The Dialectical metaRealist Ṣạdiyqiym of
Democratic Communist Federation (Spartakusland)
Democratic Communist Federation (Spartakusland)
Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ-Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹl
Ṣạdiyq or Tzadik Ṣạdiyq or Tzadik Ṣạdiyq or Tzadik Ṣạdiyq or Tzadik Ṣạdiyq or Tzadik
“Socialism in life demands a complete spiritual transformation ….” ~ Rosa Luxemburg
Democratic Communist Federation Flag
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bullet א. Māḇōʾ hạ–Tạməṣiyṭiy
The following concise introduction (Hebrew/ʿIḇəriyṯ, מָבוֹא הַתַּמְצִיתִי [MP3], māḇōʾ hạ–tạməṣiyṭiy) will hopefully provide the interested reader with a sense of the material to follow:
Social fiction tackles significant issues using a diverse assortment of entertainment media. From a social scientific perspective, the value of social fiction should not be underestimated. The subjects addressed, sometimes cloaked in metaphor, can frequently be serious and consequential. Among these fictional genres is online gaming. Like visual and performance art, such gaming may frequently bring to the fore topics and content which are rarely discussed and examined in other lifeworlds. Ṣạdiyqiym hạ–Dāṯ hạ–Bāhāʾiyṯ of Democratic Communist Federation (Spartakusland)™ (MP3), as social fiction, is an allegory for The Antifa Luxemburgist Communist Collective (MP3; ALCC). Methodologically, the agency or instrumentality of forming and governing fictional nations will be explored ethnographically—by participant observation—and through phenomenological analysis.
Although this narrative is largely a fictional piece, it is scrupulously grounded in a personal interpretation of historical and social facts. All of the views presented mirror only the provisional thoughts of the author. He occupies, heavens forbid, no station more exalted than the dust of the Earth, while his plane of knowledge lies beneath the lowly ant. The writer’s reflections are an applied exercise in concrete utopianism, a tantalizing concept originally defined by the German Marxist philosopher Ernst Bloch (MP3), 1985–1977, and further developed by the British libertarian communist, Marxist philosopher, and critical realist Roy Bhaskar (MP3), 1944–2014. However, the information offered in the current piece of creative writing, a set of semilegendary accounts, is neither a unit of official religious statements nor an authoritative exposition of particular philosophies and theories.

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bullet ב. Nəṭiyyāh hạ–Qōmūniysəṭ
wə–Tēʾōrəyōṯ hạ–Qəriyṭōṯ
In this chapter, I will discuss my communist tendency and critical theories (Hebrew, נְטִיָּה הַקוֹמוּנִיסְט וְתֵּאוֹרְיוֹת הַקְרִיטוֹת [MP3], nəṭiyyāh hạ–qōmūniysəṭ wə–tēʾōrəyōṯ hạ–qəriyṭōṯ). Since these issues are addressed in considerable more depth elsewhere, the comments offered below should be regarded as general and limited in scope:
This project on Marxism–Luxemburgism (MP3) draws upon numerous critical frameworks, including: Bhaskarian critical realism (MP3) as the foundational metatheory with intersectionality (MP3) from American Kimberlé Crenshaw (born 1959), the method of world–systems analysis from American Immanuel Wallerstein (born 1940), international socialism from stateless British resident Tony Cliff (1917–2000), third–camp socialism from American Max Shachtman (1904–1972), Titoism (MP3) from Yugloslav Marshal Josip Broz Tito (Serbian/Srpski, Маршал Јосип Броз Тито [MP3], Maršal J̌osip Broz Tito, 1892–1980), workers’ self–directed coöperative enterprises from American Richard D. Wolff (born 1942), and De Leonism (MP3) from U.S. pre–Bolshevik (Russian/Rossiâne, пред-Большевик [MP3], pred–Bolʹševik) activist Daniel De Leon (MP3; 1852–1914).
Both Wallerstein’s world–systems analysis and Crenshaw’s intersectionality expand capitalist studies beyond a narrow and simplistic economism, or economic determinism, to include diverse substructures of modernity. In both cases, the amplification is clear from the perspectival designations themselves. If capitalism is correctly regarded as a world–system, as a dynamic elucidation of communist internationalism, then merely delineating an economy, or even a political economy, would offer an insufficient portrayal. If, on the other hand, capitalism is an intersection—perhaps a prison cell, a roadmap, a web, or a birdcage—then the capitalist framework needs to be approached multidimensionally, not as a two–dimensional flatland. Due to the contradictions of capitalism, someone may experience power, privilege, wealth, and prestige in one or more areas of life but not in others.
For left regroupment, the vehicle driven, to traverse all the hazardous thoroughfares toward a newly consolidated Left, is Antifa Luxemburgism (MP3). I made, in my long life, turns to the Students’ Democratic Coalition of the left–libertarian U.S. New Left (1968), to Titoism, to post–Trotskyist (MP3) international socialism and neo–Trotskyist (MP3) third–camp socialism, then rebounding, in a full circle, to left–libertarianism. My tetrad of left–libertarian, or anti–authoritarian, communism combines: Luxemburgism, Bhaskar’s critical realism, the Antifa current of Autonomist Marxism (MP3), and the multi–tendency socialism from below of American third–camp socialist Hal Draper (1914–1990). All of the above rubrics have been synthesized, via left refoundation, into The Institute for Dialectical metaRealism (MP3), The Collective to Fight Neurelitism (MP3), and ALCC.
The Polish–born, naturalized German citizen, libertarian Marxist, proto–left communist, doctor of law, and nonobservant Jew Rosa Luxemburg ([German/Deutsch; MP3], Róża Luksemburg [Polish/Polski; MP3], Róży Luksemburg [Polish; [MP3], Rōzạh bạṯ ʾĔliyyāhū [Hebrew, רוֹזַה בַּת אֱלִיָּהוּ; MP3], Rʾọsʾạ bạṯ ʾĔliyyāhū [Yiddish/Yiyḏiyš, ראָסאַ בּ‬ֶן אֱלִיָּהוּ; MP3], Rūzaẗ ʾib°naẗ ⫰Iy°liyā [Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ, رُوزَة اِبْنَة إِيْلِيَا; MP3], Rūzah duẖ°tar–i ʾIl°ýās [Persian/Fār°sí, رُوزَه دُخْتَرِ اِلْیَاس; MP3], or Red Rosa 🌹 [German, rote Rosa; MP3]) was the magnificent daughter of Eliasz (Polish; MP3) and Liny (Polish; MP3) in 1871. Rosa became a secular martyr, in Germany, on January 15ᵗʰ, 1919. My father was born, eight months nine days later, on September 24ᵗʰ, 1919. Like Rosa, the beloved heroine, work heartily, with the spirit of revolutionary fervor, for democratic libertarian communism.
Borrowing a term from my old Master’s thesis, Increasing Complexity as a Process in Social Evolution: A Case Study of the Bahá’í Faith, capitalism is a complexification. Briefly, the name Dialectical metaRealism comes from Bhaskar’s work. The term is a portmanteau of his dialectical critical realism and his philosophy of metaReality. The result is a play on words or, if you prefer, a pun. Obviously, Dialectical metaRealism sounds a great deal like dialectical materialism. Practically speaking, Dialectical metaRealism, while adopting Bhaskar’s work as its metatheoretical foundation, uses Antifa Luxemburgism, as developed by this writer, for its communist tendency. Additionally, the variety of other critical theories discussed in the preceding paragraphs have also been incorporated into Dialectical metaRealism.
