tílí, экстремистік [MP3]), and ifratçı (Azerbaijani [MP3]).
    15. Bantu: wachikulire (Chichewa/Cinyanja/Cinianja [MP3]) and chinopisa (Shona [MP3]).
    16. linguistic isolates: cayraheġakan (Armenian, the lone survivor of the Thraco–Phrygian Indo–European sub–family, ծայրահեղական [MP3]), extremistḗs (Modern Greek, εξτρεμιστής [MP3]), muturreko (Basque/Euskara [MP3]), kŭktan chuŭija (Korean, 극단 주의자 [MP3]), and ekstremist (Albanian/Gjuha Shqipe [MP3]).
    17. constructed languages (conlangs): ekstremisto (Esperanto [MP3]), lölimik (Volapük [MP3]), estremiste (Lingua Franca Nova/Elefen/LFN [MP3]), extremista (Interlingua [MP3]), ekstremist (Interslavic [MP3]), extremiste (Sambahsa/Sambahsa–Mundialect [MP3]), extremista (Lingwa de Planeta/Lidepla/LdP [MP3] my own coined term based upon standard LdP rules), ekstremist (Slovio [MP3]), extremist (Unish [MP3]), uvilupuno (Kah [MP3]), and extremarum partium fautor (Neo–Latin [MP3]) or extremarum partium sectator (Neo–Latin [MP3]).
    18. miscellaneous: kageki•ha (Japanese, 過激派 [MP3]), kageki ha (Japanese, かげき は [MP3]), kageki ha (Japanese, カゲキ ハ [MP3]), msimamo mkali (Swahili/Kiswahili [MP3]), xag–jirnimo (Somali/Af–Soomaali [MP3]), extremistas (Yucatec Maya/Màaya tꞌàan [MP3]), and ekstʼremistʼuli (Georgian/Kartuli En, ექსტრემისტული [MP3]).
    Morality, as emancipatory praxis, is spiritually transformative agency. In a theology of liberation, the Apostles became revolutionaries and Leftist extremists. They were not reactionaries. However, some social conservatives have have duped the U.S. public. Presumably to win elections, they equate morality with traditionalism, while the opposite is true. Was Jesus (Hebrew, יֵשׁוּעַ [MP3], Yēšūʿạ; or Arabic, يَسُوعَ [MP3], Yasūʿa) AS in challenging polytheism, a conservative? Muḥammad’s SAW Own followers were clearly not pacifists in the face of injustice. They engaged, instead, in a revolutionary defense, or jihad (Arabic, جِهَاد [MP3], ǧihād, “striving or struggle”), for their community. When Moses (Hebrew, מֹשֶׁה [MP3], Mōšẹh; Arabic, مُوسَى [MP3], Mūsaỳ) AS and His disciples were persecuted in the land of Egypt, they placed their trust in ʾAllꞌah SWT and became the emigrants (Arabic, الحُجَاج [MP3], ʾal•ḥuǧāǧ) of the wildernesss. Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS, for His part, challenged, and then rejected, both major branches of Islam.
    Furthermore, the New Testament taught communism:
    All the believers were one in heart and mind. No one claimed that any of their possessions was their own, but they shared everything they had. With great power the apostles continued to testify to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus. And God’s grace was so powerfully at work in them all that there were no needy persons among them. For from time to time those who owned land or houses sold them, brought the money from the sales and put it at the apostles’ feet, and it was distributed to anyone who had need.
    Acts 4:32-35. New International Version.
  6. The official religion of the Collective is Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū’s AS Taṣawwuf ʾal•Qād°riyyaẗ ʾal•Sār°wāriyyaẗ (Perso–Arabic, تَصَوُّف القَادْرِيَّة السَارْوَارِيَّة [MP3]), Taṣavvuf•i Qād°riýah•i Sār°vāriýah (Persian, تَصَوُّفِ قَادْرِیَهِ سَارْوَارِیَه [MP3]), Sārawāriýýata Qād°riýýata Taṣawwufa (Urdu, سَارَوَارِیَّتَ قَادْرِرِیَّتَ تَصَوُّفَ [MP3]), Saravarī–Kādarī Sūfīvāda (Hindi, सरवरी–कादरी सूफ़ीवाद [MP3]; or Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਰਵਰੀ–ਕਾਦਰੀ ਸੂਫ਼ੀਵਾਦ [MP3]), or Saravarí–Kādarí Sūfívāda (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَرَوَرِی ـ قَادَرِی سُوفِیوَادَ [MP3]), “Sufism of the Competence of Mastery”. We live in a libertarian communist collective. Therefore, membership in the religion, a a branch of Taṣawwuf ʾal•Qād°riyyaẗ ʾal•Sār°wāriyyaẗ, will always be voluntary. Since, however, this form of Taṣawwuf guides the philosophy and activity of our ṭarīqaẗ, each of the honored members is expected to earnestly follow the guidance of Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ. It is represented by the democratically elected píra ū mur°šida. More broadly, the most common forms of religious expression within The Multiversal Communist Collective can be found in the diverse traditions and schools of Ṣūfiyy Islam (Arabic, إِسْلَام الصُوفِيَّة [MP3], ⫰Is°lām ʾal•Ṣūfiyyaẗ). Citizens of the Collective, like the stars in the heavens (Arabic, النُجُوم فِي السَمَاوَات [MP3], ʾal•nuǧūm fī ʾal•samāwāt), are associated with a considerable number of them. Our sisters and brothers (Arabic, أَخَوات وَإِخْوَة [MP3], ⫯aẖawāt wa•⫰iẖ°waẗ) may, in peace (فِي سَّلَام, fī ssalām [MP3]), join as many of these spiritual organizations and movements as they choose.

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٦. Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy Studies and More
This fanciful Collective and its mythical ṭarīqaẗ lovingly commemorate the glorious Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement (Arabic, حَرَكَة البْهَاكْتِيَّة ـ الصُوفِيَّة [MP3], ḥarakaẗ ʾal•B°hāk°tiyyaẗ–ʾal•Ṣūfiyyaẗ), circa 800–1700 A.D. Furthermore, my personal prototype, or ideal type, for devotion is that same Bhakti or Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement. The adorational center, or flowering, of the Golden Age of Islam might be found in this heart–focused movement. It arose chiefly from within the subaltern (MP3), or marginalized, peasant populations of diverse faiths in South Asia (Urdu, جَنُوبِی ایْشِیَا MP3], Ǧanūbí ʾAý°šiýā), including the Indus Valley (Urdu, وَادْیِ سنْدْھَ [MP3], Wād°ý•i Sin°d°ha). It was a wonderful spiritual movement. Sadly, it can never be fully recouped in the wake of the horrendous, reprehensible, and all–pervasive interfaith violence from South Asia’s anticolonial warfare during the mid–20ᵗʰ century.
To put it another way, Sufism developed principally in South Asia. The extended association between devotional Hindus (Sanskrit, हिंदुओं [MP3], Hiṃduoṃ, “rivers” or “oceans”) and Muslims (Arabic, مُسْلِمُونَ [MP3], Mus°limūna, “peacefully surrendering ones”) was largely responsible for this wonderfully transcendent phenomenon. Although aspects of the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement have been carried forward in some contemporary spiritual organizations, the final and unfortunate breakup of India into two, and then three, countries in the 20ᵗʰ century signaled the end of the movement’s prominence as a compelling social force in South Asia. Yet, the regional and Western influence of the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement’s has endured, albeit with a considerably diminished influence, until the present time. I have produced two relevant podcasts (MP3) for The Dr. Mark Foster Show.
Listen to this delightful Hindu (Sanskrit, हिंदू [MP3], Hiṃdū, “river” or “ocean”) bhakti song (MP3). The ecstasy of devotion to God, rather than the tragedy of an empty legalism, empowered this enlightened era of interfaith unity. Given the syncretism, or blending of spiritual traditions, in the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement, terms from Urdu, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Hindi, and so forth are used in certain sections of the monograph. The parent order of Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ, the Ṭaríqat•i Qād°riýah•i Sār°vāriýah, made an important contribution to the vibrancy and long life of that movement. Here is some background information on to the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement’s history of pure light, including the role played by Muḥammad’s SAW beloved Lesser Prophet, the Luminous Moon of the Punjab Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS:
The Bhakti–Sufi movement was … [a] major pan–Indian articulation … of subaltern dissent.
The spokesmen/women of the movement mostly came from the subaltern or marginalised sections of society and were workers, women or Muslims …. Sultan Bahu … and other Sufi poets were Muslims by birth.
〜 K. Satchidanandan, “Between Saints and Secularists.” Belonging. Volume II. Issue 3. Undated. No pagination.
An important landmark in the cultural history of medieval India [Hindi, इंडिया; MP3, Iṃḍiyā, “river” or “ocean”] was the silent revolution in society brought about by a galaxy of socio-religious reformers, a revolution known as the Bhakti Movement. This movement was responsible for many rites and rituals associated with the worship of God by Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs [Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਿੱਖਾਂ; MP3, Sikhāṁ] of [the] Indian subcontinent. For example, Kirtan [Sanskrit, कीर्तन; MP3, kīrtana, “telling”] at a Hindu Temple, Qawaali [Urdu, قَوُّالِی; MP3, qawwālí, “utterance”] at a Dargah [Persian, دَرْگَه; MP3, dar°gah, “threshold” or, by implication, shrine] (by Muslims), and singing of Gurbani [Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗੁਰਬਾਣੀ; MP3, gurabāṇī, “wise speech”] at a Gurdwara [Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ; MP3, guraduꞌārā, “door to the guru”], are all derived from the Bhakti movement of medieval India (800–1700) ….
Sufism represents the inward or esoteric side of Islam or the mystical dimension of Muslim religion. However, the Sufi saints transcending all religious and communal distinctions, worked for promoting the interest of humanity at large. The Sufis [Arabic, صُوفِيُّونَ; MP3, Ṣūfiyyūna] were a class of philosophers remarkable for their religious catholicity …. It [Sufism] rebelled against all forms of religious formalism, orthodoxy, falsehood and hypocrisy and endeavoured to create a new world order in which spiritual bliss was the only and the ultimate goal ….
… Sultan Bahu (ca 1628–1691) was a Muslim Sufi and saint who founded the Sarwari Qadiri Sufi order. Sultan Bahu was born in Anga, Soon Valley, in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Like many other Sufi saints of South Asia Sultan Bahu was a prolific writer. More than forty books on Sufism are attributed to him, mostly in Persian.
〜 Arun Joshi, “Bhakti Movement in India and Punjab.” The Times of India. Undated. No pagination.
India saw a remarkable fusion of Islamic [Arabic, إِسْلَامِيَّة; MP3, ⫰Is°lāmiyyaẗ] and indigenous Hindu traditions, giving rise to a rich composite culture.… One of the best representatives of this confluence of traditions is the Bhakti-Sufi movement, a form of personal piety that challenged the hegemony of the religious orthodoxy and crusaded against caste and community divisions and meaningless ritualism.
A wealth of literature abounds with the teachings and writings of these Hindu and Sufi mystics ….
〜 Laxmi G. Tewari, “Common Grounds between Bhajan and Qawwali.‧ Conference on Music in the World of Islam. Assilah. August 8ᵗʰ–13ᵗʰ, 2007. Assilah, Morocco. Page 1–3. Retrieved on August 17ᵗʰ, 2013.
There have been further expressions of the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement, and its subsequent offshoots, to which I was drawn at various points of my life. For instance, at 12 years old (1968), I nearly joined Sikhism, a progeny of that movement, founded by the magnificent saint, Guru Nanak Dev (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ ਦੇਵ [MP3], Gurū Nānaka Dēva; Shahmukhi Punjabi, گُرُو نَانَک دَیوَ [MP3], Gurū Nānaḱa Dēva; or Hindi, गुरु नानक देव [MP3], Guru Nānaka Deva) AS 1469–1539. Sikhism’s strong monotheism coupled with its doctrine of reincarnation were particularly attractive to me. However, through snail mail correspondence, that same year, with the Sikh Temple in Stockton, California, I was, sadly at the time, convincingly dissuaded by the five Ks (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪੰਜ ਕਕਾਰ [MP3], paja kakāra), which has been illustrated in the image below, for baptised Sikhs.
Reluctantly, I acknowledged that Sikhism, however much I loved it, was rooted in an earlier time and a far different locale. The religion’s mode of dress and hair style was never intended for the student locker room of a 1960s American gymnasium. Attiring myself with such unconventional accoutrements, displayed in the two pictures below left, made no more sense than wearing the medieval European apparel of a traditional Hasidic Jew (Hebrew/ʿIḇəriyṯ, יְהוּדִי הַחָסִיד [MP3], Yəhūḏiy hạ•Ḥāsiyḏ), as portrayed below right. Being thus adorned, with the trappings of one faith or the other, would have placed a target on my back. I cannot imagine the reception by my seventh–grade classmates, especially from the school’s many bullies. Wearing such garments would simply have multipled, to unimaginable levels, the discrimination I was already receiving as an Autistic boy.
Sikh man Sikh man Hasidic men
Despite my experience at 12, the interest I developed in in Sikhism has, surprisingly, continued through the years. My heartfelt affection for that religion has remained with me to this day. More recently, in 2018, I established an association with the neo–Sikh Sant Nirankari Mission (Hindi, संत निरंकारी मिशन, Saṃta Niraṃkārī Miśana [MP3]; or Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸੰਤ ਨਿਰੰਕਾਰੀ ਮਿਸ਼ਨ, Sata Nirakārī Miśana [MP3], “Mission of the Truth–Teller of the Formless One”) on April 6ᵗʰ, 2018. It is currently under the direction of Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev Ji (Hindi, सतगुरु माता सविंदर हरदेव जी [MP3], Sataguru Mātā Saviṃdara Haradeva Jī; or Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਮਾਤਾ ਸਾਵਿਤਰੀ ਹਰਦੇਵ ਜੀ [MP3], Satigurū Mātā Sāvitarī Haradēva Jī), born in 1957.
The organization was started, in 1980, by Baba Buta Singh (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਬਾਬਾ ਬੂਟਾ ਸਿੰਘ [MP3], Bābā Būṭā Sigha; or Hindi, बाबा बंटा सिंह [MP3], Bābā Baṃṭā Siṃha), 1954–2016 (perished in an automobile accident):
Baba Buta Singh
Baba Buta Singh
Mata Savinder Hardev Ji
Mata Savinder Hardev Ji
The simran (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਿਮਰਨ [MP3], simarana; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਿਮਰਨਾ [MP3], simaranā; Hindi, सिमरण [MP3], simaraṇa; Hindi, सिमरन [MP3], simarana; or Urdu and Shahmukhi Punjabi, سِمَرَنَ, simarana [MP3], “remembrance”), an originally Guramukhi Punjabi word (from the Sanskrit, स्मरण [MP3], smaraṇa, “remembrance”), of Sant Nirankari Mission is Eka tū hī niraṃkāra, maiṃ terī śaraṇa, menū bakṣa lo (Hindi, एक तू ही निरंकार, मैं तेरी शरण, मेनू बक्ष लो [MP3] or chanted [MP3], “O Thou Formless One, I surrender to Thee. Please forgive me.”).
