א. Māḇōʾ hạ–Tạməṣiyṭiy
The following concise introduction (Hebrew/ʿIḇəriyṯ, מָבוֹא הַתַּמְצִיתִי [MP3], māḇōʾ hạ–tạməṣiyṭiy) will hopefully provide the interested reader with a sense of the material to follow:
Social fiction tackles significant issues using a diverse assortment of entertainment media. From a social scientific perspective, the value of social fiction should not be underestimated. The subjects addressed, sometimes cloaked in metaphor, can frequently be serious and consequential. Among these fictional genres is online gaming. Like visual and performance art, such gaming may frequently bring to the fore topics and content which are rarely discussed and examined in other lifeworlds. Ṣạdiyqiym hạ–Dāṯ hạ–Bāhāʾiyṯ of Democratic Communist Federation (Spartakusland) (MP3), as social fiction, is an allegory for The Antifa Luxemburgist Communist Collective™ (MP3; ALCC). Methodologically, the agency or instrumentality of forming and governing fictional nations will be explored ethnographically—by participant observation—and through phenomenological analysis.
Although this narrative is largely a fictional piece, it is scrupulously grounded in a personal interpretation of historical and social facts. All of the views presented mirror only the provisional thoughts of the author. He occupies, heavens forbid, no station more exalted than the dust of the Earth, while his plane of knowledge lies beneath the lowly ant. The writer’s reflections are an applied exercise in concrete utopianism, a tantalizing concept originally defined by the German Marxist philosopher Ernst Bloch (MP3), 1985–1977, and further developed by the British libertarian communist, Marxist philosopher, and critical realist Roy Bhaskar (MP3), 1944–2014. However, the information offered in the current piece of creative writing, a set of semilegendary accounts, is neither a unit of official religious statements nor an authoritative exposition of particular philosophies and theories.
ב. Nəṭiyyāh hạ–Qōmūniysəṭ
In this chapter, I will discuss my communist tendency and critical theories (Hebrew, נְטִיָּה הַקוֹמוּנִיסְט וְתֵּאוֹרְיוֹת הַקְרִיטוֹת [MP3], nəṭiyyāh hạ–qōmūniysəṭ wə–tēʾōrəyōṯ hạ–qəriyṭōṯ). Since these issues are addressed in considerable more depth elsewhere, the comments offered below should be regarded as general and limited in scope:
This project on Marxism–Luxemburgism (MP3) draws upon numerous critical frameworks, including: Bhaskarian critical realism (MP3) as the foundational metatheory with intersectionality (MP3) from American Kimberlé Crenshaw (born 1959), the method of world–systems analysis from American Immanuel Wallerstein (born 1940), international socialism from stateless British resident Tony Cliff (1917–2000), third–camp socialism from American Max Shachtman (1904–1972), Titoism (MP3) from Yugloslav Marshal Josip Broz Tito (Serbian/Srpski, Маршал Јосип Броз Тито [MP3], Maršal J̌osip Broz Tito, 1892–1980), workers’ self–directed coöperative enterprises from American Richard D. Wolff (born 1942), and De Leonism (MP3) from U.S. pre–Bolshevik (Russian/Rossiâne, пред-Большевик [MP3], pred–Bolʹševik) activist Daniel De Leon (MP3; 1852–1914).
Both Wallerstein’s world–systems analysis and Crenshaw’s intersectionality expand capitalist studies beyond a narrow and simplistic economism, or economic determinism, to include diverse substructures of modernity. In both cases, the amplification is clear from the perspectival designations themselves. If capitalism is correctly regarded as a world–system, as a dynamic elucidation of communist internationalism, then merely delineating an economy, or even a political economy, would offer an insufficient portrayal. If, on the other hand, capitalism is an intersection—perhaps a prison cell, a roadmap, a web, or a birdcage—then the capitalist framework needs to be approached multidimensionally, not as a two–dimensional flatland. Due to the contradictions of capitalism, someone may experience power, privilege, wealth, and prestige in one or more areas of life but not in others.