As a libertarian Marxist communist internationalist and a Marxist–Luxemburgist—not a deplorable neoconservative American imperialist and a Zionist—my sympathies have been for the struggling Palestinians of the Levant (Arabic, الشَّام, ʾal–Ššām [(MP3]) and additional subaltern (MP3) or marginalized peoples. That notwithstanding, without an international communist union, I would never condone the establishment of a Palestinian state anymore than I could, in good conscience, support other nation–states, such as apartheid Israel. The final remedy for the massive demireality, or disunity in difference, of modernity is not the proliferation of still more independent national identities but, rather, the establishment of a global communist state. It will, I hope, gradually develop, over the course of many centuries, into a worldwide communist federation or administration.

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bullet ג. Ṣạdiyqiym
Spartakusland, the Federation’s capital city, is frequently used as a nickname for the Federation itself. In NationStates, Ṣạdiyqiym hạ–Dāṯ hạ–Bāhāʾiyṯ of Democratic Communist Federation (Spartakusland) is the national executive of The Antifa Luxemburgist Communist Collective. In NationsGame, Spartakusland (MP3) belongs to the alliance, The Internationale (MP3; or an MP3 of the song). In Cyber Nations, Spartakusland belongs to the alliance, the Libertarian Socialist Federation. In Politics & War, Spartakusland belongs to the alliance, United Socialist Nations (MP3). Spartakusland also resides in Simcountry, in the Republic of You from Oxfam, and in Conflict of Nations.
Karl Marx
Click on the Image to Enlarge
The official animal of Spartakusland is Mimi the Cat (German, Mimi die Katze [MP3]; or Polish/Polski, Mimi Kocica [MP3]) which was, in fact, Rosa’s pet. The photographic collage, below, can be clicked on for enlargements in a PDF file. The colorized version, just to the right, was produced courtesy of the creative developers, Oli Callaghan and Finnian Anderson, behind this Twitter bot. It is then immediately followed, on this page, by cartoons from The Nation magazine:
Mimi the CatMimi the Cat
Red Rosa and Mimi the Cat
Red Rosa and Mimi the Cat
Spartakusland’s official bird is the metaphorical Nightingale of Paradise. The originals of all three pictures on this page were painted by the great calligrapher Miš°ḱín Qalam (Persian, مِشْکِین قَلَم [MP3], “musk–scented pen or jet–black pen”), surname of Mír°zā Ḥusaý°n–i ʾIṣ°fahāní (Persian, مِیرْزَا حُسَیْنِ اِصْفَهَانِی [MP3]), 1826–1912. Each of them was, to various degrees, then retouched by me:
Nightingale of Paradise by Miš°ḱín Qalam (Mishkín–Qalam) with modifications Nightingale of Paradise by Miš°ḱín Qalam (Mishkín–Qalam) with some retouching by Foster Nightingale of Paradise by Miš°ḱín Qalam (Mishkín–Qalam) with some retouching by Foster
Click on Each of the Images for the Original
The national anthem of Spartakusland is „Auf, auf zum Kampf, zum Kampf!“ (“On, on to the Struggle, to the Struggle!”). This beautiful song was initially composed in approximately 1919 by Bertolt Brecht (MP3; 1898–1956) as a meet and seemly tribute to the dynamic revolutionary pair of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht (MP3; 1871–1919). The MP3 file contains five renditions. As to the MP4 file, English–language subtitles are included. You may, if you wish, read the lyrics in both the original German as well as their in English translation. Shamelessly, in 1930, the melody was expropriated and the lyrics rewritten by Adolf Wagner (MP3; 1890–1944) into nazi trash. The attempt here is to recover and hopefully redeem this splendidly commemorative piece as the chivalrous accolade expressed, at the outset, by Brecht.
The ruling political party of Spartakusland is the 21ˢᵗ–Century Spartacus League. You are invited to read an outline of its basic principles and perspectives. If you are a Marxist–Luxemburgist, wholly or even in part, please paste the BBCode (Bulletin Board Code) onto your NationStates forum signature, a factbook, or a dispatch. The HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) can be pasted onto your website or blog. Member, 21ˢᵗ-Century Spartacus League will be displayed by using either posting option. Click to toggle between revealing and reconcealing the snippets of code.
💗 ḏik°r (Arabic, ذِكْر [MP3], remembrance): Yā Bahāˁ ʾal–⫯Ab°hāỳ, wa–yā ʿAliyy ʾal-⫯Aʿ°laỳ! Yā Bahāˁ ʾal–⫯Ab°hāỳ, wa–yā ʿAliyy ʾal-⫯Aʿ°laỳ! (Arabic, يَا بَهَاء لأَبْهَى، وَيَا عَلِيّ الأَعْلَى! يَا بَهَاء لأَبْهَى، وَيَا عَلِيّ الأَعْلَى! [MP3]), O Glory of the Most Glorious, and O Exalted of the Most Exalted! O Glory of the Most Glorious, and O Exalted of the Most Exalted!
My faux title, as the elected head of state, is ṣạdiyq or tzadik (Hebrew, צַדִּיק [MP3], “righteous one”). It is another term for rẹbiy or rebbe (Yiddish, רֶבִי [MP3]), the Yiddish rendering of rạbbiy or rabbi (Hebrew, רַבִּי [MP3], “my great one,” “my master,” “my teacher,” or “my mentor”). Our radical proletarian democratic federation operates as an agent of Ṣạdiyqiym (Tzadikim) hạ–Dāṯ hạ–Bāhāʾiyṯ (Hebrew, הַצַדִּיקִים הַדָּת הַבָּהָאִית [MP3], dynasty ofrighteous ones of the Bahá’í Faith”) of Democratic Communist Federation (Spartakusland). The ongoing relationships between Spartakusland and its Ṣạdiyqiym are reciprocal. That Ṣạdiyqiym, in which Spartakusland residents fifteen or older can universally participate, provides the Federation with required spiritual and ethical guidance. hạ–Ṣạdiyq (Hebrew, הַצַדִּיק [MP3]) humbly and meekly serves as chair for gatherings of the Ṣạdiyqiym.
This fanciful Bahá’í federation, oddly structured around a Judaic Ṣạdiyqiym, is founded upon the ancient Hebrew principle of ethical monotheism (Hebrew, מוֹנוֹתֵאִיזְם הַאֶתִי [MP3], mōnōṯēʾiyzəm hạ–ʾẸṯiy, “monotheism ethical or moral”; or אֱמוּנַת הַיִחוּד הַמוּסָרִי, [MP3], ěmūnạṯ hạ–Yiḥūḏ hạ–mūsāriy, “doctrine or dogma of Unification ethical or moral”; Arabic, تَوْحِيد الأَخْلَاقِيَّة [MP3], Taw°ḥīd ʾal–⫯aẖ°lāqiyyaẗ, “Unification ethical or moral”; Perso–Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ–Fārisiyyaẗ, تَوْحِیدِ اخلَاقِی [MP3], Taw°ḥíd–i ʾaẖ°lāqí, “Unification of ethical or moral”); or Urdu–Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ–⫯Ur°diyyaẗ, اخلَاقِی تَوْحِید [MP3], ʾaẖ°lāqí Taw°ḥíd, “ethical or moral Unification”). The theology of ethical monotheism affirms the singlehood of God (Hebrew, הַשֵּׁם [MP3], hạ–Ššēm, “the Name”; אֱלֹהִ֔ים [MP3], ʾĔlōhiym, “Almighty One”; or יָהְוֶה [MP3], Yāhəwẹh, “He is Becoming”) as the ultimate Source of perfection.
