METAGOSPELS: Thomas & Philip & Valentine
(The Gospel of Thomas, The Gospel of Philip and the Gospel of Truth)
Ecumenical Coptic Project, 1998:



        In December of 1945 some Egyptian peasants found over 1100 pages of
ancient papyrus manuscripts buried by the east bluff of the upper Nile valley.
The texts were translations from Greek originals into Coptic°, the Hellenistic
stage of the ancient language of the Pharaohs--evolving after the invasion of
Alexander the Great in 332 BC and subsequently replaced by Arabic following the
Muslim conquest of 640 AD.
        The site of this discovery, across the river from the modern town of Nag
Hammadi, was already famous as the location called in antiquity ChHNOBOSKEION
(Goose-Pasture), where in 320 AD Saint Pachomius founded the earliest Christian
monastery. Less than a half-century later in 367 AD (and thus 30 years prior to
the canonization of the NT at the Third Council of Carthage), the local monks
copied some 45 diverse religious writings--including the Gospels of Thomas,
Philip and Valentine--into 13 leather-bound codices. This entire library was
carefully sealed in an urn and hidden nearby among the rocks, where it remained
undetected for almost 1600 years. These papyri are now preserved in the library
of the Coptic Museum at Old Cairo.
        The author of the Thomas Gospel is recorded as Thomas the Apostle, one of
the Twelve. The text is a collection of 117 sayings and dialogues of the Savior,
without any connecting narrative. A few Christian authors quoted it in
antiquity--for example #2, by Clement of Alexandria (±150-211 AD) in his
Stromata (Patches)--but without explicit attribution to Thomas. Then 100 years
ago at Oxyrhynchus in Egypt, there were discovered a few fragments of what we
now know to be a prior Greek version of Thomas, dated by paleography to 200-250
AD (one page of which is on display in the British Museum in London; see
Bibliography #8). The more recent discovery of the Coptic version of Thomas has
finally made this Gospel available in its entirety. As indicated in the press
release below, almost all biblical scholars who have been studying this document
since its first publication have now concluded that Thomas must be accounted an
authentic fifth Gospel, alongside the canonical quartet of John and the
        The Gospel of Philip--as can be inferred from its entries 51, 82, 98 &
101--was completed after 70 AD by Philip called the Evangelist, who appears in
the Book of Acts at 6:1-6, 8:4-40 & 21:8 ff. There is no known previous citation
of this text, which is an elaborate and elegant series of reflections on Israel
and the Messiah.
        The Gospel of Truth was composed in about 150 AD by Valentine, the famous
Saint of Alexandria (born 100± AD). A continuous interwoven meditation on the
Logos, it was widely known in antiquity--but until the Nag Hammadi discovery no
copy of this noble document was known to be extant.
        The translations themselves are both as literal and as lyrical as I could
make them. Plausible textual reconstructions are in [brackets], while editorial
additions are in (parentheses). '[...]' indicates that it is not possible to
interpolate the deterioration of the papyrus manuscript. The Greek Oxyrhynchus
variants to Thomas are within <frames>. 'Thou' and its cognates represent the
singular, 'you' and its cognates are plural. Notes at the end of each text are
marked with a circle°. Only less-obvious but significant scriptural cross-
references are given; thus numerous parallels to familiar passages in the
synoptics have not been listed, to spare the reader looking up what is already
well-known. Also, it is virtually impossible to capitalize consistently in texts
such as these (in antiquity, of course, there were no lower-case letters); I ask
the reader's indulgence in this regard.
        In place of the Greek form, Jesus (IHSOUS), the original Aramaic has been
used: Yeshúa, meaning 'Yahweh-Savior' (Ph 20a). 'I•Am' represents the divine
self-naming: Hebrew AHYH, Greek EGW EIMI, Coptic ANOK PE (Th 13).
        Lastly, I have appended three commentaries: (1) 'The Female Spirit', on
the gender in the Semitic languages of RUAKH HA-QODESH [Spirit the-Holy]; (2)
'Angel and Image', regarding these two primary concepts as found in the texts;
and (3) 'The Paul Paradox', a philosophical analysis of the apparent
discrepancies between the Gospels and the theology of Saul of Tarsus.
        In searching out the sense of these new writings, I have had the benefit
of extended conversations across the years with many friends and colleagues,
especially Robert Michael Schapiro and Christina Maria Wesson. My long-term
thanks are also due to Prof. William E. Kennick of Amherst College, for his
example of the highest standards in philosophical theology. Much of the present
edition was prepared while I was a guest in numerous Latin American seminaries,
both Catholic and Protestant; for their fraternal hospitality I am profoundly
        These new Gospels are surely the most extraordinary discovery of our
times--like a drink of light direct from the source: IChThUS EUChARISTW COI!