Decades earlier, unaware of any historical nexus with Sikhism, I was, in approximately 1970, attracted to the religion of Eckankar (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਇੱਕ ਓਅੰਕਾਰ [MP3], Ika Ōꞌakāra; Shahmukhi Punjabi, اِکَ اوَنْکَارَ [MP3], ʾIḱa ʾAwanḱāra; Hindi, एक ओंकार [MP3], Eka Oṃkāra; Urdu, اَیْکَ اَوْنْکَار [MP3], ʾAy°ḱa ʾAwn°ḱāra; Bengali, এক ওয়ানঙ্কার [MP3], Ēka Ōẏānaṅkāra; Telugu, ఒక ఒయాంకర్ [MP3], Oka Oyāṅkar; Tamil, ஒரு ஒயிங்கர் [MP3], Oru Oyiṅkar; Sinhalese, එක ඔයන්කාර් එකක් [MP3], Eka Oyankār Ekak; Malayalam, ഒരു ഓങ്കങ്കർ [MP3], Oru Ōṅkaṅkara, “One Oṃ–Makeror One God, symbolized as ੴ)―an Americanized branch of a heterodox (Arabic, , غَيْر الأُرْثُوذُكْسِيِّينَ [MP3], ġay°r ʾal•⫯ur°ṯūḏuk°siyyīna) and extrasensory (Arabic, خَارِجَ الحَوَاسّ [MP3], ẖāriǧa ʾal•ḥawass) outgrowth from Sikhism and, thence, the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement in the main.
Eckankar was founded, in 1965, by John “Paul” Twitchell (1909–1971). Regrettably, Twitchell brazenly lied when denying any prior involvement with his parent tradition, Radha Soami Satsang (Hindi, राधा स्वामी सत्संग [MP3], Rādhā Svāmī Satsaṃga, “true associationbythe possessor of prosperity”), and its clairvoyant and clairaudient meditation, Surat Shabd Yoga (Hindi, सूरत शब्द योग [MP3], Sūrata Śabda Yōga, “union through attention to the word”). He became an adept of Kirpal Singh (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕਿਰਪਾਲ ਸਿੰਘ [MP3], Kirapāla Sigha), 1894–1974, and his Ruhani Satsang (Hindi, रूहानी सत्संग [MP3], Rūhānī Satsaṃga, “spiritual true association”) in 1955. The latter was an illicit schism, given that the intended successor was named in a will, of Radha Soami Satsang Beas (Hindi, राधा स्वामी सत्संग ब्यास [MP3], Rādhā Svāmī Satsaṃga Byāsa), itself a schism.
Eventually, a photograph featuring Twitchell alongside Singh torpedoed the scam. A considerable number of Eckists, as they are called, dejectedly abandoned the organization. Heartbroken, many felt, legitimately it seems to me, as though Twitchell had duped, even swindled, them. In my own case, I recall that only a minor postal miscommunication between me, at around thirteen-years old, and the movement’s Las Vegas headquarters (subsequently in Menlo Park, California, and presently in Chanhassen, Minnesota) prevented me from obtaining membership in the organization. Their returned letter could have dampened my enthusiasm, but I had already lost interest. Even so, my attraction to Surat Shabd Yoga resumed in earnest, and even stronger than before, several years later.
In the photograph below, Kirpal Singh is in the middle, and Paul Twitchell is on the far right:
Kirpal Singh with Paul Twitchell
Click on the Picture for the Black–and–White Image
I was, therefore, ultimately initiated, following my ethnographic or participant–observational interests as a sociologist, into three other factions of the contemplative Surat Shabd Yoga. However, I stopped practicing the meditation after I developed something like tinnitus (Arabic طَنِينُ الأُذُن [MP3], ṭanīnu ʾal•⫯uḏun), which could have some relation to my Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (Arabic اِضْطِرَاب الوَسْوَاس القَهْرِيّ [MP3], ʾiḍ°ṭirāb ʾal•was°wās ʾal•qah°riyy)—a secondary comorbidity to my Autism Spectrum Disorder (Arabic اِضْطِرَاب الطَيْف التَوَحُّد [MP3], ʾiḍ°ṭirāb ʾal•ṭay°f ʾal•tawaḥḥud)—that might, and bear in mind that I am just speculating here, be results of the mantric aspect of the practice. In any event, I associated with the following groups, at various times, over a considerable number of years:
  1. Sree Sree Thakur Anukulchandra Satsang (Bengali শ্রী শ্রী ঠাকুর অনুকূলচন্দ্র সৎসঙ্গ [MP3], Śrīśrīṭhākura Anukūlacandra Saṯsaṅga) is a peculiarly Indocentric Radhasoami tradition. Anukulchandra (1888–1969) supported the Indian caste system. I was initiated by one of his disciples, Ray Archer Hauserman, in his Glen Cove, Long Island, New York, home.
  2. Sant Mat (Hindi, संत मत [MP3], Saṃta Mata, “truth–teller’s teaching”) was founded by Thakur Singh (Hindi, ठाकुर सिंह [MP3], Ṭhākura Siṃha), 1929–2005, one of Kirpal Singh’s several successors. Thakur Singh, under whose authority I was initiated (in New York, New York), was, in turn, replaced by Baljit Singh (Hindi, बलजीत सिंह [MP3], Balajīta Siṃha), born in 1962.
  3. Spiritual Freedom Satsang (with their Facebook page), founded by Sri Michael Turner (born in 1958), is a small organization which belongs to the Radhasoami Satsang Beas tradition. Specifically, Turner, who personally initiated me over the phone, hails from the offshoot of Eckankar, ATOM: Ancient Teachings of the Masters. That group, now essentially a publishing house, was founded by the late Darwin Gross (1928–2008), a former master in Eckankar who was controversially, and for reasons which are at best unclear, forced out of the organization.
Due to the primarily inward transmissions of successorship, the neo–Sikh Surat Shabd Yoga movement has repeatedly divided. Self–delusion, in personal mysticism, is all too easy. It is extraordinary difficult, perhaps virtually impossible, to clearly distinguish between inspiration and guidance from ʾAllꞌah SWT, His Prophets, Guardian Angels, and departed souls, on the one hand, and wishful thinking and a thoroughgoing imagination, on the other. Surat Shabd Yoga began, however, with Agrah (Hindi, आग्रह [MP3], Āgraha), India’s Shri Shiv Dayal Singh Sahab (Hindi, श्री शिव दयाल सिंह साहब [MP3], Śrī Śiva Dayāla Siṃha Sāhaba), 1818–1878. He was, by religion, a Sikh and, by occupation, a banker. Among his many devotees, he is referred to using the reverential title of Soamiji Maharaj (Hindi, स्वामी जी महाराज [MP3], Svāmī Jī Mahārāja, “respectful and sovereign master”).
The mantras recited by devotees vary, sometimes considerably, between the multiple traditions of Radha Soami Satsang. Nevertheless, in Radha Soami Satsang Beas and in many of its branches or sects, the Surat Shabd Yoga tradition with which I am most familiar, five names (Sanskrit, पङ्च नमः [MP3], paṅca namaḥ; Persian, پَنْج نَامَ [MP3], pan°ǧ nāma; Urdu, پَانْچَ نَامُوں [MP3], pan°ča nāmūṉ; Sindhi, پَنْج نَالَا [MP3], pan°ǧ nālā; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪੰਜ ਨਾਮ [MP3], paja nāma; Shahmukhi Punjabi, پَنْجَ نَامَ [MP3], pan°ǧa nāma; or Bengali, পাঁচ নাম্বার [MP3], pām̐ca nāmbāra) have been the conventionally employed mantras. Nevertheless, Eckankar is one well–known exception. In that organization, adherents are instructed to chant Hu (MP3), a word which may be related to Huwa (Arabic, هُوَ [MP3], “He”), frequently a reference to ʾAllꞌah SWT.
Surat Shabd Yoga consists of two distinct spiritual methodologies. First, the ears are plugged, and the sound current, supposedly intensifying in frequency as one progresses, is listened to from the right side. Second, the eyes are entirely shut, while reciting the prescribed regimen of mantras, which will permit the meditator to allegedly witness visions of progressively higher celestial planes and the beings residing within them (including, ultimately, one’s spiritual master). Before providing the paṅca namaḥ, here are three preliminary points:
  1. Out of a respect for current meditators, and a sincere desire not to unduly offend them, I shall note that, in some groups of the Radhasoami Satsang Beas tradition, the five names are provided confidentially. An explicit request is made through the initiator, speaking on behalf of the master, not to divulge them to others. However, that practice of surreptitiousness began with Kirpal Singh. It has continued with some of his successors, not all. The insistence on secrecy has never been a universal requirement in the Radhasoami Satsang Beas movement. Similarly, Singh’s claim that every living master changes the name of the organization is simply untrue. His assertion, for one thing, contradicts the movement’s recorded history. As far as I know, Singh was the first individual leader, throughout the course of the Beas tradition, to coin an entirely new name. Since his master, in his will, appointed someone else as the group’s successor. Singh, presumably, had to make up stories.
  2. In the Quan Yin Method (Mandarin Chinese, 观音法 [MP3], Guān•Yīn•Fǎ, “Way of Witnessing Sound”) of Ching Hai (Mandarin Chinese, 驚駭 [MP3], Jīng•Hài, “astonished one”), born in 1950, the paṅca namaḥ have been modified, or perhaps unintentionally distorted, as: Gomtrazan, Gwaarla, Rarunka, Sohuan, Satnum. Ching Hai was, like myself, an initiate of Thakur Singh. Yet, to my knowledge, Ching Hai, as with Twitchell before her, has never publicly acknowledged her autobiographical connection with the Radhasoami Satsang Beas tradition.
  3. The precise Sanskrit and Punjabi (both Guramukhi and Shahmukhi) spellings of the paṅca namaḥ provided here, and the translations of those words, are based upon my own original research. Therefore, and please take my word for it, there will inevitably be errors in these renderings.
With those qualifications now out of the way, the following simran constitutes the most widely taught five–part mantra as presented verbally by the initiator and then silently or inwardly repeated by disciples within the Radha Soami Satsang Beas tradition:
  1. Jyōta Nirañjana (Sanskrit, ज्योत निरंजन [MP3]), Jyoti Niraṃjana, (Sanskrit, ज्योति निरंजन [MP3]), Jōti Nirajana (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਜੋਤਿ ਨਿਰੰਜਨ, [MP3]), or Ǧūtí Niran°ǧana (Shahmukhi Punjabi, جُوتِي نِرَنْجَنَ [MP3], “Jyot Niranjan or Flawless Light.”
  2. Oṃkāra (Sanskrit, ओंकार [MP3]), Ōṅkāra (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਓਂਕਾਰ [MP3]), ʾAw°n°ḱār (Shahmukhi Punjabi, اوْنْکَارَ [MP3]), Ōꞌakāra (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਓਅੰਕਾਰ [MP3]), or ʾAwan°ḱār (Shahmukhi Punjabi, اوَانْکَار [MP3]), “Omkar or Oṃ–Maker.”
  3. Raraṃkāra (Sanskrit, ररंकार [MP3]), Rarakāra (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਰਰੰਕਾਰ [MP3]), or Raraḱāra (Shahmukhi Punjabi, رَرَكَارَ [MP3]), “Rarankar or Reciting the Name of the Dark One,” i.e., Rāma (Sanskrit, राम [MP3]), Rāma (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਰਾਮ [MP3]), or Rāma (Shahmukhi Punjabi, رَامَ [MP3]).
  4. Sohaṃga (Sanskrit, सोहंग [MP3]), Sōhaga (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸੋਹੰਗ [MP3]), or Sūhan°ga (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سُوہَنْگَ [MP3]), “Sohang, I am He, or I am That.”
  5. Satanāma (Sanskrit, सतनाम [MP3]), Satanāma (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਤਨਾਮ [MP3]), Satanāma (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَتَنَامَ [MP3]), Satināma (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਤਿਨਾਮ [MP3]), or Satināma (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَتِنَامَ [MP3]), “Satnam, True Name, or Ideal Name.”
He [a yogī] preached yoga [Sanskrit, योग, MP3, yoga, “union or yoking”] practice but with a few words of praises to God namely: Jot Niranjan, Onkar, Rarankar, Sohang, Satnam. He believed that that the utterance of these words in the initial stage of smadhi [Sanskrit, समाधि, MP3, samādhi, “contemplation”] will help the yogi [Hindi, योगी, MP3, yogī, “practitioner of union”] to attain higher concentration and there after the yogi has to follow his mind where ever it treads. He met a Sikh, Shiv Dyal of Agra and converted him to yogimat [Hindi, योगी मत, MP3, yogī mata, “doctrine of practitioner of union”]. Swami Shiv Dyal preached this concept on a large and organised scale.
〜 Anonymous, “Dialogue with Yogis: The Sidh Goshat of Guru Nanak.” Punjab Monitor. April, 2015. Retrieved on March 5ᵗʰ, 2018.
By contrast, initiates of certain other Surat Shabd Yoga traditions simply recite “Radhasoami” (Hindi, राधास्वामी [MP3], Rādhāsvāmī, “possessor of prosperity”). In Shabd Pratap Ashram (Hindi, शब्द प्रताप आश्रम [MP3], Śabda Pratāpa Āśrama, “Word of Power Monastery”), yet another Surat Shabd Yoga tradition, devotees are instructed to practice this three–part Dhunyatmak Naam (Hindi, धनात्मक नाम [MP3], Dhanātmaka Nāma; or Urdu, دَنَاتْمَكَ نَامَ [MP3], Danātmaḱa Nāma, “Positive Name”):
  1. Dharā (Sanskrit, धरा [MP3], “Support” or, commonly, “Waterfall”).
  2. Sindhu (Sanskrit, सिन्धु [MP3], “Ocean,” “Stream,” “Flood,” “Waters,” “Sea,” or “Indus River”).
  3. Pratāpa (Sanskrit, प्रताप [MP3], “Heat,” “Warmth,” “Splendor,” “Glory,” “Majesty,” “Power,” “Strength,” or “Energy”).
Furthermore, inspired by my personally transformative experiences with Bāhū AS, I have been engaged in further participant–observational research or ethnographic studies, without becoming a member, of no less than twelve Ṣūfiyy, Ṣūfiyy–influenced, or Muslim–inspired organizations within Islamdom (Arabic, عَالَم الإِسْلَامِيّ [MP3], ʾālam ʾal• ⫰Is°lāmiyy, “the Islamic world”), including:
  1. American Sufi Institute (discussed in a previous section).
  2. Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship (Tamil with my version of “fellowship” added, பாவா முஹையுத்தீன் தோழமை [MP3], Pāvā Muhaiyuttīṉ Tōḻamai).