Meanwhile, the deliberations conducted by the Tzadikim (Hebrew, הַצַדִּיקִים [MP3], hạ–Ṣạdiyqiym) are informed by: The Bahá’í Faith, by Judaism, by Islam (Arabic, إسْلَام [MP3], ⫰Is°lām, “peaceful surrender”), by Sikhism (Guramukhi Punjabi/Guramukhī Pajābī, ਸਿੱਖ ਧਰਮ [MP3], Sikha Dharama, “disciple’s nature”), by bhakti (Sanskrit/Saṃskrtam, भक्ति [MP3], bhakti, involvement with the beloved), by numerous other religious systems, and by an assortment of far–left perspectives, including, but not limited to, those noted in this monograph.
The Ṣạdiyqiym is, in effect, the collective center of Spartakusland. As a clear demonstration of the Ṣạdiyqiym’s openness to a wide assortment of perspectives on philosophy, religion, communism, and critical theory, two additional libertarian communist puppet nations are actively maintained. The oldest of the pair, Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal–Bāhuwiyyaẗ of The Multiversal Communist Collective™ is operated by an eclectic Ṣūfiyy (Arabic, صُوفِيّ, Ṣūfiyy [MP3], wearingwoolengarments) order. The other puppet, which has been inspired by Gene Roddenbury’s Star Trek Universe™, is The United Federation of Libertarian Communist Planets™.

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bullet ד. Dāṯ hạ–Bāhāʾiyṯ
Under libertarian communism, and its proletarian democracy, one’s unfettered conscience should invariably dictate all one’s actions. As such, Spartakusland enjoys full religious freedom. That liberty includes the right to practice a religion, or religions, of one’s own choosing or to abstain from any religious involvement. However, Spartakusland’s national and most widespread religion is the Bahá’í Faith, glorious judgment (or, by implication, glorious religion) in Arabic. Using the Hebrew system, here is a listing of that term in various languages:
  1. Dāṯ hạ–Bāhāʾiyṯ (Hebrew, דָּת הַבָּהָאִית [MP3])
  2. Ddiyānaẗ ʾal-Bahā⫯yiyyaẗ (Arabic, دِّيَانَة البهائيّة [MP3])
  3. ʾÂ⫯ýín–i Bahā⫯ýí (Persian, آئِینِ بَهَائِی [MP3]
  4. ʾAý°mān–i Bahā⫯ýí (Persian, ايْمَانِ بَهَائِی [MP3])
  5. Rāh–i Bahā⫯ýí (Persian, رَاهِ بَهَائِی [MP3])
  6. Dīn–i Bahā⫯ýí (Persian, دِينِ بَهَائِی [MP3])
  7. Diýānat–i Bahā⫯ýí (Pashto/Paṣ̌°tū/Pax̌°tū, دِیَانَتِ بَهَائِی [MP3])
  8. ʾAmara-i Bahā⫯ýí (Urdu/ʾUr°dū, امَرَِ بَہائِی [MP3])
  9. Bahā⫯ýí D°harama (Shahmukhi Punjabi/Šāh Muḱ°hí Pan°ǧābí, بَہَائِی دْھَرَمَ [MP3]
  10. Bahāꞌī Dharama (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਬਹਾਈ ਧਰਮ [MP3])
  11. Bahāī Āsthā (Hindi/Hiṃdī, बहाई आस्था [MP3])
  12. Bāhāꞌi Dharma (Bengali/Bāṅāli/Bānlā, বাহাই ধর্ম [MP3]
  13. yä–Bahaʾi ʾƏmənätə (Amharic/ʾÄmarəña, የባሃኢ እምነት [MP3])
  14. Fidi Bahá’í (Maltese/Malti [MP3])
  15. Bahai İnancı (Turkish/Türk dili [MP3])
  16. Mpachái Pístē (Modern Greek/Néa Ellēniká, Μπαχάι Πίστη [MP3])
  17. Bāhāyī–Xìnyǎng (Mandarin Chinese/Zhōngguó–Guānhuà, 巴哈伊信仰 [MP3])
  18. Bahāī Kyō (Japanese/Nihongo, バハーイー教 [MP3] or バハーイーきょう [MP3])
  19. Pahai Sinang (Korean/Chosŏnmal/Han’gugŏ, 바하이 신앙 [MP3])
  20. Đức tin Bahaꞌi (Vietnamese/Tiếng Việt [MP3])
  21. Foi bahá’íe (French/Français [MP3])
  22. Fe bahá’í (Spanish/Español [MP3])
  23. Fé Bahá’í (Portugese/Português [MP3])
  24. Fede Bahá’í (Italian/Italiano [MP3])
  25. Bahá’í Glaube (German/Deutsch [MP3])
  26. Bahá’í–geloof (Dutch/Nederlands [MP3])
  27. Bahá’í tro (Danish/Dansk [MP3])
  28. Bahá’í–troen (Norwegian/Norsk [MP3])
  29. Bahá’í–tro (Swedish/Svenska [MP3])
  30. Bahá’í–uskonto (Finnish/Suomi [MP3])
  31. Credința Bahá’í (Romanian/Limba Română [MP3])
  32. Bahá’í Hit (Hungarian/Magyar Nyelv [MP3])
  33. Iman Bahá’í (Indonesian/bahasa Indonesia [MP3])
  34. Pahāy Nampikkai (Tamil/Tamiḻ, பஹாய் நம்பிக்கை [MP3])
  35. Bahá’í Viera (Slovak/Slovák [MP3])
  36. Bahá’í víra (Czech/Čeština [MP3])
  37. Bahai Havatkʻ (Armenian/Hayeren, Բահաի Հավատք [MP3])
  38. Bahá’í vjera (Croatian/Hrvatski [MP3])
  39. Vera Bahai (Russian/Rossiâne, Вера Бахаи [MP3])
  40. Víra Bahaí̈ (Ukrainian/Ukraí̈nsʹka Mova, Віра Бахаї [MP3])
  41. Bahajiešu ticība (Latvian/Latviešu Valoda [MP3])
  42. Bahá’í usk (Estonian/Eesti keel [MP3])
  43. Bahāyi Ædahīma (Sinhalese/Siṁhala, බහායි ඇදහීම [MP3])
  44. fidei Bahá’í (Latin/Lingua Latīna [MP3])
  45. Bahá’í trú (Icelandic/Ìslenska [MP3])
  46. Bahá’í Fido (Esperanto [MP3])
  47. Fido Bahaa (Ido [MP3])
  48. Fide Bahá’í (Interlingua [MP3])
  49. Bahá’í Kreda (Lingwa de Planeta/Lidepla/LdP [MP3])
  50. bahá’í lijda (Lojban [MP3])
  51. Bahá’í fide (Glossa [MP3])
The Bahá’í Faith was, in the real world, founded in 1863 by the divine Prophet from Iran (Persian/Fārsí, اِیْرَان, ʾIý°rān [MP3]; Urdu, اِیْرَان, ʾIý°rān [MP3]; or Arabic, إِيْرَان [MP3] ⫰Iy°rān), Bahá’u’lláh (“Glory of God” in Arabic). He was born in 1817 and died, while in exile, in 1892. Here are some renderings of His Name:
  1. Bahāˁ ʾAllꞌah (Arabic, بَهَاء الله [MP3])
  2. Bahāˁ–ʾUllꞌah (Persian, بَهَاءالله [MP3])
  3. Bahā ʾUllaha (Urdu, بَہَا اُللَہَ [MP3])
  4. Bahāullāha (Hindi, बहाउल्लाह [MP3])
  5. Bāhāꞌullāh (Bengali, বাহাউল্লাহ্ [MP3])
  6. Bahā ʾAllꞌah (Sindhi/Sin°dʱī, بَهَا الله [MP3])
  7. Bahā⫯ūlāha (Shahmukhi Punjabi, بَہَاُؤلَاہَ [MP3])
  8. Bahāꞌulāha (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਬਹਾਉਲਾਹ [MP3])
  9. Bạhāʾ–ʾŪllāh (Hebrew, בַּהָא־אֻלָּה [MP3])
  10. Mpacháolla (Modern Greek, Μπαχάολλα [MP3])
  11. Bāhāꞌōulā (Mandarin Chinese, 巴哈欧拉 [MP3])
  12. Bahaora (Japanese, バハオラ [MP3])
  13. Bahāurrā (Japanese, バハーウッラー [MP3])
  14. Paha Uraya (Korean, 바하 우라야 [MP3])
  15. Pahaolla (Korean, 바하올라 [MP3])
  16. Bahaulla (Russian, Бахаулла [MP3])
  17. Bahaulla (Ukrainian, Бахаулла [MP3])
  18. Bahuvallā (Sinhalese, බහුවල්ලා [MP3])
  19. Bʾạhʾạ′ū′llʾạh (Yiddish, באַהאַ׳וּ׳ללאַה [MP3])
You may join the Bahá’í Faith or visit the following websites for further information:
  1. The Bahá’í Faith: The website of the worldwide Bahá’í community
  2. various Bahá’í–oriented websites independently operated by me: The Bahá’í Studies Web Server, Unities of All Things, the Collective to Fight Neurelitism, Bahá’í Glossary, Bahá’íSite, The Bahá’í World, and The Inner Light Rising.