For left regroupment, the vehicle driven, to traverse all the hazardous thoroughfares toward a newly consolidated Left, is Antifa Luxemburgism™ (MP3). I made, in my long life, turns to the Students’ Democratic Coalition of the left–libertarian U.S. New Left (1968), to Titoism, to post–Trotskyist (MP3) international socialism and neo–Trotskyist (MP3) third–camp socialism, then rebounding, in a full circle, to left–libertarianism. My tetrad of left–libertarian, or anti–authoritarian, communism combines: Luxemburgism, Bhaskar’s critical realism, the Antifa current of Autonomist Marxism (MP3), and the multi–tendency socialism from below of American third–camp socialist Hal Draper (1914–1990). All of the above rubrics have been synthesized, via left refoundation, into The Institute for Dialectical metaRealism™ (MP3), The Collective to Fight Neurelitism™ (MP3), and ALCC.
The Polish–born, naturalized German citizen, libertarian Marxist, proto–left communist, doctor of law, and nonobservant Jew Rosa Luxemburg ([German/Deutsch; MP3], Róża Luksemburg [Polish/Polski; MP3], Róży Luksemburg [Polish; [MP3], Rōzạh bạṯ ʾĔliyyāhū [Hebrew, רוֹזַה בַּת אֱלִיָּהוּ; MP3], Rʾọsʾạ bạṯ ʾĔliyyāhū [Yiddish/Yiyḏiyš, ראָסאַ בֶּן אֱלִיָּהוּ; MP3], Rūzaẗ ʾib°naẗ ⫰Iy°liyā [Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ, رُوزَة اِبْنَة إِيْلِيَا; MP3], Rūzah duẖ°tar–i ʾIl°ýās [Persian/Fār°sí, رُوزَه دُخْتَرِ اِلْیَاس; MP3], or Red Rosa [German, rote Rosa; MP3]) was the magnificent daughter of Eliasz (Polish; MP3) and Liny (Polish; MP3) in 1871. Rosa became a secular martyr, in Germany, on January 15ᵗʰ, 1919. My father was born, eight months nine days later, on September 24ᵗʰ, 1919. Like Rosa, the beloved heroine, work heartily, with the spirit of revolutionary fervor, for democratic libertarian communism.
Borrowing a term from my old Master’s thesis, Increasing Complexity as a Process in Social Evolution: A Case Study of the Bahá’í Faith, capitalism is a complexification. Briefly, the name Dialectical metaRealism comes from Bhaskar’s work. The term is a portmanteau of his dialectical critical realism and his philosophy of metaReality. The result is a play on words or, if you prefer, a pun. Obviously, Dialectical metaRealism sounds a great deal like dialectical materialism. Practically speaking, Dialectical metaRealism, while adopting Bhaskar’s work as its metatheoretical foundation, uses Antifa Luxemburgism, as developed by this writer, for its communist tendency. Additionally, the variety of other critical theories discussed in the preceding paragraphs have also been incorporated into Dialectical metaRealism.
As a libertarian Marxist communist internationalist and a Marxist–Luxemburgist—not a deplorable neoconservative American imperialist and a Zionist—my sympathies have been for the struggling Palestinians of the Levant (Arabic, الشَّام, ʾal–Ššām [(MP3]) and additional subaltern (MP3) or marginalized peoples. That notwithstanding, without an international communist union, I would never condone the establishment of a Palestinian state anymore than I could, in good conscience, support other nation–states, such as apartheid Israel. The final remedy for the massive demireality, or disunity in difference, of modernity is not the proliferation of still more independent national identities but, rather, the establishment of a global communist state. It will, I hope, gradually develop, over the course of many centuries, into a worldwide communist federation or administration.
Spartakusland, the Federation’s capital city, is frequently used as a nickname for the Federation itself. In NationStates, Ṣạdiyqiym hạ–Dāṯ hạ–Bāhāʾiyṯ of Democratic Communist Federation (Spartakusland) is the national executive of The Antifa Luxemburgist Communist Collective. In NationsGame, Spartakusland (MP3) belongs to the alliance, The Internationale (MP3; or an MP3 of the song). In Cyber Nations, Spartakusland belongs to the alliance, the Libertarian Socialist Federation. In Politics & War, Spartakusland belongs to the alliance, United Socialist Nations (MP3). Spartakusland also resides in Simcountry, in the Republic of You from Oxfam, and in Conflict of Nations.