  3. Naqshbandi Order of Sheikh Taoshobuddha (my Urduization, نَقْشْبَنْدِی طَرِیقَتَِ شَیْخَ تَاوْشُوبُْدّْھَا [MP3], Naq°š°ban°dí Ṭaríqata•i Šaý°ẖa Tāw°šūbudd°hā). I developed an association on June 11ᵗʰ, 2011.
  4. Naqshbandiyya Nazimiyya Sufi Order of America (my Urduization, نَقْشْبَنْدِیَّہ نَاظمِیَّہ صُوفِی طَرِیقَتَِ امْرِیکَہ [MP3], Naq°šban°diýýah Nāẓimiýýah Ṣūfí Ṭaríqata•i ʾAm°ríḱā). I developed an association on December 14ᵗʰ, 2009, and, again, on April 22ʳᵈ, 2010 (through two different websites belonging to the same order).
  5. Sahaj Marg (Sanskrit, सहज मार्ग [MP3], Sahaja Mārga, “Natural Path”) is a Hinduized Naq°š°ban°dī Ṣūfiyy order. I had a meditative session with one of the organization’s preceptor’s shortly after the turn of the 21ˢᵗ century. The founder was Ram Chandra (Sanskrit, रामचन्द् [MP3], Rāmacand, “dark moon”) also known as Lālajī Mahārāja (Sanskrit, लालजी महाराज [MP3], “honored playful one”), 1873–1931. He was allegedly the first non-Muslim šayẖ of the Naq°š°ban°dī Ṣūfiyy order. He was given bay°ʿaẗ by a Muslim. Lālajī’s legacy has been claimed by both Hindus and Muslims. See also Shri Ram Chandra Mission.
  6. The Golden Sufi Center. It is a Naq°š°ban°dí–Muǧaddadí (Urdu, نَقْشْبَنْدِی ـ مُجَدَّدِی, [MP3]) Ṣūfiyy order which is traced back to a nephew of Lālajī Mahārāja, Rādhā Mohana Lāla (Sanskrit, राधा मोहन लाल [MP3]), to Ahmad Ali Khan (Urdu, احْمَدَ عَلِی خَانَ [MP3], ʾAḥ°māda ʿAlī H̱āna), to Fazl Ahmad Khan (Urdu, فَضْلَ احْمَدَ عَلِی خَانَ [MP3], Faḍ°la ʾAḥ°māda H̱āna), 1857–1907, to Irina Tweedie (1907–1999), to, presently, Llewellyn Vaughan–Lee (born in 1953). In Arabic, Muǧaddad, as previously cited, is “renewer.” I was accepted directly by Llewellyn Vaughan–Lee, through an emailed response to a phone call, on June 27ᵗʰ, 2011.
    Dear Mark
    Thank you for your e-mail and enquiry. You ask about having a teacher. You are very welcome to travel with us on this path. When you have come come and visit here in Inverness.
    With best wishes
    Llewellyn
    Ps. Thank you for your excellent Sufi web site.
  7. Naqshbandi Mujaddadi Sardari Tariqah (Urdu, نَقْشْبَنْدِی مُجَدَّدِی سَرْدَارِی طَرِیقَتَ [MP3], Naq°š°ban°dí Muǧaddadí Sar°dārí Ṭaríqata). Sar°dārí (Urdu, سَرْدَارِی [MP3]) is “chiefship.” I developed an association on April 23ʳᵈ, 2010.
  8. Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam (Urdu, احمَدِیَّہَ انْجُمَنَ اِشَاعَتَِ اِسْلَامَ لَاہُورَ [MP3], ʾAḥ°madiýýaha ʾAn°ǧumana ʾIšāʿata•i ʾIs°lāma Lāhūra). I developed an association on January 23ʳᵈ, 2010.
  9. The Rose Sufi Crescent.
  10. United Submitters International of Rashad Khalifa (Arabic, رَشَاد خَلِيفَة [MP3], Rašād H̱alīfaẗ), 1935–1990 (assassinated). I developed an association in March, 2010. The organization’s other websites include: Proclaiming One United Religion for All People, Masjid Tucson (international headquarters), Submission.org, and God’s Mosque.
  11. I developed an association with the Spiritual Order of Faqr of Sultan-ul-Ashiqeen (Urdu, طَرِیقَتَِ سُلْطَانَ العَاشِقِین كَے فَقْرَ [MP3], Ṭaríqata•i Sul°ṭāna ʾal•ʿĀšiqín kē Faq°ra) on February 19ᵗʰ, 2018. I sent my initial email on February 9ᵗʰ, 2018. It is dedicated to, and focused upon, Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS. See the websites: Online Oath of Allegiance and Online Bayat With Sultan ul Ashiqeen Instructions.
  12. I joined with Roohaani (Urdu, رُوحَانِی [MP3], Rūḥāní, “spiritual”), founded by Jahan Qadri (Urdu, جَهَانَ قَادْرِی [MP3], Ǧahāna Qad°rí), on August 14ᵗʰ, 2010. The order, which is in the tradition of Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū AS, may have folded or, at least, discontinued its former website.
Significantly, four of the organizations mentioned above—Naqshbandi Order of Sheikh Taoshobuddha, Naqshbandiyya Nazimiyya Sufi Order of America, Naqshbandi Mujaddadi Sardari Tariqah, and The Golden Sufi Center—are associated with Naq°š°ban°diyyaẗ (Arabic, نَقْشْبَنْدِيَّة [MP3]), Naq°š°ban°dí (Persian, نَقْشْبَنْدِی [MP3]), Naq°š°ban°diýýah (Urdu, نَقْشْبَنْدِیَّہ [MP3]), or Nàkèshénbāndí (Mandarin Chinese, 納克什班迪 [MP3]). The first portion of the word, naq°š (Persian, نَقْش [MP3]), translates as inscription. The second morpheme in the word, ban°d (Persian, بَنْد [MP3]), derives from the same Indo–European root as bond, bind, or binding to ʾAllꞌah SWT. An integral part of the Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement, Naq°š°ban°diyyaẗ was once the largest Ṣūfiyy order in medieval, or premodern, India.
Another historically unrelated Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy movement to which I am drawn is Sri Viswa Viznana Vidya Adhyatmika Peetham (Hindi, श्री विश्व विज्ञान विद्या आध्यात्मिक पीठम् [MP3], Śrī Viśva Vijñāna Vidyā Ādhyātmika Pīṭham; or Telugu, శ్రీ విశ్వము విజ్ఞాన విద్య ఆధ్యాత్మికం పీఠము [MP3], Śrī Viśvamu Vijñāna Vidya Ādhyātmikaṁ Pīṭham, “Spiritual Seat for the Radiant Understanding of Knowledge”). Historically, a branch of Qād°riyyaẗ, current members include Hindus and Muslims. It was founded by Brahmarishi Sri Madeen Kabir Shah (Hindi, ब्रह्मर्षि श्री मदिन् कबीर शाह [MP3], Brahmarṣi Śrī Madin Kabīra Śāha; or Telugu, బ్రహ్మరిషి శ్రీ మదిన్ కబీర్ షా, Brahmarṣi Śrī Madin Kabīr Ṣā), a saintly being born during the final decades of the Bhakti-Ṣūfiyy movement. He was a disciple of the aforementioned ʿAbd ʾal•Qādir ʾal•Ǧīlāniyy.
Sri Viswa Viznana Vidya Adhyatmika Peetham’s motto is “Service to Humanity is Service to God.” The organization refers to its devotional system of beliefs and practices as Sufi Vedanta (Hindi, सूफी वेदांत [MP3], Sūphī Vedāṃta; or Telugu, సూఫీ వేదాంత [MP3], Sūphī Vēdānta, “Ṣūfiyy End of Knowledge”) and Arsha – Sufi Dharma (Hindi, आर्ष – सूफी धर्म [MP3], Ārṣa – Sūphī Dharma; or Telugu, అర్ష్ – సూఫీ ధర్మ [MP3], Arṣ – Sūphī Dharma, “Sage – Ṣūfiyy Support”):
Sufi Vedanta and Sufi Dharma
The ancestors of Brahmarṣi Śrī Madin Kabīra Śāha emigrated from Baghdad (Arabic, بَغْداد [MP3], Baġdād) to the Indian metropolitan distict of Delhi (Hindi, दिल्ली [MP3], Dillī; or Telugu, ఢిల్లీ [MP3], Ḍhillī) and, ultimately, to the Indian city of Hyderabad (Hindi, हैदराबाद [MP3], Haidarābāda; or Telugu, హైదరాబాద్, Haidarābād) in the present–day Indian state of Andhra Pradesh (Hindi, आंध्र प्रदेश [MP3], Āṃdhra Pradēśa; or Telugu, ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్ [MP3], Āndhra Pradēś). Upon relocating, around 1700 A.D., from Hyderbad to Pithapuram (Hindi, पितापुरम [MP3], Pitāpurama; or Telugu, పిఠాపురం [MP3], Piṭhāpuraṁ), India, Brahmarṣi Śrī Madin Kabīra Śāha founded the organization.
By male primogeniture, the firstborn or eldest son has since become the peethadhipathi (Hindi, पीठाधिपति [MP3], pīṭhādhipati; or Telugu, పీఠాధిపతి [MP3], pīṭhādhipati, “chairman”). The present, and ninth, peethadhipathi or guru of the organization is Brahmarishi Sri Dr. Umar Alisha–2 (Hindi, ब्रह्मर्षि श्री डाक्टर ओमर ऐलिस २ [MP3], Brahmarṣi Śrī Ḍākṭara Ōmara Ailisa II; or Telugu, బ్రహ్మరిషి శ్రీ డాక్టర్ ఒమర్ ఆలిస్ ౨ [MP3], Brahmarṣi Śrī Ḍākṭar Omar Ālis II), born in 1966:
Present Guru
A separate and an additional Bhakti–Ṣūfiyy attraction, to me, was founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (Sanskrit, चैतन्य महाप्रभु [MP3], Caitanya Mahāprabhu), 1486–1584, i.e., Gaudiya Vaishnavism (Sanskrit, गौड़ीय वैष्णव, [MP3], Gauṛīya Vaiṣṇava]) and its philosophy of Achintya Bheda Abheda (Sanskrit, अचिन्त्यभेदाभेद [MP3], Acintyabhedābheda, “inconceivable difference and oneness”). Duality and nonduality are harmonized. Gaudiya lies in South Asia’s Bengal (Bengali, বঙ্গ [MP3], Baṅga) region. Vaiṣṇava focuses upon Vishnu (Sanskrit, विष्णु [MP3], Viṣṇu, “All–Pervasive One”) worship, but Krishna (Sanskrit, कृष्ण [MP3], Kṛṣṇa, “Dark”), whose dates of birth and death remain disputed, is often included.
  1. ʾiz°diwāǧiyyaẗ wa•ʿadam ʾiz°diwāǧiyyaẗ (Arabic, اِزْدِوَاجِيَّة وَعَدَم اِزْدِوَاجِيَّة [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  2. dūʾāliyyūṯ wə•ʾiy–dūʾāliyyūṯ (Hebrew, דּוּאָלִיּוּת וְאִי־דּוּאָלִיּוּת [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  3. dūgānigí va ʿadam dūgānigí (Persian, دُوگَانِگِی وَ عَدَم دُوگَانِگِی [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  4. dubora va ne dubora (Tajik, дубора ва не дубора [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  5. da d°wah ʾaw da ġay°r d°wah (Pashto, دَ دْوَه او دَ غَیْر دْوَه [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  6. dū⫯ī ᵃⁱᵐˁ ġay°r dū⫯ī (Sindhi, دُوئِي ۽ غَيْر دُوئِِي [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  7. dūh°rí ʾaw°ra nahíṉ dūh°rí (Urdu, دُوہْرِی اوْرَ نَہِیں دُوہْرِی [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  8. d°waý°ta ʾaw°ra ʾad°waý°ta (Urdu, دْوَیْتَ اوْرَ ادْوَیْتَ [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  9. davaita atē adavaita (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਦਵੈਤ ਅਤੇ ਅਦਵੈਤ [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  10. davaý°ta ʾatē ʾadavaý°ta (Shamukhi Punjabi, دَوَیْتَ اتَے ادَوَیْتَ [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  11. dvaita advaita ca (Sanskrit, द्वैत अद्वैत च [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  12. dvaita aura advaita (Hindi, द्वैत और अद्वैत [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  13. dvaita āṇi advaita (Marathi, द्वैत आणि अद्वैत [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  14. dvaita ra advaita (Nepali, द्वैत र अद्वैत [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  15. dbaita ō adbaita (Bengali, দ্বৈত ও অদ্বৈত [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  16. dbaita ārau adbaita (Assamese, দ্বৈত আরৌ অদ্বৈত [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  17. dvaita oppaṁ advaita (Malayalam, ദ്വൈത ഒപ്പം അദ്വൈത [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  18. dvaita mariyu advaita (Telugu, ద్వైత మరియు అద్వైత [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  19. ḍvāyiṭā saha æḍvāyiṭā (Sinhalese, ඩ්වායිටා සහ ඇඩ්වායිටා [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  20. tvaita maṟṟum atvaita (Tamil, த்வைத மற்றும் அத்வைத [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  21. irumai maṟṟum allāta irumai (Tamil, இருமை மற்றும் அல்லாத இருமை [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  22. düalite ve düalite olmayan (Turkish [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  23. dualʹnostʹ i nedualʹnostʹ (Russian, дуальность и недуальность [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
  24. dualʹnístʹ í nedualʹnístʹ (Ukrainian, дуальність і недуальність [MP3]), “duality and nonduality
Gaudiya Vaishnavism is widely, but not exclusively, associated with the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON). In July, 1966, this devotional organization was founded, in the City of New York, by Abhay Charanaravinda “A. C.” Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Bengali, অভয়চরণারবিন্দ ভক্তিবেদান্ত স্বামীপ্রভুপাদ [MP3], Abhaẏacaraṇārabinda Bhaktibēdānta Sbāmīprabhupāda; or Sanskrit, अभय चरणारविन्द भक्तिवेदान्त स्वामी प्रभुपाद [MP3], Abhaya Caraṇāravinda Bhaktivedānta Svāmī Prabhupāda). A native of Kolkata (Bengali, কলকাতা [MP3], Kalakātā; or Hindi, कोलकाता [MP3], Kolakātā), previously Romanized as Calcutta, India, he was born in 1896 and died in 1977.