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bullet ה. Yạhăḏūṯ
Beginning a turn to Jewish issues, terms for Judaism and Jewish have, directly below, been successively rendered into numerous languages:
  1. Yạhăḏūṯ (Hebrew, יַהֲדוּת [MP3]) 🙲 Yiyḏiyš (Hebrew, יִידִישׁ [MP3])
  2. Yahūdiyyaẗ (Arabic, يَهُودِيَّة [MP3]) 🙲 Yahūdiyy (Arabic, يَهُودِيّ [MP3])
  3. Yəhudinätə (Amharic, ይሁዲነት [MP3]) 🙲 Yäyəhudi (የይሁዲ MP3])
  4. Ýahūdiýat (Persian, یَهُودِیَت [MP3]) 🙲 Ýahūdí (Persian, یَهُودِی [MP3])
  5. Yahūdiyat (Sindhi, يَهُودِيَت [MP3]) 🙲 Yahūdī (Sindhi, يَهُودِي [MP3])
  6. Ýahūdiýýat (Urdu, یَہُودِیَّت [MP3]) 🙲 Ýahūdí (Urdu, یَہُودِی [MP3])
  7. Ýahūdí D°harama (Shahmukhi Punjabi, یَھُودِی دْھَرَمَ [MP3]) 🙲 Ýahūdí (Shahmukhi Punjabi, یَھُودِی [MP3])
  8. Yahūdī Dharama (Garamukhi Punjabi, ਯਹੂਦੀ ਧਰਮ [MP3]) 🙲 Yahūdī (Garamukhi Punjabi, ਯਹੂਦੀ [MP3])
  9. Yahūdī Dharma (Hindi, यहूदी धर्म [MP3]) 🙲 Yahūdī (Hindi, यहूदी [MP3])
  10. Yūtam (Tamil, யூதம் [MP3]) 🙲 Yūta (Tamil, யூத [MP3])
  11. Ihudīdharmamata (Bengali, ইহুদীধর্মমত [MP3]) 🙲 Ihudi (Bengali, ইহুদি [MP3])
  12. Musevîlik (Turkish [MP3]) or Yahudilik (Turkish [MP3]) 🙲 Musevi (Turkish [MP3]) or Yahudi (Turkish [MP3])
  13. Yóutàijiào (Mandarin Chinese, 犹太教 [MP3]) 🙲 Yóutài (Mandarin Chinese, 犹太 [MP3])
  14. Yudaya Kyō (Japanese, ユダヤ教 [MP3]) 🙲 Yudaya Jin (Japanese, ユダヤ人 [MP3])
  15. Yut’aegyo (Korean, 유태교 [MP3]) 🙲 Yut’aein (Korean, 유태인 [MP3])
  16. Đạo Do Thái (Vietnamese [MP3]) 🙲 Người Do Thái (Vietnamese [MP3])
  17. Judaïsme (French [MP3]) 🙲 Juif (French [MP3])
  18. Judaísmo (Spanish [MP3]) 🙲 Judío (Spanish [MP3])
  19. Judaísmo (Portugese [MP3]) 🙲 Judaico (Portugese [MP3])
  20. Judaísmo (Esperanto [MP3]) 🙲 Juda (Esperanto [MP3])
  21. Judaismo (Ido [MP3]) 🙲 Juda (Ido [MP3])
  22. Judaismo (Interlingua [MP3]) 🙲 Judee (Interlingua [MP3])
  23. Yehudisma (Lingwa de Planeta/Lidepla/LdP [MP3]) 🙲 Yehudi (Lingwa de Planeta/Lidepla/LdP [MP3])
  24. Jud (Volapük [MP3]) 🙲 Yudanik (Volapük [MP3])
  25. Ġudaiżmu (Maltese [MP3]) 🙲 Lhudija (Maltese [MP3])
  26. Judaizmus (Hungarian [MP3]) 🙲 Zsidó (Hungarian [MP3])
  27. Judaizmus (Slovak [MP3]) 🙲 Židovský (Slovak [MP3])
  28. Judaismus (Czech [MP3]) 🙲 Židovský (Czech [MP3])
  29. Jødedommen (Danish [MP3]) 🙲 Jødisk (Danish [MP3])
  30. Jødedommen (Norwegian [MP3]) 🙲 Jødisk (Norwegian [MP3])
  31. Judendom (Swedish [MP3]) 🙲 Judisk (Swedish [MP3])
  32. Juutalaisuus (Finnish [MP3]) 🙲 Juutalainen (Finnish [MP3])
  33. Judentum (German [MP3]) 🙲 Jüdisch (German [MP3])
  34. Jodendom (Dutch [MP3]) or Judaïsme (Dutch, [MP3]) 🙲 Joods (Dutch [MP3])
  35. Ioudaïsmós (Modern Greek, Ιουδαϊσμόσ [MP3]) 🙲 Ebraïkós (Modern Greek, Εβραϊκόσ [MP3])
  36. Yudaisme (Indonesian [MP3]) 🙲 Yahudi (Indonesian [MP3])
  37. Iudaismul (Romanian [MP3]) 🙲 Evreiesc (Romanian [MP3])
  38. Din–i Yahudī (Tajik/Toçikī, дини яҳудӣ [MP3]) 🙲 Yahudī (Tajik, яҳудӣ [MP3])

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bullet ו. Ṣạdiyq
To emphasize my Jewish bona fides and Jewishness (Yiddish, יִידִישְׁקַיְיט [MP3], Yiyḏiyšəqạyəyṭ or Yiddishkeit), I am a Levite (Hebrew, לֵוִי [MP3], Lēwiy, “joined” priestly tribe), a bəʾriyṯ miyʾlāh (Hebrew, בְּרִית מִילָה [MP3], “covenant of circumcision”), a bar mitzvah (modified Hebrew, בַּר מִצְוָה [MP3], bạr miṣəwāh, “son of commandment”), and the eldest child of two Ashkenazi (originally Hebrew, אַשְׁכְּנַזִּי [MP3], ʾẠšəkənạzziy; Arabic, أَشْكِنَازِّيّ [MP3], ⫯Aš°kināzziyy; Persian and Urdu, اشْکِنَازِّی [MP3], ʾAš°ḱināzzí; Amharic, አሽካዚ [MP3], ʾÄšəkazi; Shahmukhi Punjabi, آشْکٍینَازِی [MP3], ʾš°ḱēnāzí; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਆਸ਼੍ਕੇਨਾਜ਼ੀ [MP3], Āśkēnāzī; or Modern Greek, Ασκάνζι [MP3], Askánzi, “German Rhinelander,” i.e., someone descended from Yiddish–speaking European Jews) parents. Their first baby perished in a miscarriage seven years before my birth.