Click on the Image to Enlarge
The official animal of Spartakusland is Mimi the Cat (German, Mimi die Katze [MP3]; or Polish/Polski, Mimi Kocica [MP3]) which was, in fact, Rosa’s pet. The photographic collage, below, can be clicked on for enlargements in a PDF file. The colorized version, just to the right, was produced courtesy of the creative developers, Oli Callaghan and Finnian Anderson, behind this Twitter bot. It is then immediately followed, on this page, by cartoons from The Nation magazine:
Spartakusland’s official bird is the metaphorical Nightingale of Paradise. The originals of all three pictures on this page were painted by the great calligrapher Miš°ḱín Qalam (Persian, مِشْکِین قَلَم [MP3], “musk–scented pen or jet–black pen”), surname of Mír°zā Ḥusaý°n–i ʾIṣ°fahāní (Persian, مِیرْزَا حُسَیْنِ اِصْفَهَانِی [MP3]), 1826–1912. Each of them was, to various degrees, then retouched by me:
Click on Each of the Images for the Original
The national anthem of Spartakusland is „Auf, auf zum Kampf, zum Kampf!“ (“On, on to the Struggle, to the Struggle!”). This beautiful song was initially composed in approximately 1919 by Bertolt Brecht (MP3; 1898–1956) as a meet and seemly tribute to the dynamic revolutionary pair of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht (MP3; 1871–1919). The MP3 file contains five renditions. As to the MP4 file, English–language subtitles are included. You may, if you wish, read the lyrics in both the original German as well as their in English translation. Shamelessly, in 1930, the melody was expropriated and the lyrics rewritten by Adolf Wagner (MP3; 1890–1944) into nazi trash. The attempt here is to recover and hopefully redeem this splendidly commemorative piece as the chivalrous accolade expressed, at the outset, by Brecht.
The ruling political party of Spartakusland is the 21ˢᵗ–Century Spartacus League™. You are invited to read an outline of its basic principles and perspectives. If you are a Marxist–Luxemburgist, wholly or even in part, please paste the BBCode (Bulletin Board Code) onto your NationStates forum signature, a factbook, or a dispatch. The HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) can be pasted onto your website or blog. Member, 21ˢᵗ-Century Spartacus League will be displayed by using either posting option. Click to toggle between revealing and reconcealing the snippets of code.
💗 ḏik°r (Arabic, ذِكْر [MP3], remembrance): Yā Bahāˁ ʾal–⫯Ab°hāỳ, wa–yā ʿAliyy ʾal-⫯Aʿ°laỳ! Yā Bahāˁ ʾal–⫯Ab°hāỳ, wa–yā ʿAliyy ʾal-⫯Aʿ°laỳ! (Arabic, يَا بَهَاء لأَبْهَى، وَيَا عَلِيّ الأَعْلَى! يَا بَهَاء لأَبْهَى، وَيَا عَلِيّ الأَعْلَى! [MP3]), O Glory of the Most Glorious, and O Exalted of the Most Exalted! O Glory of the Most Glorious, and O Exalted of the Most Exalted!
My faux title, as the elected head of state, is ṣạdiyq or tzadik (Hebrew, צַדִּיק [MP3], “righteous one”). It is another term for rẹbiy or rebbe (Yiddish, רֶבִי [MP3]), the Yiddish rendering of rạbbiy or rabbi (Hebrew, רַבִּי [MP3], “my great one,” “my master,” “my teacher,” or “my mentor”). Our radical proletarian democratic federation operates as an agent of Ṣạdiyqiym (Tzadikim) hạ–Dāṯ hạ–Bāhāʾiyṯ (Hebrew, הַצַדִּיקִים הַדָּת הַבָּהָאִית [MP3], dynasty of “righteous ones of the Bahá’í Faith”) of Democratic Communist Federation (Spartakusland). The ongoing relationships between Spartakusland and its Ṣạdiyqiym are reciprocal. That Ṣạdiyqiym, in which Spartakusland residents fifteen or older can universally participate, provides the Federation with required spiritual and ethical guidance. hạ–Ṣạdiyq (Hebrew, הַצַדִּיק [MP3]) humbly and meekly serves as chair for gatherings of the Ṣạdiyqiym.