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
The mantra of ISKCON, one especially conspicuous to members of my own baby–boomer generation from Western metropolises (including my hometown, New York City), is referred to by devotees within the original organization and its several splinter groups as the mahāmantra (Sanskrit, महामन्त्र [MP3] “great mantra”). That mantra is chanted as follows: Hare [Power or Potency] Krṣṇa [Black], Hare Krṣṇa, Krṣṇa Krṣṇa, Hare Hare; Hare Rāma [Dark], Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare (Sanskrit, हरे कृष्ण । हरे कृष्ण । कृष्ण कृष्ण । हरे हरे ॥ हरे राम । हरे राम । राम राम । हरे हरे [MP3], “Power to Krishna, Power to Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Power Power; Power to Rama, Power to Rama, Rama Rama, Power Power.”
The quotation directly below is a complete translation of the only known, or extant, text by Caitanya. I have, using available resources, tentatively translated various Sanskrit terms into English. All transliterations from the original Sanskrit were humbly modified by me using the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST), which was briefly mentioned at the beginning of the monograph. Now, here is the wonderful text:
Glory to the Śrī–Kṛṣṇā–saṅkīrtana [Sanskrit, श्री–कृष्ण–संकीर्तन; MP3, “Radiant Krishna chanting”], which cleanses the heart of all the dust accumulated for years and extinguishes the fire of conditional life, of repeated birth and death. This saṅkīrtana [Sanskrit, संकीर्तन, “chanting”] movement is the prime benediction for humanity at large because it spreads the rays of the benediction moon. It is the life of all transcendental knowledge. It increases the ocean of transcendental bliss, and it enables us to fully taste the nectar for which we are always anxious.
O my Lord, Thy holy name alone can render all benediction to living beings, and thus Thou has hundreds and millions of names, like Kṛṣṇā and Goviṃdā [Sanskrit, गोविंदा; MP3, “protector of cows”]. In these transcendental names Thou hast invested all Thine transcendental energies. There are not even hard and fast rules for chanting these names. O my Lord, out of kindness Thou does enable us to easily approach The by Thine holy names, but I am so unfortunate that I have no attraction for them.
One should chant the holy name of the Lord in a humble state of mind, thinking oneself lower than the straw in the street; one should be more tolerant than a tree, devoid of all sense of false prestige, and should be ready to offer all respect to others. In such a state of mind one can chant the holy name of the Lord constantly.
O Almighty Lord, I have no desire to accumulate wealth, nor do I desire beautiful women, nor do I want any number of followers. I only want Thy causeless devotional service, birth after birth.
O Son of Mahārāja Naṃdā [Sanskrit, महाराज नंदा; MP3, “Great or Exalted King of Joy,” i.e., Kṛṣṇā’s custodial or “foster” father], I am They eternal servitor, yet somehow or other I have fallen into the ocean of birth and death. Please pick me up from this ocean of death and place me as one of the atoms at They lotus feet.
O my Lord, when will my eyes be decorated with tears of love flowing constantly when I chant They holy name? When will my voice choke up, and when will the hairs of my body stand on end at the recitation of They name?
O Goviṃdā! Feeling Thy separation, I am considering a moment to be like twelve or more years. Tears are flowing from my eyes like torrents of rain, and I am feeling thoroughly vacant in the world in They absence.
I know no one but Kṛṣṇā as my Lord, and He shall remain so even if He handles me roughly by His embrace or makes me brokenhearted by not being present before me. He is completely free to do anything and everything, for He is always my worshipful Lord, unconditionally.
〜 Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Śrī Śikṣāṣṭakama (Sanskrit, श्री शिक्षाष्टकम [MP3], “Radiant Knowledge”).
Artistic Representation of Caitanya Mahāprabhu

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٧. Preternatural Multiverse
The transformative practice of Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal•Bāhuwiyyaẗ of The Multiversal Communist Collective can be summarized as follows: The Preternatural Multiverse involves a supernatural commune–ism with loving Entities wrapped up inside ourselves and the innermost reality of this world. Relations with these Beings develop through our meditations and our dreams. The figurative “vehicles” of contact are, as mentioned earlier in the monograph, the phenomenological analyses (MP3) of Heartfuless Inquiry™ and The Echoing Practice™. ʾAllꞌah’s SWT lovingkindness for His entire creation knows no end in time (Arabic, زَمَان [MP3], zamān). We can draw increasingly closer to Him, and receive tremendous bounties and blessings, through the magnificent intercessions of His Preternatural Creatures.
These Preternatural Creatures are, from all eternity and until all eternity, ʾAllꞌah’s SWT Guardian Angels. They live, without birth or death, in the Valley of Wonderment (Persian, وَادِیِ حَیْرَت [MP3], Vādí•i Ḥaý°rat) of the Seven Valleys (Persian, هَفْت وَادِی [MP3], Haf°t Vādí). Those Angels climb, up and down, Jacob’s Ladder (Hebrew, סֻלָּם יַעֲקֹב; MP3, Sullām Yạʿăqōḇ). It connects this world of existence (a material place) and the world to come (a nonmaterial place). Jacob’s ladder was, like Moses AS and the divine Angels in the Burning Bush or Muḥammad SAW and the Angel Gabriel AS in a Cave, the foundation of Jacob’s AS Prophetic Mission. His Ladder may be crudely compared with countless, simultaneous telephone calls. The Guardian Angels are the Beings connecting the calls. When a deceased person appears in my dreams, I usually recall seeing a Guardian Angel, too.
Jacob [Hebrew, יַעֲקֹב; MP3, Yạʿăqōḇ, “Heel–Grabber”] left Beer–sheba [Hebrew, בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע; MP3, Bəʾēr Šəḇạʿ, “oath”] and went toward Haran [Hebrew, הָרָן; MP3, Hārān, “parched”]. He came to a certain place and stayed there for the night, because the sun had set. Taking one of the stones of the place, he put it under his head and lay down in that place. And he dreamed that there was a ladder [Hebrew, סֻלָּם, sullām; MP3] set up on the earth, the top of it reaching to heaven; and the angels [Hebrew, מַלְאָכִים; MP3], mạləʾāḵiym] of God [Hebrew, אֱלֹהִ֔ים; MP3, ʾĔlōhiym, “Almighty”] were ascending and descending on it. And the LORD [Hebrew, יהוה; MP3, YHVH or YHWH, “Self–Subsistent”] stood beside him and said, “I am the LORD, the God of Abraham [Hebrew, אַבְרָהָם; MP3, ʾẠḇərāhām, “Father of a Multitude”] your father and the God of Isaac [Hebrew, יִצְחָק; MP3, Yiṣəḥāq, “Laughing One”]; the land on which you lie I will give to you and to your offspring; and your offspring shall be like the dust of the earth, and you shall spread abroad to the west and to the east and to the north and to the south; and all the families of the earth shall be blessed in you and in your offspring. Know that I am with you and will keep you wherever you go, and will bring you back to this land; for I will not leave you until I have done what I have promised you.” Then Jacob woke from his sleep and said, “Surely the LORD is in this place―and I did not know it!”
〜 Genesis 28: 10–16. New Revised Standard Version.
O guardian angels! Return them to their abode in the world below,
Glorified be my Lord, the All-Glorious!
Inasmuch as they have purposed to rise to that sphere which the wings of the celestial dove have never attained ….
〜 Bahá’u’lláh, “Tablet of the Holy Mariner.” Bahá’í Prayers. Compilation. Wilmette, Illinois: Bahá’í Publishing Trust. 2002. Pages 319–327.
God testifieth that there is no God but Him, and He Who speaketh at the bidding of His Lord is but the First to worship Him. He is the peerless Creator Who hath created the heavens and the earth and whatsoever lieth between them [emphasis added], and all do His bidding. He is the One Whose grace hath encompassed all that are in the heavens, on earth or elsewhere, and everyone abideth by His behest.
〜 The Báb. Selections from the Writings of the Báb. Translated by a committee. Wilmette, Illinois: Bahá’í Publishing Trust. 1976. Page 79.
  1. Maẖ°lūqāt ʾal•H̱āriyyaẗ lil•Ṭabīʿaẗ (Arabic, مَخْلُوقَات الخَارِقَة لِلطَبِيعَة [MP3]), “Preternatural Creatures
  2. Yəṣūriym ʿạl–hạ•Ṭiḇəʿiym (Hebrew, יְצוּרִים עַל־הַטִבְעִים [MP3]), “Preternatural Creatures
  3. Mūǧūdāt•i Čan°d°gānih•i Fūqāl°ʿādih (Persian, مُوجُودَاتِ چَنْدگَانِهِ فُوقَالْعَادِه [MP3]), “Preternatural Creatures
  4. Odamon•i Balandtarin•i Bisjor (Tajik, одамони баландтарини бисёри [MP3]), “Preternatural Creatures
  5. Hāẖ°wā Ṭabíʿí Maẖ°lūqāt (Pashto, هَاخْوَا طَبِیعِی مَخْلُوقَات [MP3]), “Preternatural Creatures
  6. Māfūqa ʾal•Fiṭ°rata Maẖ°lūqāta (Urdu, مَافُوقَ الفِطْرَتَ مَخْلُوقَاتَ [MP3]), “Preternatural Creatures
  7. Alaukika Malaṭīpala Lōka (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਅਲੌਕਿਕ ਮਲਟੀਪਲ ਲੋਕ [MP3]), “Preternatural Creatures
  8. ʾAlaw°ḱiḱa Malaṭípala Lūḱa (Shahmukhi Punjabi, الَوْکِکَ مَلَٹِیپَلَ لُوکَ [MP3]), “Preternatural Creatures
  9. Māfūq Maẖ°lūqāt (Sindhi, مَافُوق مَخْلُوقَات [MP3]), “Preternatural Creatures
  1. Malāk ʾal•Ḥāris (Arabic, المَلَاك الحَارِس [MP3]), “Guardian Angel
  2. Maləʾāḵə hạ•Šōmēr (Hebrew, מַלְאָךְ הַשׁוֹמֵר [MP3]), “Guardian Angel
  3. Firiš°tih•i Nig°habān (Persian, فِرِشْتِهِ نِگهَبَان [MP3]), “Guardian Angel
  4. Farişta•i Nighabon (Tajik, Фариштаи Нигҳабон [MP3]), “Guardian Angel
  5. Niǵ°habān Firix̌°tih (Pashto, نِګهَبَان فِرِښْته [MP3]), “Guardian Angel
  6. Muḥāfiẓa Firiš°tiha (Urdu, مُحَافِظَ فَرِشْتِہَ [MP3]), “Guardian Angel
  7. Gāraḍīꞌana Dūta (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਗਾਰਡੀਅਨ ਦੂਤ [MP3]), “Guardian Angel
  8. Gāraḍ⫯ýiýana Dūta (Shahmukhi Punjabi, گَارَڈیِئَنَ دُوتَ [MP3]), “Guardian Angel
  9. Nig°habān Malā⫯yk̀ (Sindhi, نِگْھَبَان مَلَائڪ [MP3]), “Guardian Angel
  1. Ǧib°rīl ʾal•Malāk (Arabic, جِبْرِيل الْمَلَاك [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  2. Gạḇəriyʾēl hạ•Mạləʾāḵə (Hebrew, גַּבְרִיאֵל הַמַלְאָךְ [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel (Messenger of ‘Elohim is my Strength’)
  3. Mäləʾäku Gäbərəʾelə (Amharic, መልአኩ ገብርኤል [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  4. Mạlʾạḵ Gạb̄əriyēʿl (Yiddish, מַלאַך גּאַבְֿרִיֵעל [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  5. Firiš°tih Ǧib°r⫯yīl (Persian, فِرِشْتِهِ جِبْرئِيل [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  6. Farişta Çabroil (Tajik, Фаришта Ҷаброил [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  7. Firix̌°tih Ǧib°ríl (Pashto, فِرِښْته جِبرِیل [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  8. Firiš°tiha Ǧib°rā⫯yīla (Urdu, فَرِشْتِہَ جِبْرَائِیلَ [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  9. Dūta Jībrīꞌala (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਦੂਤ ਜੀਬ੍ਰੀਅਲ [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  10. Dūta Ǧíb°riý⫯ýala (Shahmukhi Punjabi, دُوتَ جِیبْرِیئَلَ [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  11. Phariśaṭā Jībrīꞌala (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਫਰਿਸ਼ਟਾ ਜੀਬ੍ਰੀਅਲ [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  12. Farišaṭā Ǧíb°riý⫯ýala (Shahmukhi Punjabi, فَرِشَٹَا جِیبْرِیئَلَ [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  13. Malā⫯yk̀ Ǧib°rā⫯yīl (Sindhi, مَلَائڪ جِبرَائِيل [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  14. Melek Cebrâîl (Turkish [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  15. Phariśtā Gebriyala (Hindi, फरिश्ता गेब्रियल [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  16. Dēbadūta Gyābriẏēla (Bengali, দেবদূত গ্যাব্রিয়েল [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
  17. Angel Gavril (Macedonian/Makedonski, Ангел Гаврил [MP3]), “Angel Gabriel
Now, in the 21ˢᵗ century, a speculative narrative on many worlds theory (radio show; MP3)—among quantum physics’ theories of everything—and a Ṣūfiyy–type mysticism takes communism into the supernatural omniverse or preternatural multiverse:
  1. naẓariyyaẗ min kull šayˁ (Arabic, نَظَرِيََّة مِن مِن كُلّ شَيْء [MP3]), “theory of everything
  2. tēʾōrəyāh šẹl hạ•kōl (Hebrew, תֵּאוֹרְיָה שֶׁל הַכֹּל [MP3]), “theory of everything
  3. ṭēʾọrēʿ p̄ōn ʾạləṣ (Yiddish, טֵעאָרְיֵע פֿוֹן אַלְץ [MP3]), “theory of everything
  4. theorie von allem (German [MP3]), “theory of everything
  5. naẓariýah•i hamih číz°hā (Persian, نَظَرِیَهِ هَمِه چِیزْهَا [MP3]), “theory of everything
  6. nazarija•i hama čizhō (Tajik, назарияи ҳама чизҳо̄ [MP3]), “theory of everything
  7. da har°čah naẓar (Pashto, دَ هَرْڅَه نَظَر [MP3]), “theory of everything
  8. hara číziýūṉ ḱā naẓariýah (Urdu, ہَرَ چِیزِیُں کَا نَظَرِیَہ [MP3]), “theory of everything
  9. sabha kujha dē sidhānta (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਭ ਕੁਝ ਦੇ ਸਿਧਾਂਤ [MP3]), “theory of everything
  10. sab°ha ḱuǧ°ha dē sid°hān°ta (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَبْھَ کُجھَ دَے سَدھَانتَ [MP3]), “theory of everything
  11. har šayūn ǧū naẓariyū (Sindhi, هَر شَيُون جُو نَظَرِيُو [MP3]), “theory of everything
  12. her şeyın teorısı (Turkish [MP3]), “theory of everything
  1. ʿālam mutaʿaddid ẖāriq lil•ṭabīʿaẗ (Arabic, عَالَم مُتَعَدِّد خَارِق لِلطَبِيعَة [MP3]), “preternatural multiverse
  2. yəqūm mərubẹh ʿạl ṭibʿiy (Hebrew, יְקוּם מְרֻבֶּה עַל טִבעִי [MP3]), “preternatural multiverse
  3. ǧahān•i čan°d°gānih•i fūqālْʿādih (Persian, جَهَانِ چَنْدگَانِهِ فُوقَالْعَادِه [MP3]), “preternatural multiverse
  4. koinot•i balandtarin•i bisjor (Tajik, коиноти баландтарини бисёр [MP3]), “preternatural multiverse
  5. hāẖ°wā ṭabíʿí ḱaṯír ʾâýat (Pashto, هَاخْوَا طَبِیعِی کَثِیر آیَت [MP3]), “preternatural multiverse
  6. ʾil°hāma ʾay°ka sē ziýādah ḱā⫯yināta (Urdu, اِلْہَامَ ایْکَ سَے زِیَادَہ کَائِنَاتَ [MP3]), “preternatural multiverse
  7. māfūqa ʾal•fiṭ°rata ḱā⫯yināta (Urdu, مَافُوقَ الفِطْرَتَ کَائِنَاتَ [MP3]), “preternatural multiverse
  8. alaukika malaṭīpala brahimaḍa (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਅਲੌਕਿਕ ਮਲਟੀਪਲ ਬ੍ਰਹਿਮੰਡ [MP3]), “preternatural multiverse
  9. ʾalaw°ḱiḱa malaṭípala brahim°naḍa (Shahmukhi Punjabi, الَوْکِکَ مَلَٹِیپَلَ برَہِمْنَڈَ [MP3]), “preternatural multiverse
  10. māfūq k̀ā⫯yināt (Sindhi, مَافُوق ڪَائِنَات [MP3]), “preternatural multiverse
  11. alaukika malṭīvarsa (Hindi, अलौकिक मल्टीवर्स [MP3]), “preternatural multiverse
  12. atiprākr̥ta mālṭibhārsa (Bengali, অতিপ্রাকৃত মাল্টিভার্স [MP3]), “preternatural multiverse
ʾal•Ssalāmu ʿalay°kum! (Arabic, السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُم! [MP3], “peace be upon you!”) Before beginning this very basic explanation, I feel inspired by the Will of ʾAllꞌah SWT to apologize for any mispronunciations or mistranslations within the monograph. Fluency always helps, but working with languages does not require it. My weaknesses, in this area and in others, will, I assume, be obvious to the careful reader of this humble novel. I will try, as best I can, to set those weaknesses aside and to move on to the subject of this chapter. Similar perspectives to the ones outlined in the following diagram are also available elsewhere. The most thorough treatment is in The Unicentric Paradigm™. Echoes of Cosmic Unity™, originally written for the online Autistic community, may also make an interesting read. Each of the three versions expresses substantially the same ideas using different terms.