All Latinized spellings in this essay employ, with minor changes, ISO (International Organization for Standardization) Hebrew transliteration, my own extensive ISO Arabic modification, or other Romanization systems. As such, this comrade’s communist alias, מֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן הַלֵוִי בֶּן הֶערְשֶׁעל (MP3), is a hybrid of Hebrew (the first four words) and Yiddish (the last word). The designation which I provided is a version of my actual Jewish name. It incorporates both my father’s and my own bəʾriyṯ miyʾlāh names along with the standard reference to my Levitical tribal ancestry. Historical Jewish naming practices are patrilineal. Aside from the computer–generated Romanized spellings, any errors in the following transliterations are my own:
  1. Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ-Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl (ISO)
  2. Mosheh ’Aharon ha-Leṿi ben He‘rshe‘l (American Library Association/Library of Congress)
  3. Mōšeh ʾAhărōn ha-Lēwî ben Heʿrəšeʿl (Society of Biblical Literature)
  4. Mosheh Aharon ha-Leviy ben Heʿrsheʿl (Pan–Sephardic)
  5. Môsheh ’Ahǎrôn ha-Lêvîy ben He‘rshe‘l (Strong’s Dictionary)
  6. Mosheh ʾAharon ha-Leyviy ben Heʿrsheʿl (modern Ashkenazi and modern Israeli; Hebrew, יִשְׂרְאֵלִי; [MP3], Yiśərəʾēliy)
  7. Moshe ’Aharon ha-Léwi ben He‘rshe‘l (United States Board on Geographic Names/BGN and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use/PCGN)
  8. Mòşeh ʼAhàròn ha-Léwiy ben Herĕşel (Common Locale Data Repository/CLDR)
  9. Mosheh Aharon ha-Levi ben He'rshe'l (Simplified Sefardi)
  10. Mosheh Aharon ha-Lévi ben He‘rshe‘l (Advanced Sefardi)
  11. Mosheh 'Aharon ha-Leivi ben He'rshe'l (Ashkenazi)
  12. Mōšɛh ʾAhărōn ha-Lēwī bɛn Hɛʿršɛʿl (technical)
  13. Mōšęh ʾAharōn ha-Lêwî bęn Hęʿršęʿl (Brill)
  14. Mošeh ʔahron ha-Lewiy ben Heˁršeˁl (phonemic conversion)
  15. Mosheh 'Aharon ha-Lévi ben He'rshe'l (United Nations recommended system)
  16. Mosheh 'Aharon ha-Levi ben He'rshe'l (ANSI 1)
  17. Mosheh 'Aharon ha-Lewi ben He`rshe`l (ANSI 2).
I made several translations of my Hebrew and Yiddish name. Attempts were made for these multilingual renderings to be as precise as possible. Yet, flaws in my work may be apparent to native speakers and scholars of those languages. I apologize in advance. The translated versions include:
  1. Mūsaỳ Hārūn ʾal-Lāwiyy ʾib°n ʾal-Šādin (Arabic, مُوسَى هَارُون اللَاوِيّ اِبْن الشَادِن [MP3])
  2. Mūsaý Hārūn–i Lāví–i ʾib°n–i Gavaz°n (Persian, مُوسَی هَارُونِ لَاوِي اِبْنِ گَوَزْن [MP3])
  3. Mūsaý Hārūn–i Lāví–i pisar–i Gavaz°n (Persian, مُوسَی هَارُونِ لَاوِي پِسَر گَوَزْن [MP3])
  4. Mūsaý Hārūn–i Líví–i ʾib°n–i Gavazah (Pashto, مُوسَی هَارُونِ پِسَر گَوَزَه [MP3])
  5. Mūsaý ʾÂrūna–i Lāví–i ʾib°na–i Hirana (Urdu, مُوسَی آرُونَِ لَاوِیِ اِبْنَِ ہِرَنَ [MP3])
  6. Mūsā Hārūna dē Lēví dē Hirana dē Putara (Shahkmukhi Punjabi, مُوسَا ہَارُونَ دَے لَیوِی دَے ہِرنَ دَے پُتَرَ [MP3])
  7. Mūsā Hārūna dē Lēvī dē Hirana dē Putara (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਮੂਸਾ ਹਾਰੂਨ ਦੇ ਲੇਵੀ ਦੇ ਹਿਰਨ ਦੇ ਪੁਤਰ [MP3])
  8. Muse ʾÄronawi Lewawi yä–ʾÄgazänə Ləǧə (Amharic, ሙሴ አሮናዊ ሌዋዊ የአጋዘን ልጅ [MP3]).
  9. Mosè Aaron il–Levitu l–Iben tal-Ċriev (Maltese [MP3])
  10. Muso Xarun–i Lavi–i pisar–i Gūr (Tajik, Мусо Харуни Лави писари Гӯр [MP3])
Turning to more specific issues of etymology, Moses (מֹשֶׁה, Mōšẹh), the name of the great biblical Prophet, is Hebrew for “pulled out” or “drawn out” from the Nile River. After His seemingly providential rescue from an imminent drowning, He was allegedly reared by the Pharaoh’s daughter. The linguistic derivation of Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, ʾẠhărōn), on the other hand, remains uncertain. The word may, according to various accounts, translate from the Hebrew as “high mountain,” as “bearer of martyrs,” or possibly as “exalted or lofty one.” Semantics aside, Aaron was, reportedly, the Brother or, perhaps, Half–Brother of Moses and the Latter’s minor Prophet or Vicegerent (MP3).
Bẹn (בֶּן) is Hebrew and Yiddish for “son” or “son of.” ʾIb°n (اِبْن) and bin (بِن [MP3]) in Arabic, bar (ܒܪ [MP3]) in Syriac/Sūryayaʾ, and iben (MP3) in Maltese are Semitic relatives. ʾIb°n (Persian, اِبْن [MP3]), ʾib°na (Urdu, اِبْنَ [MP3]), bin (Persian, بِن [MP3]), or bina (Urdu, بِنَ [MP3]) are also Arabic loanwords in the Indo–Iranian (Persian, هِنْدُو اِیْرَانِی [MP3], Hin°dū ʾIý°rāní; Urdu, ہِنْدَ ـ اِیْرَانِی [MP3], Hin°da–ʾIý°rāní; Arabic, هِندُو ـ إِيْرَانِيّ [MP3], Hin°dū–⫰Iy°rāniyy; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਇੰਡੋ–ਇਰਾਨੀ [MP3], Iḍō–Irānī; Shahmukhi Punjabi, اِنْڈُو ـ اِیْرَانِی [MP3], ʾIn°ḍū–ʾIý°rāní; or Hebrew, הִנְדּוּ־אִירָאנִי [MP3], Hinədū–ʾIyrāʾniy) languages of Persian and Urdu.