This fanciful Bahá’í federation, oddly structured around a Judaic Ṣạdiyqiym, is founded upon the ancient Hebrew principle of ethical monotheism (Hebrew, מוֹנוֹתֵאִיזְם הַאֶתִי [MP3], mōnōṯēʾiyzəm hạ–ʾẸṯiy, “monotheism ethical or moral”; or אֱמוּנַת הַיִחוּד הַמוּסָרִי, [MP3], ěmūnạṯ hạ–Yiḥūḏ hạ–mūsāriy, “doctrine or dogma of Unification ethical or moral”; Arabic, تَوْحِيد الأَخْلَاقِيَّة [MP3], Taw°ḥīd ʾal–⫯aẖ°lāqiyyaẗ, “Unification ethical or moral”; Perso–Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ–Fārisiyyaẗ, تَوْحِیدِ اخلَاقِی [MP3], Taw°ḥíd–i ʾaẖ°lāqí, “Unification of ethical or moral”); or Urdu–Arabic/ʿArabiyyaẗ–⫯Ur°diyyaẗ, اخلَاقِی تَوْحِید [MP3], ʾaẖ°lāqí Taw°ḥíd, “ethical or moral Unification”). The theology of ethical monotheism affirms the singlehood of God (Hebrew, הַשֵּׁם [MP3], hạ–Ššēm, “the Name”; אֱלֹהִ֔ים [MP3], ʾĔlōhiym, “Almighty One”; or יָהְוֶה [MP3], Yāhəwẹh, “He is Becoming”) as the ultimate Source of perfection.
Meanwhile, the deliberations conducted by the Tzadikim (Hebrew, הַצַדִּיקִים [MP3], hạ–Ṣạdiyqiym) are informed by: The Bahá’í Faith, by Judaism, by Islam (Arabic, إسْلَام [MP3], ⫰Is°lām, “peaceful surrender”), by Sikhism (Guramukhi Punjabi/Guramukhī Pajābī, ਸਿੱਖ ਧਰਮ [MP3], Sikha Dharama, “disciple’s nature”), by bhakti (Sanskrit/Saṃskrtam, भक्ति [MP3], bhakti, “involvement” with the beloved), by numerous other religious systems, and by an assortment of far–left perspectives, including, but not limited to, those noted in this monograph.
The Ṣạdiyqiym is, in effect, the collective center of Spartakusland. As a clear demonstration of the Ṣạdiyqiym’s openness to a wide assortment of perspectives on philosophy, religion, communism, and critical theory, two additional libertarian communist puppet nations are actively maintained. The oldest of the pair, Ṭarīqaẗ ʾal–Bāhuwiyyaẗ of The Multiversal Communist Collective™ is operated by an eclectic Ṣūfiyy (Arabic, صُوفِيّ, Ṣūfiyy [MP3], wearing “woolen” garments) order. The other puppet, which has been inspired by Gene Roddenbury’s Star Trek Universe™, is The United Federation of Libertarian Communist Planets™.