The Preternatural Multiverse is an important aspect of my personal understanding of the Bahá’í Faith. Here is the diagram:
  1. UNIVERSE OF TAW°ḤĪD: This Collective Center of Taw°ḥīd–Täwahədo–Tawəhidə–Yiḥūḏ—the innermost universe of universes for all the beings and things in existence—is inhabited by the Cosmic Unity of ʾAllꞌah–ʾÄlahə–ʾAlāhā–ʾĔlōhiym. Additionally, those quadruplicate sets of words are pairs of Semitic cognates. Taw°ḥīd (Arabic, تَوْحِيد [MP3]), Täwahədo (Geʾez/Gəʾəzə, ተዋህዶ [MP3]), Tawəhidə (Amharic, ታውሂድ [MP3]), and Yiḥūḏ (Hebrew, יִחוּד [MP3]) refer to “Unification.” On the other hand, ʾAllꞌah SWT, ʾÄlahə (Amharic, አላህ [MP3]), ʾAlāhā (Syriac/Suryāyā, (ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ [MP3]), and ʾĔlōhiym (Hebrew, אֱלֹהִ֔י [MP3]) are designations for “God.” Like rolling a ball of yarn, not peeling back the layers of an onion, these successive universes spiral out from the Collective Center.


  2. UNIVERSE OF TAḤARRUR: The term Taḥarrur (Arabic, تَحَرُّر [MP3]) refers to “emancipation” or “liberation.” In Sanskrit and Hindi, mokṣa or moksha (मोक्ष [MP3]) brings into its orbit various forms of “emancipation.” Extending out from this hidden, unknowable universe, its exterior universes will be briefly discussed under the following categories and subcategories. First, however, please bear in mind that words are not real. Their meanings are found only in our minds. Words are an important aspect of epistemology (our ways of knowing or acquiring knowledge), not ontology (the nature or reality of existence itself).
    1. UNIVERSE OF RUSUL: These sanctified Rusul (Arabic, رُسُل [MP3], “Apostles or Messengers”), residing in this universe, are omniscient and omnipotent Beings AS. A Rasūl (Arabic, رَسُول [MP3]) AS on the other hand, is a single “Apostle or Messenger” (ʿAlay°hi ʾal•Ssalām or Peace be upon Him). Greater and Lesser Apostles are Emissaries AS of the UNIVERSE OF TAW°ḤĪD. Their eloquent discourses are addressed to mortal and everlasting souls. Avatārāḥ (Sanskrit, अवताराः [MP3]) or Avatāroṃ (Hindi, अवतारों [MP3]) AS are “Descending Ones or Ones Who cross down.” The singular form is the Sanskrit and Hindi Avatāra (अवतार [MP3]) AS.
      1. Universe of Maẓ°rūf ʾal•Kaw°niyy: The Rusul AS abide together, living as Many in One, within a great Maẓ°rūf ʾal•Kaw°niyy (Arabic, مَظْرُوف الكَوْنِيّ [MP3]), a Cosmic Envelope. The Cosmic Envelope of divine Unity is a celestial kūn°fid°rāliyyaẗ (Arabic, كُونْفِدرَالِيَّة [MP3]), an Indo–European loanword for a “confederation.” Also relevant is the term anekāntavāda (Sanskrit and Hindi, अनेकान्तवाद [MP3])―a concept in Jainism for many–sidednesss.
      2. Universe of Nis°biyyaẗ: Each Apostle (ʿAlay°hi ʾal•Ssalām or Peace be upon Him) has a unique relative reality. Nis°biyyaẗ (نِسْبِيَّة [MP3]] is “relativity.” Āpekṣikatva (Sanskrit and Hindi, आपेक्षिकत्व [MP3]) is also “relativity.”
    2. UNIVERSE OF ⫯AR°Ḍ LIL•ṢIR°FAT̈: ⫯Ar°ḍ lil•Ṣir°faẗ (Arabic, أَرْض لِلصِرْفَة [MP3], “Pure Land”), Jìngtǔ (Mandarin Chinese, 淨土 [MP3], “Pure Land”), Zing6 Tou2 (Candonese Chinese, 淨土 [MP3], Jōdo (Japanese, 浄土 [MP3], “Pure Land”), Chŏngt’o (Korean, 정토 [MP3], “Pure Land”), Tịnh Độ (Vietnamese [MP3], “Pure Land”), Din Dæn Bris̄uthṭhi̒ (Thai, ดินแดนบริสุทธิ์ [MP3], “Pure Land”), Dei Sot (Khmer/Pheasaeakhmer/Khemorphasa, ដីសុទ្ធ [MP3], “Pure Land”), Thidin Bolisud (Lao/Law, ທີ່ດິນບໍລິສຸດ [MP3], “Pure Land”), Śuddha Jamīna (Hindi and Marathi, शुद्ध जमीन [MP3], “Pure Land”), Śuddha Bhūmi (Nepali, शुद्ध भूमि [MP3], “Pure Land”), Biśudꞌdha Bhūmi (Bengali, বিশুদ্ধ ভূমি [MP3], “Pure Land”), Tanah Murni (Malay/Bahasa Malaysia [MP3], “Pure Land”), or ʾẸrẹṣ hạ•Ṯāhōr (Hebrew, אֶרֶץ הַטָהוֹר [MP3], “Pure Land”), is the true and eternal universe of the bodhisattvāḥ (Sanskrit, बोधिसत्त्वाः [MP3], “awakening essences”). The major Buddha in Pure Land Buddhism is Amitābha (Sanskrit, अमिताभ [MP3], “Infinite Light or Splendor”) Each bodhisattva (Sanskrit, बोधिसत्त्व [MP3], “awakening essence”) devotes her or his everlasting life to the service of others. All departed souls now dwell, for all eternity, in various strings of this pure–land universe.
      1. Universe of Dirāyaẗ: The world of dirāyaẗ (Arabic, دِرَايَة [MP3]), “knowledge,” possessed by the bodhisattvāḥ comes, progressively, from the Rusul AS Themselves. In Sanskrit and Hindi, vidyā (विद्या [MP3]), from the same Indo–European root as “wisdom” and “wise,” is “knowledge.”
      2. Universe of Rraḥ°maẗ: Rraḥ°maẗ (Arabic, رَّحْمَة [MP3]), “compassion or mercy,” is the ṭarīqaẗ (Arabic, طَرِيقَة [MP3]), rās°tah (Urdu, رَاسْتَہ [MP3]), “path”), dẹrẹḵə (Hebrew, דֶּרֶךְ [MP3], “path”), duka (Amharic, ዱካ [MP3], “path”), pathi (Sanskrit, पथि [MP3], “path”), patha (Bengali, পথ [MP3], “path”), dào or tao (Mandarin Chinese, 道 [MP3], “way or path”), dao (Lingwa de Planeta/Lidepla/LdP [MP3], “path”), vojo (Esperanto [MP3], “path”), voyo (Ido [MP3], “path”), sentiero (Interlingua [MP3], “path”), luveg (Volapük [MP3], “path”), weth (Láadan [MP3], “path”), стежка in Cyrillic or stežka in Roman (Interslavic [MP3], “path”), paund (Sambahsa [MP3], “path”), or pluta (Lojban [MP3], “path”) of universal maturity for all bodhisattvāḥ.
      3. Universe of ʾÂẖiraẗ: In this universe of the great beyond, the intended result of our moral lives in the Universe of Ṭabīʿaẗ (Arabic, طَبِيعَة [MP3], “nature”) is revealed to be personal and social emancipation as completed bodhisattvāḥ. ʾÂẖiraẗ (Arabic, آخِرَة [MP3]) is the “Hereafter.” In Hebrew, Šāmạyim (שָׁמַיִם [MP3]) is “Heaven.”
    3. Universe of Ṭabīʿaẗ
    4. UNIVERSE OF ⫯AḤ°LĀM: The dream state and the Guardian Angels (Arabic, المَلَائِكَة الحَارِسَة [MP3], ʾal•Malā⫯yikaẗ ʾal•Ḥārisaẗ) Who inhabit that universe can be powerful agents for self-discovery. ⫯Aḥ°lām (Arabic, أَحْلَام [MP3]) are “dreams.” One Guardian Angel came to me in a dream, bumped into my bed, and said, “Uh, oh.” I thought I was dreaming. Later, I realized that I was, in fact, dreaming, but my understanding of dreams had been distorted by psychiatry. Dreams are the inner reality of this world. When I got up, my keys were missing from the push pin in my wall. At my assistant resident manager’s urging, I reluctantly filed a police report. I realized I would appear to be deranged. The officer, named “Stephen” as I recall, took photographs of my apartment’s bedroom. When I woke up the following morning, the keys were back on the wall. I obviously cancelled the police report. I was also, without making any exaggeration whatsoever, instantly, and seemingly permanently, transformed from an unempathetic Autist, who had never previously loved another human being (including my own parents)—or had even understood love beyond passively reading a dictionary definition—into an empathic, a loving, individual. Truthfully, the experience seemed, and continues to seem, miraculous. I am quite literally no longer the same person, and the process has continued to unfold.
    5. UNIVERSE OF FAḌĀ⫯YIL: Through the Rusul AS, each of us can, while living in this universe, become a virtuous bodhisattva. Faḍā⫯yil (Arabic, فَضَائِل [MP3]) are “virtues.”

  3. UNIVERSE OF NĀSŪT: Nāsūt (Arabic, نَاسُوت [MP3], “humanity”), which occupies the relatively limited universe of human beings, contains rational (such as thinking and free will), sensory, growing, and cohesive characteristics. This universe is interplanetary, interstellar, intergalactic, and perhaps interdimensional.
    1. UNIVERSE OF TAWĀǦUD ʾAL–MUŠ°TARAK: Groups, layered within this universe, unite around one or more Rusul AS. Tawāǧud ʾal•Muš°tarak (Arabic, تَوَاجُد المُشْتَرَك [MP3], “joint presence” or “common presence”), is “copresence.” In Sanskrit and Hindi, ekatā (एकता [MP3]) is “unity” or “copresence.”
    2. UNIVERSE OF WAH°M: The negation or contradiction of copresence divides people from one another. Wah°m (Arabic, وَهْم [MP3]) is delusion or imagination. In Sanskrit and Hindi, māyā (Sanskrit and Hindi, माया [MP3]) is “illusion”, “dualism,” or “demireality.”
    3. UNIVERSE OF MĀDDIYYAT̈: Human bodies, in the physical universe, include the characteristics of animals, vegetables, and minerals. Māddiyyaẗ (Arabic, مَادِّيَّة [MP3]) is “materiality.”

  4. UNIVERSE OF ⫰IḤ°SĀS: Each animal in this universe contains sensory, growing, and cohesive characteristics. They are the animal’s bodily functions (shared by human beings). ⫰Iḥ°sās (Arabic, إِحْسَاس [MP3]) is “sensation.” In Sanskrit, vedanā (वेदना [MP3]) is “sensation” or “feeling.”