My Jewish name, Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn (Hebrew, מֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן), is Hebrew, but parents can, traditionally, derive such names from either from the Semitic language of Hebrew or the Germanic Yiddish. Although usually written in a variant of the Hebrew script, Yiddish is more proximate to English, a similarly Germanic tongue, than to Hebrew. My father’s Jewish designation, Hẹʿərəšəʿl (הֶערְשֶׁעל), is little deer in Yiddish and a diminutive (through the Yiddish על, ʿl) of the older Yiddish Heʿrəš (הֶערְשׁ [MP3]) or, in German, Hirsche (MP3), deer. I rendered Hẹʿərəšəʿl, with its German cognates Herschel (MP3) and Hirschel (MP3), as ʾal-Šādin (Arabic, الشَادِن, the fawn); Gavaz°n (Persian, گَوَزْن, fawn); Gavazah (Pashto, گَوَزَه, deer); Hirana (Urdu and Shahmukhi Punjabi, ہِرَنَ; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਹਿਰਨ, fawn or deer); Yäʾägazänə (Amharic, የአጋዘን, deer), and Ċriev, (Maltese, deer).
Adopting a Hebraic–Yiddish identity is, to a degree, an act of nonviolent resistance. The Jewish Russian Bolshevik (Russian, Большевик [MP3], Bolʹševik) Leon Trotsky (Russian, Лео́н Тро́цкий [MP3], León Tróckij), 1879–1940, was born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Russian, Лев Давидович Бронштейн [MP3], Lev Davidovič Bronštejn). Other Jewish communists, especially Trotskyists, have chosen conventionally Gentile “party” names. The aforementioned Palestinian Jew, Tony Cliff, was originally Yigael or Ygael Gluckstein (Hebrew, יִגְּאָל גְּּלוּקְשְׁטָיְּן [MP3], Yigəʾāl Gəlūqəšəṭāyyən; or my Arabization/تَعْرِيب [MP3]/taʿ°rīb, يِغأَل غْلُوْكْشْطَايّْن [MP3], Yiġ⫯āl Ġ°lūk°š°ṭāyy°n). Since Cliff, during the first part of his life, liberally utilized Rosa’s views, he is a man I particularly respect. Be that as it may, I have decided to use my bəʾriyṯ miyʾlāh over my legal name of Mark Alan Foster (MP3).

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bullet ז. Yəhūḏiy hạ–Ḥillōniy
American Jews often select common U.S. last names. Feigenbaum (German [MP3]), P̄əʿāyəgəʿẹnəbəʾạwəm (Yiddish, פְעָיְגְּעֶנְבְּאַוְם [MP3]), Vyeboom (Afrikaans [MP3]), Vijgenboom (Dutch/Nederlands [MP3]), P̄āyyəgẹnəbəʾạwəm; (Hebraized/עִבְרֵת/MP3/ʿIḇərēṯ, פָיְּגֶּנְבְאַּוְם [MP3]), and Fay°ġin°baw°m (Arabized/تَعْرِيبٌ/MP3/taʿ°rībuṇ, فَيْغِنْبَوْم [MP3]) are proper nouns for fig tree. The Frisian/Frysk cognate, figebeam (MP3), is not a surname. Following my paternal uncle Dave’s lead, my parents, including Harold Lawrence Feigenbaum (MP3; 1919–2008), changed our family name to Foster (MP3; Middle English for forester) shortly before my birth. My mother, née Corinne Elaine Kleinman (MP3; 1925–2004), told me that she and my father previously considered “Feigen” (MP3; German), figs. Given the antisemitic controversy surrounding Charles Dickens’ Fagin, God bless my uncle.
Tor clarity, I should point out, as a boy raised as the run–of–the–mill secular Jew (Hebrew, יְהוּדִי הַחִלּוֹנִי [MP3], Yəhūḏiy hạ–ḥillōniy, “the secular or non–observant Jew”; or Arabic, يَهُودِيّ غَيْر الدِينِيّ [MP3], Yahūdiyy ġay°r ʾal–dīniyy, “the non–religious Jew”), that, in my mostly non–practicing family of orientation or origin, ancestral Judaistic dietary or kosher (Hebrew, כָּשֵׁר [MP3], kāšēr, “ritually fit or proper”; or Arabic, حَلَال لَاليَهُودِيّ [MP3], ḥalāl la–ʾal–Yahūdiyy, “permissible for the Jew”) laws were only rarely observed. Bacon and eggs were served most mornings. I then discontinued my very minimal, even superficial, connection with Judaism late in 1970. My own particular Jewish ancestry or genealogy is 75% Russian and 25% Austrian. Still, taken on the whole, Russian Jews were, historically, less culturally assimilated and more religiously devout than Austrian, and German, Jews.
Tackling the issue of Judaistic apostasy is difficult and perhaps even more complex than in much of Christianity. To an Orthodox Jew, I am still a Jew even though I converted out of the religion. However, to a Conservative, Reform, or Reconstructionist Jew, the fact that I converted out of Judaism means that I am no longer Jewish. Nevertheless, to me, the entire debate is irrelevant. I met my first Orthodox Jew when I was well into my 20s. Although I was born into a secular New York City Jewish family, I have never been Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, Reconstructionist, or, for that matter, a member of any other Jewish movement. Therefore, I will, out of courtesy, let the members of these Judaic movements debate this contentious issue amongst themselves. I consider myself Jewish with reference to my heritage and ancestry, but not when it comes to my religion.
By analogy, and to explicate semantics, Jewry (Hebrew, עוֹלָם הַיְהוּדִי [MP3], ʿōlām hạ–Yəhūḏiy, “the Jewish world”) is to Judaism what Christendom is to Christianity or what Islamdom (Arabic, عَالَم الإِسْلَامِيّ [MP3], ʿālam ʾal–⫰Is°lāmiyy, “the Islamic world”) is to Islam. The initial term in each pair is ethnic, ancestral, regional, or all of the above. The second has more religious connotations. Most Jews I have personally known from New York City, with its highly secular ambience, discount the official views of Jewish movements. Those from Jewish families, even if only nominally, call themselves Jews. They may have never stepped into a Jewish community center or shul (Yiddish, שׁוּל [MP3], šūl, school) but are still Jewish. For many Jews, being Jewish is a bit like being Irish or Italian. I have also known New Yorkers who never attended mass categorize themselves as Roman Catholics.