ד. Dāṯ hạ–Bāhāʾiyṯ
Under libertarian communism, and its proletarian democracy, one’s unfettered conscience should invariably dictate all one’s actions. As such, Spartakusland enjoys full religious freedom. That liberty includes the right to practice a religion, or religions, of one’s own choosing or to abstain from any religious involvement. However, Spartakusland’s national and most widespread religion is the Bahá’í Faith, glorious judgment (or, by implication, glorious religion) in Arabic. Using the Hebrew system, here is a listing of that term in various languages:
The Bahá’í Faith was, in the real world, founded in 1863 by the divine Prophet from Iran (Persian/Fārsí, اِیْرَان, ʾIý°rān [MP3]; Urdu, اِیْرَان, ʾIý°rān [MP3]; or Arabic, إِيْرَان [MP3] ⫰Iy°rān), Bahá’u’lláh (“Glory of God” in Arabic). He was born in 1817 and died, while in exile, in 1892. Here are some renderings of His Name:
You may join the Bahá’í Faith or visit the following websites for further information:
Beginning a turn to Jewish issues, terms for Judaism and Jewish have, directly below, been successively rendered into numerous languages:
To emphasize my Jewish bona fides and Jewishness (Yiddish, יִידִישְׁקַיְיט [MP3], Yiyḏiyšəqạyəyṭ or Yiddishkeit), I am a Levite (Hebrew, לֵוִי [MP3], Lēwiy, “joined” priestly tribe), a bəʾriyṯ miyʾlāh (Hebrew, בְּרִית מִילָה [MP3], “covenant of circumcision”), a bar mitzvah (modified Hebrew, בַּר מִצְוָה [MP3], bạr miṣəwāh, “son of commandment”), and the eldest child of two Ashkenazi (originally Hebrew, אַשְׁכְּנַזִּי [MP3], ʾẠšəkənạzziy; Arabic, أَشْكِنَازِّيّ [MP3], ⫯Aš°kināzziyy; Persian and Urdu, اشْکِنَازِّی [MP3], ʾAš°ḱināzzí; Amharic, አሽካዚ [MP3], ʾÄšəkazi; Shahmukhi Punjabi, آشْکٍینَازِی [MP3], ʾÂš°ḱēnāzí; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਆਸ਼੍ਕੇਨਾਜ਼ੀ [MP3], Āśkēnāzī; or Modern Greek, Ασκάνζι [MP3], Askánzi, “German Rhinelander,” i.e., someone descended from Yiddish–speaking European Jews) parents. Their first baby perished in a miscarriage seven years before my birth.
All Latinized spellings in this essay employ, with minor changes, ISO (International Organization for Standardization) Hebrew transliteration, my own extensive ISO Arabic modification, or other Romanization systems. As such, this comrade’s communist alias, מֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן הַלֵוִי בֶּן הֶערְשֶׁעל (MP3), is a hybrid of Hebrew (the first four words) and Yiddish (the last word). The designation which I provided is a version of my actual Jewish name. It incorporates both my father’s and my own bəʾriyṯ miyʾlāh names along with the standard reference to my Levitical tribal ancestry. Historical Jewish naming practices are patrilineal. Aside from the computer–generated Romanized spellings, any errors in the following transliterations are my own:
I made several translations of my Hebrew and Yiddish name. Attempts were made for these multilingual renderings to be as precise as possible. Yet, flaws in my work may be apparent to native speakers and scholars of those languages. I apologize in advance. The translated versions include:
Turning to more specific issues of etymology, Moses (מֹשֶׁה, Mōšẹh), the name of the great biblical Prophet, is Hebrew for “pulled out” or “drawn out” from the Nile River. After His seemingly providential rescue from an imminent drowning, He was allegedly reared by the Pharaoh’s daughter. The linguistic derivation of Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, ʾẠhărōn), on the other hand, remains uncertain. The word may, according to various accounts, translate from the Hebrew as “high mountain,” as “bearer of martyrs,” or possibly as “exalted or lofty one.” Semantics aside, Aaron was, reportedly, the Brother or, perhaps, Half–Brother of Moses and the Latter’s minor Prophet or Vicegerent (MP3).
Bẹn (בֶּן) is Hebrew and Yiddish for “son” or “son of.” ʾIb°n (اِبْن) and bin (بِن [MP3]) in Arabic, bar (ܒܪ [MP3]) in Syriac/Sūryayaʾ, and iben (MP3) in Maltese are Semitic relatives. ʾIb°n (Persian, اِبْن [MP3]), ʾib°na (Urdu, اِبْنَ [MP3]), bin (Persian, بِن [MP3]), or bina (Urdu, بِنَ [MP3]) are also Arabic loanwords in the Indo–Iranian (Persian, هِنْدُو اِیْرَانِی [MP3], Hin°dū ʾIý°rāní; Urdu, ہِنْدَ ـ اِیْرَانِی [MP3], Hin°da–ʾIý°rāní; Arabic, هِندُو ـ إِيْرَانِيّ [MP3], Hin°dū–⫰Iy°rāniyy; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਇੰਡੋ–ਇਰਾਨੀ [MP3], Iḍō–Irānī; Shahmukhi Punjabi, اِنْڈُو ـ اِیْرَانِی [MP3], ʾIn°ḍū–ʾIý°rāní; or Hebrew, הִנְדּוּ־אִירָאנִי [MP3], Hinədū–ʾIyrāʾniy) languages of Persian and Urdu.