  5. UNIVERSE OF NUMUWUṆ: Each vegetable occupying this universe of germination contains growing and cohesive characteristics. Numuwuṇ (Arabic, نُمُوٌّ [MP3]) is “growth.”

  6. UNIVERSE OF TARĀBUṬ: Each mineral within this universe of elemental connectedness contains cohesive characteristics. Tarābuṭ (Arabic, تَرَابُط [MP3]) is “cohesion.” Likewise, in Sanskrit and Hindi, saṃsakti (संसक्ति [MP3]) is “cohesion.”

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٨. Perils of Left and Right Populism
Populism, whether on the left or the neofascist right, is extremely dangerous to the individual and society. Left–wing populism, as an opponent of critical theory, is hostile toward political correctness, African American socialist intersectionality, Black Lives Matter, and Antifa (even as tactics, not as strategies). Critical thinking and the long–term success of legitimate left revolutionary movements are threatened. Moreover, an anti–intellectual, pseudo–left populism thrives on categorical—either–or and good–bad—statements. All critical theorists should be vigilant concerning the cancerous growth of leftist populism in numerous dark recesses of the Internet and be willing to directly confront it. Such a counterfeit leftism (Arabic, يَسَارِيَّة الزَائِفَة [MP3], yasāriyyaẗ ʾal•za⫯yifaẗ) may present the most dangerous challenge to the Left since McCarthyism (Arabic, مْكَارْثِيَّة [MP3], M°kār°ṯiyyaẗ).
  1. šaʿ°biyyaẗ (Arabic, شَعْبِيَّة [MP3]), “populism
  2. pōpūliyzəm (Hebrew, פּוֹפּוּלִיזְם [MP3]), “populism
  3. ʿavāmagarāýí (Persian, عَوَامَگَرَایِی [MP3]), “populism
  4. maꞌrufijati (Tajik, маъруфияти [MP3]), “populism
  5. ʿawāmiýat (Urdu, عَوَامِیَت [MP3]), “populism
  6. šuh°rat (Pashto, شُهْرَت [MP3]), “populism or popularity
  7. lōka (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਲੋਕ [MP3]), “populism or people
  8. lūḱa (Shahmukhi Punjabi, لُوکَ [MP3]), “populism or people
  9. maq°būliyat (Sindhi, مَقْبُولِيَت [MP3]), “populism or acceptibility
  1. tak°tīkāt wa•⫯is°t°rātīǧiyyāt (Arabic, تَكْتِيكَات وَإِسْتْرَاتِيجِيَّات [MP3]), “tactics and strategies
  2. ṭạqəṭiyqūṯ wə•ạsəṭərāṭẹḡiyyūṯ (Hebrew, טַקְטִיקוּת וְאַסְטְרָטֶגִיּוּת [MP3]), “tactics and strategies
  3. tāḱ°tíḱ°hā va ʾis°t°rātižíhā (Persian, تَاکْتِیکْهَا وَ اِسْتْرَاتِژِیهَا [MP3]), “tactics and strategies
  4. taktikaho va strategijaho (Tajik, тактикаҳо ва стратегияҳо [MP3]), “tactics and strategies
  5. da tāḱ°tíḱūnih ʾaw da s°t°rātížiýū (Pashto, دَ تَاکْتِیکُونِه او دَ سْترَاتِیژِیُو [MP3]), “tactics and strategies
  6. čāliýūṉ ʾaw°ra ḥik°mata man°ṣūbūṉ (Urdu, چَالِیُں اوْر حِکْمَتَ مَنْصُوبُوں [MP3]), “tactics and strategies
  7. cālāṁ atē raṇanītīꞌāṁ (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਚਾਲਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਰਣਨੀਤੀਆਂ [MP3]), “tactics and strategies
  8. čālāṉ ʾatē rananítiýāṉ (Shahmukhi Punjabi, چَالَاں اتَے رَنَنِیتِیَاں [MP3]), “tactics and strategies
  9. ḥik̀°mat ʿam°liyun ᵃⁱᵐˁ ḥik̀°mat taǧ°vīzun (Sindhi, حِڪْمَت عَمْلِيُن ۽ حِڪْمَت تَجْوِيزُن [MP3]), “tactics and strategies
Anecdotally, I and my academic colleagues are often treated like trash by left–wing populists. I searched inside myself for any culpability in the anti–intellectualism on NationStates. Then I looked around and could find no other academics. Initially, I was kicked out of a NationStates “region” after standing up to a moderator who verbally abused me. Later, in the Left–Wing Discussion Thread III, I became the target of vicious attacks for self–identifying as an academic Marxist and for discussing critical social theory. I have repeatedly written that I elevate left refoundation (Arabic, الإِعَادَة التَأْسِيس اليَسَار [MP3], ⫰iʿādaẗ ʾal•t⫯āsīs ʾal•yasār) and left regroupment (Arabic, إِعَادَة التَجْمِيع اليَسَار [MP3], ⫰iʿādaẗ ʾal•taǧ°mīʿ ʾal•yasār) over any allegiance to my tendency. Still, I was accused of being a rigid Luxemburgist and an élitist (Arabic, نُّخْبِيّ [MP3], nnuẖ°biyy) or upholder of élitism:
  1. nnuẖ°biyyaẗ (Arabic, نَّخْبِيَّة [MP3])
  2. nnuẖ°baẗ (Arabic, نُّخْبَة [MP3])
  3. ʾẹliyṭiyzəm (Hebrew, אֶלִיטִיזְם [MP3])
  4. nuẖ°bih•i garāýí (Persian, نُخْبِهِ گَرَایِی [MP3])
  5. elitizm (Tajik, элитизм [MP3])
  6. ʾahamiýat (Pashto, اهَمِیَت [MP3])
  7. ʾut°ḱ°r°šṭatā (Urdu, اُتکرشٹَتَا [MP3])
  8. varagavāda (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਵਰਗਵਾਦ [MP3])
  9. varagavāda (Shahmukhi Punjabi, وَرَگَڤَادَ [MP3])
  10. ʾay°līʈiz°m (Sindhi, ايْلِيٽِزڷم [MP3])
  11. jīngyīng•zhǔyì (Mandarin Chinese, 精英主义 [MP3])
Communists can never be too extreme about justice. Nothing matches it’s importance. Yet, many left–wing populists, parotting a meme, disparage others as social justice warriors (SJWs). What is the point of being a Leftist if one does not fight social injustice? There are hosts of other activities in which one could become engaged. Hobbies are abundant. One can shop, text, surf the web, or chat on the phone. Battling particular injustices would not prevent anyone from struggling, more specifically, for revolution. One can enroll in courses, or read books, on time management. Ultimately, how much one chooses to engage daily in this or that activity is a personal matter. One could even, heavens forbid, dedicate oneself to battling oppression through an life of high honor as a brave social justice warrior (Arabic, مُحَارِب لِأَجْل العَدَالَة الاِجْتِمَاعِيَّة [MP3], muḥārib li•⫯āǧ°l ʾal•ʿadālaẗ ʾal•ʾiǧ°timāʿiyyaẗ).
Bolsheviks (Russian, Большевики [MP3], Bolʹševiki) often view capitalism in purely economic terms. To them, the fight for social justice is simply a distraction from their economic version of revolution. In my own communist or revolutionary socialist world, we would probably not even remain in the same room, or tendency, together. I, like my fellow libertarian Marxist Roy Bhaskar, view all expressions of liberation from injustice as aspects of the fight for communism. To me, SJWs should, in copresence, be embraced, not, in demireality, be rejected. At that point, they can be encouraged to become revolutionaries. A liberation from social injustice and inequity—the radical essence of left–libertarianism (Arabic, اليَسَار مِن لِيبِرْتَارِيَّة [MP3], ʾal•yasār min lībir°tāriyyaẗ; or Hebrew, לִיבֶּרְטַרְיָנִיזְם הַשְׂמֹאלָנִי [MP3], liybẹrəṭarəyāniyzəm hạ•śəmōʾlāniy)—becomes the key to achieving communism.
Thus, I would never attack any SJWs, since I regard them, not only as allies, but as as potential candidates to become libertarian communists. Yet, even beyond the pragmatic dimension, which can only take one so far, a libertarian communist must, I also believe, become an SJW. To me, an anti–SJW libertarian communist is plainly a contradiction in terms. If the liberty in libertarianism is not universalized to the fight against all expressions of human injustice, one might as well, from my point of view, be a Marxist–Leninist, a syndicalist, or, for that matter, a fascist. Why squander one’s life and time when libertarian Marxism, through the philosophy of critical realism, offers guidance on the universal liberation from demireality―or disunity and illusion? According to the sovereign and the all–pervading Will of ʾAllꞌah SWT, may more receptive souls be drawn to critical realism.
  1. Mašī⫯yaẗ ʾAllꞌah (Arabic, مَشِيئَة الله [MP3]), “Will of God
  2. Rāṣōn šẹl ʾĔlōhiym (Hebrew, רָצוֹן שֶׁל אֱלֹהִים [MP3]), “Will of God
  3. Vẹṭ p̄ōn Gʾọṭ (Yiddish, ווֶעט פֿוֹן גּאָט [MP3]), “Will of God
  4. yä•ʾÄməlakə Fäqadə (Amharic, የአምላክ ፈቃድ [MP3]), “Will of God
  5. ʾIrādah•i H̱udā (Persian, اِرَادَهِ خُدَا [MP3]), “Will of God
  6. Iroda•i Hudo (Tajik, Иродаи Худо [MP3]), “Will of God
  7. da ʾIrādah da H̱udāý (Pashto, دَ اِرَادَه دَ خُدَای [MP3]), “Will of God
  8. H̱udā ḱí Mar°ẓí (Urdu, خُدَا کِی مَرْضِی [MP3]), “Will of God
  9. Paramēśura dī Ichā (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪਰਮੇਸ਼ੁਰ ਦੀ ਇੱਛਾ [MP3]), “Will of God
  10. Paramēšura dí ʾIč°hā (Shahmukhi Punjabi, پَرَمَیشُرَ دِی اِچْھَا [MP3]), “Will of God
  11. Hukami (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਹੁਕਮਿ [MP3]), “Will of God
  12. Ḥuḱami (Shahmukhi Punjabi, حُکَمِ [MP3]), “Will of God
  13. H̱udā ǧī Mar°ẓī (Sindhi, خُدَا جي مُرْضَي [MP3]), “Will of God
  14. Tanrıꞌnın Iradesı (Turkish [MP3]), “Will of God
As a libertarian communist, I consider myself to be an SJW. Moreover, I would argue that a non–SJW libertarian communist is an oxymoron―a contradiction in terms. What libertarian communism offers to those activists—committed to serving humanity through social justice warfare—is a sound basis for praxis (practice) strongly grounded in Marxist theory. Yet, even without Marxist theory, some practitioners of social justice warfare have accomplished considerable good. As Rosa Luxemburg taught us, reform, while limited in its productivity when contrasted with revolution, can be beneficial. However, those advantages can be accelerated by synthesizing social justice warfare with Marxism. Moreover, many Autistics, myself among them, are preoccupied with justice and innately angered by injustice. This trait is one of the fascinating features of our atypical neurologies.
  1. ḥar°b lil•ʿadālaẗ ʾal•ʾiǧ°timāʿiyyaẗ (Arabic, حَرْب لِلعَدَالَة الاِجْتِمَاعِيَّة [MP3]), “social justice warfare
  2. lāḥəmāh hạ•ṣẹḏẹq hạ•sōṣəyāʾliy (Hebrew, לָחְמָה הַצֶדֶק הַסוֹצְיָאלִי [MP3]), “social justice warfare
  3. ǧan°g•i ʿadālat•i ʾiǧ°timāʿí (Persian, جَنْگِ عَدَالَتِ اِجْتِمَاعِی [MP3]), “social justice warfare
  4. çang•i adolat•i içtimoī (Tajik, ҷанги адолати иҷтимоӣ [MP3]), “social justice warfare
  5. da ṭūlaníz ʿadālat ǧan°ǵ (Pashto, دَ ټُولَنِیز عَدَالَت جَنْګ [MP3]), “social justice warfare
  6. samāǧī ʾin°ṣāf ǧī ǧan°g (Sindhi, سَمَاجِي اِنْصَاف جِي جَنْگ [MP3]), “social justice warfare
  7. samāǧí ʾin°ṣāfa ǧan°ga (Urdu, سَمَاجِی اِنْصَافَ جَنْگَ [MP3]), “social justice warfare
  8. samājika inasāpha yudha (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਮਾਜਿਕ ਇਨਸਾਫ ਯੁੱਧ [MP3]), “social justice warfare
  9. samāǧiḱa ʾinaṣāfa ýud°ha (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَمَاجِکَ اِنَصَافَ یُدْھَ [MP3]), “social justice warfare
Social justice warfare is an intellectual activity. The SJW needs to carefully examine a situation and judge its importance relative to other pressing issues. That practice demands mindfulness. Many left populists, even if they call themselves communists, approach the Left from an anti–intellectual perspective. It is no accident that both left populists and right populists frequently oppose many of the same praxes, including social justice warfare. In appealing to populists, one needs, by definition, to find the lowest common denominator of a population. That level is generally emotional rather than intellectual, analytical, and well–read. Indeed, fascism itself is an appeal to the emotions. For that reason, Donald Trump might be called a 21ˢᵗ–century fascist or populist. Although 21ˢᵗ– century fascism is superficially different from 20ᵗʰ–century fascism, both target the emotions, not reason.
Social justice is not always compatible with egalitarianism. However, in all cases, social justice excedes egalitarianism in importance. To consider an applicable issue of social reform, in the sense that Rosa distinguished it from revolution, African Americans continue to derive socioeconomic and other costs from the plantation system. On the other hand, European Americans have persisted in extracting socioeconomic and other benefits from that same plantation system. Is there an appropriate remedy? Yes, but I sadly doubt that such a solution will be implemented. Paying reparations to African Americans would certainly not be egalitarian. Yet, it would be just. Many white conservatives would wail. My response: Who the heck cares what they think? Those jackasses are the intellectual successors to the owners of plantations who began American race and racism in the first place.