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bullet ח. Ḥāsiyḏōṯ Bərẹsəlōḇ Nạ
Nạḥə
Despite coming, without apologies, from my resolutely secularized Jewish background—or reformed reform as I have, from time to time, said in jest—there is, to the contrary, a certain heterodox Orthodox branch of Chasidic or Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew, יַהֲדוּת הַחֲסִידִית [MP3]), hạ–Yạhăḏōṯ hạ–Ḥāsīḏiyṯ, “pious Judaism”) to which I have, occastionally, found myself strangely attracted. A succinct description of this religious phenomenon is provided below:
Two cherished files echo the claimed spiritual name (Hebrew, נַ נַחְ נַחְמָ נַחְמָן מְאוּמַן [MP3], Nạ Nạḥə Nạḥəmā Nạḥəmān Mə-ʾŪmạn) of the sanctified being, Rebbe Nachman of Breslov (Yiddish, רֶבִי נַחְמָן הַבְראָסְלַעוו [MP3], Rẹbiy Nạḥəmān hạ–Bərāsəlạʿv), 1772–1810. Breslov (Ukrainian, Брацлав [MP3], Braclav), initially settled in the Middle Ages, is a Ukrainian (Ukrainian, Український [MP3], Ukraí̈nsʹkij;) city. The first file contains music and video (MP4) but the second just music MP3). The movement inspiring these songs, Na Nach Breslov Chasidism (Hebrew, חָסִידוֹת בְּרֶסְלֹב נַ נַחְ [MP3], Ḥāsiyḏōṯ Bərẹsəlōḇ Nạ Nạḥə), modifies Nachman’s Breslov Chasidism (Hebrew, חָסִידוֹת בְּרֶסְלֹב [MP3], Ḥāsiyḏōṯ Bərẹsəlōḇ; or Ukrainian, Брацлав Хасиди́зм [MP3], Braclav Hasidízm). Nachman focused on hạ–Qạbbālāh or ha–Kabbalah (Hebrew, הַקַבָּלָה [MP3], “the receiving”) and various texts.
The black–and–white portrait of Rebbe Nachman is drawn in virtually photographic quality, while the colorized version was made, once again, by the Twitter bot:
Rebbe Nachman Rebbe Nachman
Click on Each of the Images to Enlarge
Uman (Ukrainian, Умань [MP3], Umanʹ), contained in the alleged spiritual name of Rebbe Nachman, is a city in the Ukraine. The gravesite of Nachman himself, pictured below, is in that city:
Rebbe Nachman’s burial site
Rebbe Nachman, unlike most Chasidic (Hebrew, חָסִידִי [MP3]), Ḥāsīḏiy, “ or pious”) founding rebbes (Yiddish, רֶבִים [MP3], rẹbiym), decided not to appoint a succeeding rebbe. Over the years, multiple individuals have, nevertheless, arisen to rectify that rebbe–less state. The actual initiator of the neo–Breslovian (Hebrew, בְּרֶסְלֹבִי הַחָדָשׁ [MP3], Bərẹsəlōḇiy hạ–ḥāḏāš) Na Nach movement was, consequently, not Nachman himself but, rather, Rabbi Yisroel Dov Ber Odesser (Hebrew, רַבִּי יִשְׂרְאֵלִי דֹּב בֶּער אֹדֶּסֶּר [MP3], Rạbbiy Yiśərəʾēl Dōḇ Bẹʿr ʾŌdẹssẹr). He claimed that the name arrived in a letter from heaven. A disciple, Yoel Ashkenazi (Hebrew, יוֹאֵל אַשְׁכְּנַזִּי [MP3], Yōʾēl ʾẠšəkənạzziy), later confessed, stirring controversy, that the letter was a well–intentioned hoax. He said his intent was to cheer up Odesser after breaking his fast. Needless to say, this man led a long life (circa 1888–1994):
Rabbi Yisroel Dov Ber Odesser Rabbi Yisroel Dov Ber Odesser Rabbi Yisroel Dov Ber Odesser
Click on Each of the Images to Enlarge

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bullet ט. Hẹʿrōṭ lə–Siyyūm
We have now reached the end of this extended essay. These concluding remarks (Hebrew, הֶערוֹת לְסִיּוּם [MP3], hẹʿrōṭ lə–siyyūm), offered in lieu of a more formal conclusion, will round out my thoughts:
  1. The term, radical, has become far too commonplace. It is, much of the time, an over–used smear word. These days, in the U.S., many Republicans absurdly ascribe that designation to most, even all, members of the Democratic Party. In my tetrad of left–libertarian currents, I am proudly an extremist:
    1. Semitic: mutaṭarrif (Arabic, مُتَطَرِّف [MP3]), qiyṣōniy (Hebrew, קִיצוֹנִי [MP3]), sꞌənəfäña (Amharic, ጽንፈኛ [MP3]), sawpanaʾ (Syriac/Sūryayaʾ, ܣܵܘܦܵܢܵܐ [MP3]), and estremisti (Maltese [MP3]).
    2. Indo–Iranian: ʾin°tihā pasan°da (Urdu, اِنْتِہَا پَسَنْدَ [MP3]), ʾin°tihāpasan°d (Sindhi, اِنْتِهَاپَسَنْد [MP3]), ʾif°rātí (Persian and Pashto, اِفْرَاطَی [MP3]), ifrotgaro (Tajik, ифротгаро [MP3]), kaṭaṛavādī (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਕੱਟੜਵਾਦੀ [MP3]), ḱaṭaṛavādí (Shahmukhi Punjabi, کَٹَڑَوَادِی [MP3]), ativādī (Hindi, अतिवादी [MP3]), and caramapanthī (Bengali, চরমপন্থী [MP3]).
    3. Sinospheric: jíduān–fēnzi (Mandarin Chinese, 极端分子 [MP3]), h̄ạw runræng (Thai/P̣hās̄ʹā Thịy, หัวรุนแรง [MP3]), kageki ha (Japanese, 過激派 [MP3], かげき は [MP3], カゲキ ハ [MP3]), kŭktan chuŭija (Korean, 극단 주의자 [MP3]), and một kẻ cực đoan (Vietnamese [MP3]).
    4. Italic: ultra (Latin, ultrā [MP3], extrémiste (French [MP3]), extremista (Spanish [MP3]), extremista (Portugese [MP3]), extremista (Italian [MP3]), and extremist (Romanian/Limba Română [MP3]).
    5. Germanic: Extremist (German [MP3]), extremistische (Dutch [MP3]), ekstremist (Danish [MP3]), ekstremistisk (Norwegian [MP3]), extremist (Swedish [MP3]), and ekstremistiese (Afrikaans [MP3]).
    6. East Slavic: ékstremistskij (Russian, экстремистский [MP3]) and ekstremíst (Ukrainian, екстреміст [MP3]).
    7. Finnic–Uralic: äärimmäisyysmies (Finnish [MP3]) and äärmuslik (Estonian [MP3]).
    8. Austronesian: seorang ekstremis (Indonesian [MP3]), lan ekstremis (Javanese/basa Jawa [MP3]), ka poʻe extremist (Hawaiian/ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi, [MP3]), and isang extremist (Filipino/Wikang Filipino [MP3]).
    9. Turkic: aşırılıkçı (Turkish [MP3]), ékstremisttik (Kyrgyz/Kyrgyzča, экстремисттик [MP3]), ekstremistik (Uzbek/Oʻzbek tili [MP3]), and ifratçı (Azerbaijani/Azərbaycan dili [MP3]).
    10. constructed: ekstremisto (Esperanto [MP3]), lölimik (Volapük [MP3]), estremiste (Lingua Franca Nova/Elefen/LFN [MP3]), extremista (Interlingua [MP3]), ekstremist (Interslavic [MP3]), and extremarum partium fautor (Neo–Latin [MP3]).
    11. miscellaneous: cayraheġakan (Armenian, the lone survivor of the Thraco–Phrygian Indo–European sub–family, ծայրահեղական [MP3]) and extremistḗs (Modern Greek εξτρεμιστής [MP3]).