My Jewish name, Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn (Hebrew, מֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן), is Hebrew, but parents can, traditionally, derive such names from either from the Semitic language of Hebrew or the Germanic Yiddish. Although usually written in a variant of the Hebrew script, Yiddish is more proximate to English, a similarly Germanic tongue, than to Hebrew. My father’s Jewish designation, Hẹʿərəšəʿl (הֶערְשֶׁעל), is little deer in Yiddish and a diminutive (through the Yiddish על, ʿl) of the older Yiddish Heʿrəš (הֶערְשׁ [MP3]) or, in German, Hirsche (MP3), deer. I rendered Hẹʿərəšəʿl, with its German cognates Herschel (MP3) and Hirschel (MP3), as ʾal-Šādin (Arabic, الشَادِن, the fawn); Gavaz°n (Persian, گَوَزْن, fawn); Gavazah (Pashto, گَوَزَه, deer); Hirana (Urdu and Shahmukhi Punjabi, ہِرَنَ; Guramukhi Punjabi, ਹਿਰਨ, fawn or deer); Yäʾägazänə (Amharic, የአጋዘን, deer), and Ċriev, (Maltese, deer).
Adopting a Hebraic–Yiddish identity is, to a degree, an act of nonviolent resistance. The Jewish Russian Bolshevik (Russian, Большевик [MP3], Bolʹševik) Leon Trotsky (Russian, Лео́н Тро́цкий [MP3], León Tróckij), 1879–1940, was born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Russian, Лев Давидович Бронштейн [MP3], Lev Davidovič Bronštejn). Other Jewish communists, especially Trotskyists, have chosen conventionally Gentile “party” names. The aforementioned Palestinian Jew, Tony Cliff, was originally Yigael or Ygael Gluckstein (Hebrew, יִגְּאָל גְּּלוּקְשְׁטָיְּן [MP3], Yigəʾāl Gəlūqəšəṭāyyən; or my Arabization/تَعْرِيب [MP3]/taʿ°rīb, يِغأَل غْلُوْكْشْطَايّْن [MP3], Yiġ⫯āl Ġ°lūk°š°ṭāyy°n). Since Cliff, during the first part of his life, liberally utilized Rosa’s views, he is a man I particularly respect. Be that as it may, I have decided to use my bəʾriyṯ miyʾlāh over my legal name of Mark Alan Foster (MP3).
ז. Yəhūḏiy hạ–Ḥillōniy
American Jews often select common U.S. last names. Feigenbaum (German [MP3]), P̄əʿāyəgəʿẹnəbəʾạwəm (Yiddish, פְעָיְגְּעֶנְבְּאַוְם [MP3]), Vyeboom (Afrikaans [MP3]), Vijgenboom (Dutch/Nederlands [MP3]), P̄āyyəgẹnəbəʾạwəm; (Hebraized/עִבְרֵת/MP3/ʿIḇərēṯ, פָיְּגֶּנְבְאַּוְם [MP3]), and Fay°ġin°baw°m (Arabized/تَعْرِيبٌ/MP3/taʿ°rībuṇ, فَيْغِنْبَوْم [MP3]) are proper nouns for fig tree. The Frisian/Frysk cognate, figebeam (MP3), is not a surname. Following my paternal uncle Dave’s lead, my parents, including Harold Lawrence Feigenbaum (MP3; 1919–2008), changed our family name to Foster (MP3; Middle English for forester) shortly before my birth. My mother, née Corinne Elaine Kleinman (MP3; 1925–2004), told me that she and my father previously considered “Feigen” (MP3; German), figs. Given the antisemitic controversy surrounding Charles Dickens’ Fagin, God bless my uncle.