  1. maḏ°habu min ʾal•musāwāẗi (Arabic, مَذْهَبُ مِن الْمُسَاوَاةِ [MP3]), “egalitarianism
  2. ⫰iy°mān fī musāwāẗi (Arabic, إِيْمَان فِي مُسَاوَاةِ [MP3]), “egalitarianism
  3. šiwəwōniyūṯ (Hebrew, שִׁוְיוֹנִיוּת [MP3]), “egalitarianism
  4. musāvāt°ẖivāhí (Persian, مُسَاوَاتْخَوَاهِی [MP3]), “egalitarianism
  5. bovarī ba barobarī (Tajik, боварӣ ба баробарӣ [MP3]), “egalitarianism
  6. musāvāt (Pashto, مُسَاوَات [MP3]), “egalitarianism
  7. musāwāt (Urdu, مُسَاوَات [MP3]), “egalitarianism
  8. samānatāvāda (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਮਾਨਤਾਵਾਦ [MP3]), “egalitarianism
  9. samānatāvāda (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَمَانَتَاوَادَ [MP3]), “egalitarianism
  10. bār°barī (Sindhi, بَارْبَرِي [MP3]), “egalitarianism
  11. eşitlık (Turkish [MP3]), “egalitarianism
Regarding feminism in particular, the claim has been made, on NationStates, that after women achieved suffrage, the feminist movement should have ceased to exist. Such comments not only disqualify that person as a Leftist. They raise the question of whether the category of human being has been used too broadly. I mean, what person in her or his right mind would oppose the success of the women’s liberation movement in guaranteeing equal pay for equal work, the protection of women against sexual harassment and assault, and their rights to join once all–male unions as wonderful and worthy achievements? Whether those male chauvinists are appropriate candidates for a psychiatrist’s couch, I cannot say. I am a sociologist, not a psychotherapist. In any event, they are definitely deserving of pity for failing to recognize that their criticisms are condescending and disparaging.
  1. nis°wiyyaẗ (Arabic, نِسْوِيَّة [MP3]), “feminism
  2. musāwāẗ lil•ǧin°say°ni (Arabic, مُسَاوَاة الجِنْسَيْنِ [MP3]), “feminism (literally, equality for/to the two genders or sexes)
  3. ʾas°tīnāṯ (Arabic, اسْتِئْنَاث [MP3]), “feminism (or feminization)
  4. p̄ẹmiyniyzəm (Hebrew, פֶמִינִיזְם [MP3]), “feminism
  5. fimínís°m (Persian, فِمِینِیسْم [MP3]), “feminism
  6. feminizm (Tajik, феминизм [MP3]), “feminism
  7. faý°míniz°m (Pashto, فَیْمِینِزْم [MP3]), “feminism
  8. fay°mīniz°m (Sindhi, فَيْمِينِزْم [MP3]), “feminism
  9. nis°wāníta (Urdu, نِسْوَانِيتَ [MP3]), “feminism
  10. nārīvāda (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਨਾਰੀਵਾਦ [MP3]), “feminism
  11. nārívāda (Shahmukhi Punjabi, نَارِیوَادَ [MP3]), “feminism
  12. feminismo (Esperanto [MP3]), “feminism
  13. féminisme (French [MP3]), “feminism
  14. femınızm (Turkish [MP3]), “feminism
Relative to revolutionary emancipation, dear Rosa Luxemburg recognized the limitation of reforms, or wars for social justice in the contemporary vernacular, yet she welcomed them. Idealism, to Rosa, must never be elevated above the immediate welfare of the worker. A pragmatism of this sort should be embraced by all communists. Of course, it is not. Far too many communists, mostly Marxist–Leninists in my experience, get so caught up in their own thoughtless mind games, that they fail to see both the forest of revolution and, however imperfect, the trees of immediate improvements. Libertarian communists cannot make that error. Revolution comes first. However, as the saying goes, one can walk and chew gum at the same time. Everyone should boldly reach out in service to others, through unity and human compassion not by obligation, to whatever extent we might be able.
[Rosa] Luxemburg insists that socialists cannot “counterpose” reform and revolution, but that rather there is an “indissoluble tie” between the two, the struggle for reforms being an essential means to the end of revolutionary transformation.
〜 Helen Scott, “Rosa Luxemburg’s Reform or Revolution in the Twenty–first Century.” Socialist Studies/Études socialistes. Volume 6, number 2, fall 2019. Pages 118–140.
Progressives want to reform societies, not to replace them with entirely different systems. Leftists, however, would rather see present-day societies completely overthrown by communism or revolutionary socialism. On the other hand, Rosa was not opposed to reform. As a loving, compassionate, true humanitarian, she supported anything which would improve the lives of the proletariat. That notwithstanding, she recognized that reforms are shot-term fixes. The real solutions will only come through revolution. In other words, reforming the world cannot become a substitute for creating an entirely new one. Communists cannot allow themselves to be seduced by politicians into abandoning the genuine revolutionary struggle for platforms of empty promises. Fighting for the total extermination of the capitalist world–system must be a libertarian communist’s uncompromising objective.
Here is my Marxian model of the global social class system:
  1. Plutocracy: This term refers to social, political, and cultural domination by the rich. The plutocracy includes both those who own the means of production and those who are prosperous by other means.
    1. Capitalists: This social class, also known as the the bourgeosie (MP3), includes, in the U.S., some old money (upper middle class), some of the lower upper class or new money (nouveaux riches [MP3]).
    2. Wealthy Non–Capitalists: Top–level celebrities, sports stars, affluent nonworking people, some of the lower upper class in the U.S., etc. are included in this class.
  2. Proletariat (MP3): The term was then, in the 19ᵗʰ century, brilliantly “owned” or “emancipated” by Marx from the Latin “prōlētārius” (MP3), “having offspring” or loosely “baby factories.” Prōlētārius was originally an insult used by snobbish plutocrats in the Roman Empire. In this model, however, the Proletariat includes anyone who is neither a plutocrat nor a member of the Lumpenproletariat (MP3). It also includes all retired and temporarily unemployed members of the Proletariat.
    1. Intelligentsia: It is the professional class of individuals with an advanced education and, usually, a doctoral degree. The members of the class include professors, physicians, attorneys, and others or, in the U.S., the upper middle class.
    2. Managerial Class: It can be called white collar or, in the U.S., the middle class or lower middle class.
    3. Working Class: The petite bourgeosie (MP3), blue–collar factory workers, peasants, the working poor, police officers, construction workers, fire fighters, the upper lower class in the U.S., etc. make up this social class.
  3. Lumpenproletariat: This term literally translates, from the German, as “shabby Proletariat.” The underclass of unemployed poor, the subaltern according to Antonio Gramsci (MP3), the wretched of the Earth according to Frantz Fanon (MP3), homeless people, the lower lower class in the U.S., etc. are included. Marx’s own characterization of this social class as, in effect, “lowlifes,” is sadly dismissed as bigoted and stereotypical.
The difficult question must be asked: Who precisely is going to legislate reforms? The answer: It is the elected or, in some societies, the appointed legislators. They are, if we are to be brutally honest with outselves, among the very people who benefit from the status quo. An incentive for bringing about real change is lacking. Most governments are bought and paid for by corporations. Therefore, no matter how much progressives may pressure their governments to enact reforms, any supposed improvements in the capitalist world–system will never be sufficient to alleviate human suffering, to bring about individual emancipation, or to transform the entire planet. Only a real revolution will be sufficient. The object of that revolution must, without question, be democratic libertarian communism, while the exemplar of its polity and economy should be no one less than Rosa Luxemburg.
In Rosa’s day, a social democracy, which she supported, was democratic communism. Still, despite Rosa’s best efforts to preserve social democracy for her democratic libertarian communism, terminologies continuously change. Early in the 20ᵗʰ century, a revised social democracy, or democratic socialism, divided. Some became democratic socialists. On both sides of the pond, many of those “socialists” embraced counterrevolutionary Eduard Bernstein’s evolutionary socialism. A few called themselves Marxists. Others abandoned Marxism. That divide in democratic socialism has lasted till now. Through yet another split, social democracy became reformist capitalism. U.S. social democrats supported Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal or, subsequently, Bernie Sanders’ Our Revolution. Prior to disgraced UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, the Labour Party widely backed social democracy.
  1. dīmūq°rāṭiyyaẗ ʾal•ʾiǧ°timāʿiyyaẗ (Arabic, دِيمُقْرَاطِيَّة الاِجْتِمَاعِيَّة [MP3]), “social democracy
  2. dẹmōqərạṭəyāh hạ•ḥẹḇərāṯiy (Hebrew, דֶּמוֹקְרַטְיָה הַחֶבְרָתִי [MP3]), “social democracy
  3. dimūḱ°rāsí•i ʾiǧ°timāʿí (Persian, دِمُوکْرَاسِیِ اِجْتِمَاعِی [MP3]), “social democracy
  4. demokrasī•i içtimoī (Tajik, демокрасӣи иҷтимоӣ [MP3]), “social democracy
  5. da ṭūlaníz dimūḱ°rāsí (Pashto, دَ ټُولَنِیز دِمُوکْرَاسِی [MP3]), “social democracy
  6. ʾiǧ°timāʿí ǧam°hūriýata (Urdu, اِجْتِمَاعِی جَمہُورِیَتَ [MP3]), “social democracy
  7. samājaka jamahūrīꞌata (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਮਾਜਕ ਜਮਹੂਰੀਅਤ [MP3]), “social democracy
  8. samāǧaḱa ǧam°hūriýata (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَمَاجَکَ جَمْہُورِیَاتَ [MP3]), “social democracy
  9. samāǧī ǧam°hūriyat (Sindhi, سَمَاجِي جَمہُورِیَتَ [MP3]), “social democracy
21ˢᵗ–century democratic socialism is confusing to me. Some democratic socialists are reformers. Others are revolutionaries. There are even people who call themselves libertarian democratic socialists and are Luxemburgists, autonomists, or supporters of other left–libertarian tendencies. I have never managed to figure out what the difference is, on the one hand, between revolutionary democratic socialism and communism or, on the other hand, between libertarian democratic socialists and libertarian communists. Perhaps, however, the major barrier which has prevented these Leftist democratic socialists from identifying themselves as communists is the term communism itself. In parts of the Western world, historically, socialism was a dirty word. However, it was not as dirty as communism. If so, that is too bad. Left unity is needed, not division.
Progressive activists might be considerably misguided. Nevertheless, their diligence should never be disparaged. Such advocates of progressivism, with their admittedly early class consciousness, are quite often excellent candidates to become revolutionaries. The theoretical praxis of constructing thought bridges from progressivism to libertarian Marxist communism can, in many cases, be a dynamically effective communist entry tactic. Today, a basically one–dimensional communism has, unfortunately, become disengaged from the ongoing struggle for universal emancipation from human oppression and suffering. A counterfeit communism, indeed, betrays the Left. All genuine projects of liberation are ontologically incompatable with populist smear campaigns against feminists and SJWs.
  1. taqaddumiyyaẗ (Arabic, تَقَدُّمِيَّة [MP3]), “progressivism
  2. qiydəmāh (Hebrew, קִידְּמָה [MP3]), “progressivism
  3. taraqí ẖ°vāhí (Persian, تْرَقِی خْوَاهِی [MP3]), “progressivism
  4. paý°š°raf°t•i g°āýaý (Persian, پَیشرَفتِ گْرَایَی [MP3]), “progressivism
  5. imon dar peşravī (Tajik, имон дар пешравӣ [MP3]), “progressivism
  6. peşraft (Tajik, пешрафт [MP3]), “progressivism
  7. par°maẖ°tal°laý fik°r (Pashto, پَرْمَخْتَلْلَي فِكْر [MP3]), “progressivism
  8. taraqí pasan°dí (Urdu, تَرَقِی پَسَنْدِی [MP3]), “progressivism
  9. pragatīśīlatā (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪ੍ਰਗਤੀਸ਼ੀਲਤਾ [MP3]), “progressivism
  10. pragatíšílatā (Shahmukhi Punjabi, پرَگَتِیشِیلَتَا [MP3]), “progressivism
  11. taraqī pasan°d fik̀r (Sindhi, تَرَقِّي پَسَنْد فِڪْر [MP3]), “progressivism
  12. ılerlemecılık (Turkish [MP3]), “progressivism
One example of institutionalized social justice warfare, in the U.S., is Affirmative Action. Most people are unaware that, because of several decades of a relatively conservative Supreme Count, Affirmative Action currently exists in name only. Whenever I have been fortunate enough to serve on a search committee for a new assistant professor of sociology, I have been required to attend a seminar on Affirmative Action. We are simply told not to ask any personal questions regarding race, sexual identity, ethnicity, and so forth. That is Affirmative Action in the 21ˢᵗ century. White people sued in the courts claiming the fallacy of reverse discrimination. Although people holding power cannot discriminate against themselves, they frequently struggle, as hard as they can, to keep their privileges. The creative manufacturing of so–called reverse discrimination is an example of that struggle.
Likewise, whenever a sign language interpreter enters anyone of my classes for a deaf student, that is preferential treatment. If one of my students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder—or ADHD—(Arabic, اضْطِرَابُ نَقْصِ الانْتِبَاهِ مَعَ فَرْطِ النَّشَاط [MP3], ʾaḍ°ṭirābu naq°si ʾal•ʾan°tibāhi maʿa far°ṭi ʾal•hāšāṭ), Autism (Arabic, تَوَحُّد [MP3], tawaḥḥud), or learning disabilities (Arabic, عَوَائِق التَعْلِيمِيَّة [MP3], ʿawā⫯iq ʾal•taʿ°līmiyyaẗ) obtains extra testing time, that is preferential treatment. When my Blind (Arabic, أَعْمَى [MP3], ⫯aʿ°maỳ) students obtain recorded or Braille–coded testbooks, they are also receiving preferential treatment. The point of such treatment is to compensate for existing disparities or inequities. As such, many higher educational disability offices have been redesignated as Access Services or words to that effect. All students should reap the greatest advantages for their success.
I feel deeply grateful that, as an autonomous being, I control my own agency. My liberty, as a libertarian communist or socialist, is mine and mine alone. No other human being, including on NationStates, can take that agency and liberty from me. Perhaps I am missing something, but what is the alternative to social justice? Social injustice? The key is not to abandon social justice projects but to ground them in Marxist theory. A NationStates signature contains the conspiratorial line, “Social justice is a bourgeois plot.” Furthermore, when asked to define progressivism, the first member of NationStates quoted below characterized it with supposedly negative characteristics, while the second poster replied affirmatively to the comment:
Anti–white racism, misandry, Islamophilia…
〜 Liriena, “Left Wing Discussion Thread IV: Oh Hai Marx.” NationStates Forum. March 13ᵗʰ, 2018. Retrieved on March 13ᵗʰ, 2018.
Ah  I see. SJW [social justice warrior] stuff?
〜 West Leas Oros, “Left Wing Discussion Thread IV: Oh Hai Marx.” NationStates Forum. March 13ᵗʰ, 2018. Retrieved on March 13ᵗʰ, 2018.