  2. My father’s Jewish name was Hẹʿrəšẹʿl hạ–Lēwiy bẹn Šəmūʾēl (Hebrew and Yiddish, הֶערְשֶׁעל הַלֵוִי בֶּן שְׁמוּאֵלָה [MP3]). Šəmūʾēl, Name of the Mighty One, is Samuel. Tentatively, my sister’s Jewish name is Šəmūʾēlāh hạ–Lēwiy bạṯ Hẹʿrəšẹʿl (Hebrew and Yiddish, שְׁמוּאֵלָה 7הַלֵוִי בַּת הֶערְשֶׁעל [MP3]). Bạṯ is daughter. Šəmūʾēlāh, as the feminized Šəmūʾēl, is defined identically. Hẹʿrəšẹʿl is the only Yiddish word.
  3. NationStates founder Max Barry rhetorically posed the question, “Is it [NationStates] a serious political thing, or just for fun?” He responded, “You can play it either way. NationStates does have [a] humorous bent, but that’s just because politics is naturally funny.”
  4. Conservative religious theology and practice, which often receives most of the public’s the attention, is associated with the right. However, historically, many of the greatest saints, heroes, and heroines who are now championed by some conservative religionists were anything but conservative. They broke with tradition and challenged religious authority. The same is true today.
  5. The German–language question at the top center of Spartakusland’s flag, „Was will Spartakus?“ (MP3), translates as “What does Spartacus want?” Spartacus (Latin, Spārtacus [MP3]; or Ancient Greek/A̓rchaía Hellēniká, Σπᾰ́ρτᾰκος [MP3], Spắrtăkos, “Spartan”), a Roman gladiator who lived circa 110–71 B.C., was highly esteemed by Karl Marx (MP3).
  6. The national currency is mišəqāl alternately transliterated mişĕqál (Hebrew, מִשְׁקָל [MP3]) or miṯ°qāl (Arabic, مِثْقَال [MP3]), weight.
  7. As a tenured full professor of sociology, I focus on religious studies, especially Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal–Qād°riyyaẗ ʾal–Sar°wariyyaẗ (Perso–Arabic, طَرِيقَة القَاْدرِيَّة السَرْوَرِيَّة [MP3], “Path of the Competence of Mastery”) of Ḥaḍ°rat Sul°ṭān Bāhū (Perso–Arabic, حَضْرَت سُلْطَان بَاهُو [MP3]), and social theory, including critical realism, intersectionality, and the theoretically grounded methodology of world–systems analysis.
  8. Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ-Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl has said, time and time again, “Free speech is speech which frees the dominated!
  9. Perhaps now is the time.… ¡Viva la revolución! (Spanish [MP3]), Vive la révolution! (French [MP3]), Viva la rivoluzione! (Italian [MP3]), Viva a revolução! (Portugese [MP3]), Visca la revolució! (Catalan/Català [MP3]), Viu in rivuluzione! (Corsican/Corsu [MP3]), Long live the revolution! (English), Lang leve de revolutie! (Dutch [MP3]), Lang lebe die Revolution! (German [MP3]), Lank leef die rewolusie! (Afrikaans [MP3]), Lang libje de revolúsje! (Frisian [MP3]), Længe leve revolutionen! (Danish [MP3]), Långt leva revolutionen! (Swedish [MP3]), Lang lev revolusjonen! (Norwegian [MP3]), Taḥ°yā ʾal–ṯaw°raẗ! (Arabic, تَحْيَا الثَوْرَة! [MP3]), Yəḥiy hạ–mạhəpēḵāh! (Hebrew, יְחִי הַמַהְפֵּכָה! [MP3]), Zin°dih–i bād–i ʾin°qalāb! (Persian, زِنْدِهِ بَادِ اِنْقَلَاب! [MP3]), ʾUv°ẓ̌°d ʾin°qalāb ž°vin°daý daý! (Pashto, اُوْږْد اِنْقَلَاب ژْوِنْدَی دَی! [MP3]), Ḱ°rān°tí lam°bē samaýah taḱa rahū! (Urdu, کْرَانْتِی لَمْبَے سَمَیَہ تَکَ رَہُو! [MP3]), Krāṃti laṃbe samaya taka raho! (Hindi, क्रांति लंबे समय तक रहो! [MP3]), Lame cira kranti vica jiꞌo! (Garamukhi Punjabi ਲੰਮੇ ਚਿਰ ਕ੍ਰਾਂਤੀ ਵਿਚ ਜੀਓ! [MP3]), Lamē čira ḱ°ran°tí viča ǧiýū! (Shahmukhi Punjabi, لَمَے چِرَ کْرَنْتِی وِچَ جِیُو! [MP3]), 🙵 Waɗā ʾin°qalāb rahan°dā! (Sindhi, وڏا اِنْقَلَاب رَهَنْدَا! [MP3])

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Ššālōm ʿălēyəḵẹm (Hebrew, שָּׁלוֹם עֲלֵיְכֶם), ssalāmu ʿalay°kum (Arabic, سَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُم), sälamə läʾə–nanətä (Geꞌez/Gəʾəzə 𑁣 Amharic, ሰላም ለእናንተ), salām bah šumā (Persian, سَلَام بَه شُمَا), ʾâpa kū salāma (Urdu, آپَ کُو سَلَامَ) ﬩ āpa ko salāma (Hindi, आप को सलाम), tuhāḍē la⫯ýí salāma (Shahmukhi Punjabi, تُہَاڈے لَئِی سَلَامَ), tuhāḍē laꞌī salāma (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਤੁਹਾਡੇ ਲਈ ਸਲਾਮ), salāmūnā (Pashto ⨁ Sindhi ⨁ Urdu, سَلَامُونَا), taw°hān tay salām (Sindhi, تَوْهَان تَي سَلَام), šlamaʾ ʿlūk (Syriac, ܫܠܲܡܲܐ ʿܠܼܘܟ), sàlāmǔgěinǐ (Mandarin Chinese, 萨拉姆给你), anata–ni–sarāmu (Japanese, あなたにサラーム), sliem għalikom (Maltese), salam a yu (Lingwa de Planeta/Lidepla/LdP), selamun aleyküm (Turkish), tōmāra sālāma (Bengali, তোমার সালাম), salam sejahtera (Malay/Melayu), salom bar šumo (Tajik, Салом бар шумо), salam bagimu (Indonesian/bahasa Indonesia), sizə salam olsun (Azerbaijani/Azərbaycanlı), asalaamu calaykum (Somali/Af-Soomaali), salam kwako (Swahili/Kiswahili), salutations to the comrades, &☮ ② Ⓤ ⒶⓁⓁ&☮ ② Ⓤ ⒶⓁⓁ&☮ ② Ⓤ ⒶⓁⓁ,
✡   ☭   ☯   ☬   ☪   ⚘
מֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן הַלֵוִי בֶּן הֶערְשֶׁעל
מֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן הַלֵוִי בֶּן הֶערְשֶׁעל
Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn bẹn Hẹʿərəšəʿl
Hammer, Sickle, and Star Hamsa or Khamsa is a Semitic hand amulet which translates as 5 in Arabic, Syriac, and Maltese and as 50 in Amharic. The Hebrew word is only a transliteration of the Arabic.
Ḥaməsāh (Hebrew/ʿIḇəriyṯ, חַמְסָה‬),
H̱am°saẗ (Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ, خَمْسَة), 5
Häməsa (Amharic/ʾÄmarəña, ሀምሳ), 50
Ḥamšā (Syriac/Suryāyā, ܚܡܫܐ), 5
or Ħamsa (Maltese/Malti), 5
A Semitic Hand Amulet.”
Not Related to “Hamṣa” (Sanskrit/
Saṃskrtam, हंस
), Swan or Goose.”
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