Tor clarity, I should point out, as a boy raised as the run–of–the–mill secular Jew (Hebrew, יְהוּדִי הַחִלּוֹנִי [MP3], Yəhūḏiy hạ–ḥillōniy, “the secular or non–observant Jew”; or Arabic, يَهُودِيّ غَيْر الدِينِيّ [MP3], Yahūdiyy ġay°r ʾal–dīniyy, “the non–religious Jew”), that, in my mostly non–practicing family of orientation or origin, ancestral Judaistic dietary or kosher (Hebrew, כָּשֵׁר [MP3], kāšēr, “ritually fit or proper”; or Arabic, حَلَال لَاليَهُودِيّ [MP3], ḥalāl la–ʾal–Yahūdiyy, “permissible for the Jew”) laws were only rarely observed. Bacon and eggs were served most mornings. I then discontinued my very minimal, even superficial, connection with Judaism late in 1970. My own particular Jewish ancestry or genealogy is 75% Russian and 25% Austrian. Still, taken on the whole, Russian Jews were, historically, less culturally assimilated and more religiously devout than Austrian, and German, Jews.
Tackling the issue of Judaistic apostasy is difficult and perhaps even more complex than in much of Christianity. To an Orthodox Jew, I am still a Jew even though I converted out of the religion. However, to a Conservative, Reform, or Reconstructionist Jew, the fact that I converted out of Judaism means that I am no longer Jewish. Nevertheless, to me, the entire debate is irrelevant. I met my first Orthodox Jew when I was well into my 20s. Although I was born into a secular New York City Jewish family, I have never been Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, Reconstructionist, or, for that matter, a member of any other Jewish movement. Therefore, I will, out of courtesy, let the members of these Judaic movements debate this contentious issue amongst themselves. I consider myself Jewish with reference to my heritage and ancestry, but not when it comes to my religion.
By analogy, and to explicate semantics, Jewry (Hebrew, עוֹלָם הַיְהוּדִי [MP3], ʿōlām hạ–Yəhūḏiy, “the Jewish world”) is to Judaism what Christendom is to Christianity or what Islamdom (Arabic, عَالَم الإِسْلَامِيّ [MP3], ʿālam ʾal–⫰Is°lāmiyy, “the Islamic world”) is to Islam. The initial term in each pair is ethnic, ancestral, regional, or all of the above. The second has more religious connotations. Most Jews I have personally known from New York City, with its highly secular ambience, discount the official views of Jewish movements. Those from Jewish families, even if only nominally, call themselves Jews. They may have never stepped into a Jewish community center or shul (Yiddish, שׁוּל [MP3], šūl, “school”) but are still Jewish. For many Jews, being Jewish is a bit like being Irish or Italian. I have also known New Yorkers who never attended mass categorize themselves as Roman Catholics.
ח. Ḥāsiyḏōṯ Bərẹsəlōḇ Nạ
Despite coming, without apologies, from my resolutely secularized Jewish background—or reformed reform as I have, from time to time, said in jest—there is, to the contrary, a certain heterodox Orthodox branch of Chasidic or Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew,
Two cherished files echo the claimed spiritual name (Hebrew, נַ נַחְ נַחְמָ נַחְמָן מְאוּמַן [MP3], Nạ Nạḥə Nạḥəmā Nạḥəmān Mə-ʾŪmạn) of the sanctified being, Rebbe Nachman of Breslov (Yiddish, רֶבִי נַחְמָן הַבְראָסְלַעוו [MP3], Rẹbiy Nạḥəmān hạ–Bərāsəlạʿv), 1772–1810. Breslov (Ukrainian, Брацлав [MP3], Braclav), initially settled in the Middle Ages, is a Ukrainian (Ukrainian, Український [MP3], Ukraí̈nsʹkij;) city. The first file contains music and video (MP4) but the second just music MP3). The movement inspiring these songs, Na Nach Breslov Chasidism (Hebrew, חָסִידוֹת בְּרֶסְלֹב נַ נַחְ [MP3], Ḥāsiyḏōṯ Bərẹsəlōḇ Nạ Nạḥə), modifies Nachman’s Breslov Chasidism (Hebrew, חָסִידוֹת בְּרֶסְלֹב [MP3], Ḥāsiyḏōṯ Bərẹsəlōḇ; or Ukrainian, Брацлав Хасиди́зм [MP3], Braclav Hasidízm). Nachman focused on hạ–Qạbbālāh or ha–Kabbalah (Hebrew, הַקַבָּלָה [MP3], “the receiving”) and various texts.