On the other hand, after an apparent right–wing populist wrote me on NationStates, “Sooooo what does … [about] your being a libertarian communist? if you hate it in the U.S., why not move elsewhere? Or do you not have the means?,” I replied:
Oh, you are an advocate of America, love it or leave it. I don’t love any country. As I tell my students, what better country to be in, for a communist, than the evil American Empire. The only reason I would leave is laziness. I am not lazy.
〜 Mark A. Foster, “Left Wing Discussion Thread V: Completing the Five Thread Plan.” NationStates Forum. May 29ᵗʰ, 2018. Retrieved on May 29ᵗʰ, 2018.
Among many left–wing populists on NationStates, terms like SJW, regressive left, and, perhaps saddest of all, feminist have become shorthand articulations for everything I do not like—and then some. People use these designations, while rarely (if ever) defining them, and assuming that the people deciphering these postings will share the identical definitions as the original writers. Words, in and of themselves, lack significance, yet one makes up, concocts, some meaning within one’s own mind. Such jargons are convenient means to write or speak without ever saying anything. As one just recently awakened Autistic, new to the experiences of empathy and love, I adore these people and, what is more, deeply identify with them.
As this Autistic grew up, I was entirely unable to experience, or even to understand in any meaningful fashion, empathetically. Beginning around the year 2000, I had an extended series of breathtaking spiritual experiences, some of them during meditations and others during dreams and visions, which rapidy awakened me out of my baffling ignorance. I feel blissfully condemned, these days, to routinely experience life through the clear lens of human empathy. As a result, it disturbs me, often tortures me, to see feminists and others who have suffered being attacked, never loved, by socialist pretenders. Here is a typical, and only slightly edited, response which I made to a left–wing populist on the NationStates forum. Sadly, this individual engages in the unfortunate, and all–too common, right–wing mimicry of bashing both feminism and feminists:
“Have you heard of socialist feminism, Marxist feminism, material feminism, and anarcha–feminism? No, I have not been asleep at the wheel, as you charged. However, I am an academic communist, not a left–wing populist. This forum has made me aware of a massive rift on the left. As a a New Leftist beginning in 1968, I was somehow previously unaware of it. NationStates has proved to be an awakening for me and, to be honest, a quite difficult, but necessary, one. No academic communists I know, and I literally know hundreds, would ever dream of attacking feminism. We view feminists as our allies or potential allies. Seeing feminists as anything less betrays every principle I have lived by since 1968. I will not change.” Feminism, in its twin waves of women’s suffrage and women’s liberation, was decidedly the most successful social movement of the 20ᵗʰ century.
Indeed, 20ᵗʰ–century feminism was among the more triumphant enterprises over the long course of U.S. history. Was it perfect? Unequivocally, no. Was it revolutionary? Of course not. However, on both counts, so what? This social justice movement, while progressive and not Leftist, resulted in tremendous social, economic, political, familial, and occupational benefits for women. Even now, many of those gains have continued to unfold. The movement also layed the groundwork for diverse and numerous Marxist, anarchist, socialist, and communist feminisms which followed. Revolution would, ultimately, clearly be preferable to reform. By the same token, the accomplishments of the latter should not be diminished or attacked. Rosa, a feminist in her own right, would, I suspect, have been immensely proud of the extraordinary accomplishments made by Western feminism’s allies.
Another bogeyman of many left–wing populists is identity politics (or the politics of identity). My views are rather straightforward: If the politics of identity is a tactic for revolutionary transformation, or the sufferings of the subaltern or workers are amelioriated, I love it. Otherwise, I could not give a damn about politicizing identity. A politics of identity may sometimes have an emancipatory function. However, it must, in that case, serve as a thought bridge to transformational class consciousness. Such an identity politics pertains solely to an oppressed minority. A very twisted version of politics of identity, referred to by its supporters as identitarianism, is championed by certain white supremacists, fascists, neonazis, and the alt–right. Identitarianism is fit only for the septic tank, cesspool, or neighborhood sewer. Instead, the movement sadly seems to have grown in influence.
  1. siyāsaẗ ʾal•huwiyyaẗ (Arabic, سِيَاسَة الهُوِيَّة [MP3]), “identity politics
  2. pōliyṭiyqāh hạ•zẹhūṯ (Hebrew, פּוֹלִיטִיקָה שֶׁל הַזֶהוּת [MP3]), “identity politics
  3. siýāsat•i huwiýat (Persian, سِیَاسَتِ هُوِیَت [MP3]), “identity politics
  4. sijosat•i huvijat (Tajik, сиёсати ҳувият [MP3]), “identity politics
  5. da šināẖ°t siýāsat (Pashto, دَ شِنَاخْت سِیَاسَت [MP3]), “identity politics
  6. šināẖ°t ḱí siýāsat (Urdu, شِنَاخْت کِی سِیَاسَت [MP3]), “identity politics
  7. pachāṇa dī rājanītī (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪਛਾਣ ਦੀ ਰਾਜਨੀਤੀ [MP3]), “identity politics
  8. pač°hāna dí raǧanítí (Shahmukhi Punjabi, پَچْھَانَ دِی رَاجَنِیتِی [MP3]), “identity politics
  9. šināẖ°t ǧī siyāsat (Sindhi, شِنَاخْت جِي سِيَاسَت [MP3]), “identity politics
  10. pahacāna kī rājanīti (Hindi, पहचान की राजनीति [MP3]), “identity politics
  11. paricaẏa rājanīti (Bengali, পরিচয় রাজনীতি [MP3]), “identity politics
  1. fal°safaẗ ʾal•huwiyyaẗ (Arabic, فَلْسَفَة الهُوِيَّة [MP3]), “identitarianism (literally, philosophy of identity)
  2. p̄iyōsōp̄əyāh hạ•zẹhūṯ (Hebrew, פּוֹלִיטִיקָה שֶׁל הַזֶהוּת [MP3]), “identitarianism (literally, philosophy of identity)
  3. fal°safah•i huwiýat (Persian, فَلْسَفَهِ هُوِیَت [MP3]), “identitarianism (literally, philosophy of identity)
  4. falsafa•i huvijat (Tajik, фалсафаи ҳувият [MP3]), “identitarianism (literally, philosophy of identity)
  5. da šināẖ°t fal°safah (Pashto, دَ شِنَاخْت فَلْسَفَه [MP3]), “identitarianism (literally, philosophy of identity)
  6. fal°safah ḱí šināẖ°t (Urdu, فَلْسَفَہ کِی شِنَاخْت [MP3]), “identitarianism (literally, philosophy of identity)
  7. dar°šana ḱí šināẖ°t (Urdu, دَرْشَنَ کِی شِنَاخْت [MP3]), “identitarianism (literally, philosophy or ‘sight’ of identity)
  8. pahačāna ḱā dar°šana (Urdu, پَہَچَانَ کَا دَرْشَنَ [MP3]), “identitarianism (literally, philosophy or ‘sight’ of identity)
  9. pachāṇa dī daraśana (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਪਛਾਣ ਦੀ ਦਰਸ਼ਨ [MP3]), “identitarianism (literally, philosophy or ‘sight’ of identity)
  10. pač°hāna dí darašana (Shahmukhi Punjabi, پَچْھَانَ دِی دَرَشَنَ [MP3]), “identitarianism (literally, philosophy or ‘sight’ of identity)
  11. falasafū ǧī šināẖ°t (Sindhi, فَلَسَفُو جِي شِنَاخْت [MP3]), “identitarianism (literally, philosophy of identity)
  12. pahacāna kā darśana (Hindi, पहचान का दर्शन [MP3]), “identitarianism (literally, philosophy or ‘sight’ of identity)
  13. paricaẏa darśana (Bengali, পরিচয় দর্শন [MP3]), “identitarianism (literally, philosophy or ‘sight’ of identity)
One of the self–defined fascists on NationStates quoted a sentence, in his forum signature, from the Italian fascist Julius Evola (MP3), 1898–1974. Today, on April 3ʳᵈ, 2018, he used the disparaging term, “Jap,” for the Japanese people. I responded to him, “I would really, really appreciate it if you would not use that derogatory term for the Japanese people.” The fascist’s reply was “Get over it.” I then reported the person to the moderation team. The fascist was banned from NationStates for a single day. The moderator then wrote to the fascist, “… when someone points out that you’re using a potentially offensive word in a way that offends them and your only response is ‘get over it’ I have trouble seeing your intent as anything but to offend or annoy.” As someone who cares deeply about social justice, which is why I identify with Antifa, I am grateful even for small victories.
On December 30ᵗʰ, 2018, an individual on NationStates suggested that spying on other nations was a better alternative than revolution. I replied:
Personally, I do not support any form of imperialism, including spying on other nations. The Empire (an Autonomist term for the U.S.) is the most destructive imperialist nation, but some other nations (like Russia and China) are following close behind.
Both Lev [Trotsky] and Rosa [Luxemburg] were internationalists. That is one of the most important concepts, supported by [Karl] Marx (“workers of the world unite”), which drew me to Trotskyism and, later, to “Luxemburgism.”
〜 Mark A. Foster. NationStates Forum. December 30ᵗʰ, 2018. Retrieved on December 30ᵗʰ, 2018.
A NationStates poster argued, December 25ᵗʰ, 2018, that all organizations in the Antifa movement should be branded as “terrorist organizations.” This person’s posting is an example of uncritical thinking. Since I value critical thinking, I decided to reply:
Which particular organizations would you brand as terrorist organizations? Can you mention each of them by name and give specific reasons for branding it as a terrorist organization? Please don’t be vague. Calling the entire antifascist movement (just another term for Antifa) a bunch of terrorist organizations is a pretty dramatic claim.
〜 Mark A. Foster. NationStates Forum. December 25ᵗʰ, 2018. Retrieved on December 25ᵗʰ, 2018.
Many, perhaps, most Americans on the far right are used to speaking in the right–wing echo chamber, not to actually engaging with Leftists. Not surprisingly, the next day, the poster responded with a jarbled statement that I should look for Antifa on the FBI (U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation) site and on Facebook. I wrote back:
Okay, so you can’t or won’t answer my question? I did not ask you to simply name the organizations. After you branded all Antifa organizations as terrorist organizations, I asked you to go, one by one, through those organizations and explain, in detail, why it is a terrorist organization.
Since you are the one who made the claim, not me, you have committed the logical fallacy of switching the burden of proof. It is not my job to disprove your claim.
Therefore, I was simply responding to your original message when I asked you to provide support for your claim. Since I am Antifa, and I am not and never have been a terrorist, this subject is near and dear to my heart.
〜 Mark A. Foster. NationStates Forum. December 26ᵗʰ, 2018. Retrieved on December 26ᵗʰ, 2018.
I frequently run into right–wingers who critiicze communists for saying, “So and so is not a real communist.” The opposing argument is simple and impossible to challenge: Are you saying that the right has not been divided into hostile camps? Words like “communism” and “conservatism” are not real. Only people and their minds are real. I was thinking about the subject one winter morning. Through serendipity, I replied to a self–defined fascist with that bias—who was replying to me—the same evening:
I suppose I have problems with what you wrote. What is wrong with criticizing something as not genuinely communist? There are all sorts of parallels to it in other areas, and I have never heard that kind of criticism made of those areas.
For instance, say I walked up to an evangelical Christian guy and criticized him for opposing blood transfusions. The person would likely respond, “You are confusing me with the Jehovah’s Witnesses, and, moreover, they are not real Christians.”
In religion, people in different sects of the same religious tradition constantly accuse people in other sects of not being real Christians, Muslims, Jews, etc. As a sociologist of religion, I run into these situations all the time. Yet, most people accept that as a result of religious differences. They ignore it.
Okay, so why do many people have difficulty drawing similar conclusions regarding Marxism or communism? For instance, the same thing is true on the right: Neocons [neoconservatives] and paleocons [paleoconservatives] accusing each other of not being real conservatives, pro–Trump vs. anti–Trump conservatives, etc., or white nationalist (or alt–right) conservatives vs. anti–white nationalist conservatives.
To your claim that we should not “equivocate” and claim that [Vladimir] Lenin did not achieve communism, I would say, Why not? Wouldn’t you say that the KKK never achieved conservatism?
〜 Mark A. Foster. NationStates Forum. December 27ᵗʰ, 2018. Retrieved on December 27ᵗʰ, 2018.
A neofascist on NationStates fancies himself a left–wing populist. He is not. A rattlesnake may say, “I am a scorpion.” Both animals are venomous, but the old rattlesnake remains. I, as a libertarian communist, am one of this person’s favorite targets of opportunity. Recently, I pointed out a mere truism, namely, that some, but categorically not all, National Bolsheviks (Russian, Национальные Большевики [MP3], Nacionalʹnye Bolʹševiki) or Nazbols (Russian, Нацболы [MP3], Nacboly) are fascists or third positionists. It was certainly not an original statement, and most reasonably well–read people would, I presume, be aware of that fact. His response to my comment? He called me—the Russian–Austrian child of Jewish parents and distant relative of persons assassinated in the Holocaust—an antisemite. Many people seem to lack the intellect needed to function as human beings.
  1. Maḥ°raqaẗ (Arabic, مَحْرَقَة [MP3]), “Holocaust
  2. Fāǧiʿaẗ (Arabic, فَاجِعَة [MP3]), “Holocaust
  3. Šōʾāh (Hebrew, שׁוֹאָה [MP3]), “Holocaust
  4. Fāǧiʿah (Persian, فَاجِعَه [MP3]), “Holocaust
  5. Hūlūḱās°t (Persian, هُولُوکَاسْت [MP3]), “Holocaust
  6. Holokost (Tajik, Ҳолокост [MP3]), “Holocaust
  7. Hālūḱūs°t (Pashto, هَالُوکُوسْت [MP3]), “Holocaust
  8. Hālūk̀as°ʈ (Sindhi, هَالُوڪَسْٽ [MP3]), “Holocaust
  9. ʿĀlam°gír Bar°bādí (Urdu, عَالَمْگِیر بَرْبَادِی [MP3]), “Holocaust
  10. Sarabanāśa (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਸਰਬਨਾਸ਼ [MP3]), “Holocaust
  11. Sarabanāša (Shahmukhi Punjabi, سَرَبَنَاشَ [MP3]), “Holocaust
  12. Pralaya (Hindi, प्रलय [MP3]), “Holocaust
  13. Byāpaka Hatyākāṇḍa (Bengali, &ব্যাপক হত্যাকাণ্ড [MP3]), “Holocaust
Critiquing someone else on NationStates for making stereotypical comments about Islamic law, I asked:
Can you, therefore, explain what Shariah (Arabic, شَرِيعَة, Šarīʿaẗ) law is? Or even what the word means? And no Wikipedia references please.