The black–and–white portrait of Rebbe Nachman is drawn in virtually photographic quality, while the colorized version was made, once again, by the Twitter bot:
Click on Each of the Images to Enlarge
Uman (Ukrainian, Умань [MP3], Umanʹ), contained in the alleged spiritual name of Rebbe Nachman, is a city in the Ukraine. The gravesite of Nachman himself, pictured below, is in that city:
Rebbe Nachman, unlike most Chasidic (Hebrew, חָסִידִי [MP3]), Ḥāsīḏiy, “ or pious”) founding rebbes (Yiddish, רֶבִים [MP3], rẹbiym), decided not to appoint a succeeding rebbe. Over the years, multiple individuals have, nevertheless, arisen to rectify that rebbe–less state. The actual initiator of the neo–Breslovian (Hebrew, בְּרֶסְלֹבִי הַחָדָשׁ [MP3], Bərẹsəlōḇiy hạ–ḥāḏāš) Na Nach movement was, consequently, not Nachman himself but, rather, Rabbi Yisroel Dov Ber Odesser (Hebrew, רַבִּי יִשְׂרְאֵלִי דֹּב בֶּער אֹדֶּסֶּר [MP3], Rạbbiy Yiśərəʾēl Dōḇ Bẹʿr ʾŌdẹssẹr). He claimed that the name arrived in a letter from heaven. A disciple, Yoel Ashkenazi (Hebrew, יוֹאֵל אַשְׁכְּנַזִּי [MP3], Yōʾēl ʾẠšəkənạzziy), later confessed, stirring controversy, that the letter was a well–intentioned hoax. He said his intent was to cheer up Odesser after breaking his fast. Needless to say, this man led a long life (circa 1888–1994):
Click on Each of the Images to Enlarge
ט. Hẹʿrōṭ lə–Siyyūm
We have now reached the end of this extended essay. These concluding remarks (Hebrew, הֶערוֹת לְסִיּוּם [MP3], hẹʿrōṭ lə–siyyūm), offered in lieu of a more formal conclusion, will round out my thoughts:
Ššālōm ʿălēyəḵẹm (Hebrew, שָּׁלוֹם עֲלֵיְכֶם), ssalāmu ʿalay°kum (Arabic, سَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُم), sälamə läʾə–nanətä (Geꞌez/Gəʾəzə 𑁣 Amharic, ሰላም ለእናንተ), salām bah šumā (Persian, سَلَام بَه شُمَا), ʾâpa kū salāma (Urdu, آپَ کُو سَلَامَ) ﬩ āpa ko salāma (Hindi, आप को सलाम), tuhāḍē la⫯ýí salāma (Shahmukhi Punjabi, تُہَاڈے لَئِی سَلَامَ), tuhāḍē laꞌī salāma (Guramukhi Punjabi, ਤੁਹਾਡੇ ਲਈ ਸਲਾਮ), salāmūnā (Pashto ⨁ Sindhi ⨁ Urdu, سَلَامُونَا), taw°hān tay salām (Sindhi, تَوْهَان تَي سَلَام), šlamaʾ ʿlūk (Syriac, ܫܠܲܡܲܐ ʿܠܼܘܟ), sàlāmǔgěinǐ (Mandarin Chinese, 萨拉姆给你), anata–ni–sarāmu (Japanese, あなたにサラーム), sliem għalikom (Maltese), salam a yu (Lingwa de Planeta/Lidepla/LdP), selamun aleyküm (Turkish), tōmāra sālāma (Bengali, তোমার সালাম), salam sejahtera (Malay/Melayu), salom bar šumo (Tajik, Салом бар шумо), salam bagimu (Indonesian/bahasa Indonesia), sizə salam olsun (Azerbaijani/Azərbaycanlı), asalaamu calaykum (Somali/Af-Soomaali), salam kwako (Swahili/Kiswahili), salutations to the comrades, ,
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Mōšẹh ʾẠhărōn hạ-Lēwiy bẹn Hẹʿrəšẹʿl is Foster’s communist name.