Paterson Brown, BA (Amherst), PhD (London)
Athens, All Saints 1998



        1. Photographic editions of the complete papyrus manuscripts have been
published by UNESCO in conjunction with the Egyptian Government: The Facsimile
Edition of the Nag Hammadi Codices (Codex I & Codex II), Leiden: E.J. Brill,
1977 & 1974 (The Gospel of Truth is in Codex I, Thomas and Philip in Codex II).
        2. The entire collection of some 45 titles (including a wide diversity of
period religious writings) is available in a popularized edition: The Nag
Hammadi Library in English (edited with introduction by James M. Robinson), San
Francisco: Harper & Row, 3rd revised edition 1988.
        3. For the grammatical structure of the Coptic language, I have used:
Introductory Coptic Grammar, (by J. Martin Plumley), London: Home & Van Thal,
1948--this rare mimeographed sourcebook of the Sahidic dialect is available in
photocopy from the Mt. Scopus Library of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem; see
also #18, below.
        4. The indispensable standard lexicon is: A Coptic Dictionary (by Walter
Ewing Crum), Oxford: The University Press, 1939. Note that this monumental work
is alphabetized by consonants only. Also, Coptic is an agglutinative language,
utilizing a complex system of morphological and syntactical prefixes and
suffixes which must be subtracted in order to identify the root term (e.g.,
TNNANNHUEBOL -> TN-NA-NNHU-EBOL ['we-shall-come-forth']--thus on p.220b of
        5. The Coptic text of Thomas together with line-by-line English, French,
German and Dutch translations were first published in: The Gospel according to
Thomas (edited by Antoine Guillaumont, Henri-Charles Puech, Gilles Quispel,
Walter Till & Yassah 'Abd al-Masih), Leiden: E.J. Brill; New York: Harper &
Brothers; London: Collins, 1959.
        6. The Gospel of Thomas WebPage (, with
many links, is maintained by Stevan Davies.
        7. The current standard popular edition of Thomas, with Coptic text,
English translation and notes: The Gospel of Thomas (edited and translated by
Marvin Meyer), San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, 1992.
        8. The prior Greek fragments of Thomas, which vary significantly from the
Coptic version: New Sayings of Jesus and Fragment of a Lost Gospel from
Oxyrhynchus (edited by Bernard Grenfell, Lucy Drexel & Arthur Hunt), Oxford
University Press, London: Henry Frowde, 1904.
        10. A well-illustrated and most informative historical account and
analysis: 'The Gospel of Thomas: Does It Contain Authentic Sayings of Jesus?'
(by Helmut Koester & Stephen Patterson), Bible Review (tel. 800-221-4644,, April 1990.
        11. The standard scholarly edition of Thomas and Philip, with ancillary
materials, critical Coptic text, English translation and fully indexed Coptic
and Greek glossaries: Nag Hammadi Codex II (volume I, edited by Bentley Layton),
Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1989.
        12. The primary Spanish edition of Thomas and Philip, translated directly
from the Coptic with introductory material, extensive bibliographies and
annotations: Los Evangelios Apócrifos (edited and translated by Aurelio de
Santos Otero), Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 7th edition 1991.
        13. I based my initial translation of Philip on the amply annotated
interlinear Coptic/German text, with fully indexed glossaries: Das Evangelium
nach Philippos (edited and translated by Walter Till), Berlin: Walter De
Gruyter, 1963.
        14. A superlative English edition of the Gospel of Truth, extensively
annotated with an expansive introductory essay: The Gospel of Truth, A
Valentinian Meditation on the Gospel (edited and translated by Kendrick Grobel),
New York: Abingdon Press; London: Black, 1960.
        15. The standard scholarly edition of the Gospel of Truth, with
introduction, Coptic text, English translation, copious notes and fully-indexed
glossaries: Nag Hammadi Codex I (two volumes, edited by Harold W. Attridge),
Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1985.
        16. The best Greek/English interlinear and lexicon of the New Testament
canon, with super-linear textual variants and sub-linear ultraliteral
translation: Concordant Greek Text and The Greek Elements (edited by Adolph
Ernst Knoch), Santa Clarita CA 91350 USA: Concordant Publishing Concern
(; tel. 805-252-2112), 4th edition 1975 [a wonderful edition
and textual analysis, hightly recommended].
        17. A work of extraordinary breadth and insight regarding the basic
parameters of Biblical metaphysics, as contrasted with Greek and Western: Claude
Tresmontant, A Study of Hebrew Thought, New York, Tournai, Paris, Rome: Desclee
Company, 1960; see 'Angel and Image', below.
        18. The hypertext version of this edition and of the parallel Spanish
translation is at:
        19. Coptic 'True-Type' fonts, a history of the Coptic language and a basic
grammar of the Boharic dialect (similar to the Sahidic of our texts) online:
        20. Various editions of the Bible:
        21. The magisterial Liddell-Scott-Jones Greek Lexicon is now available on-



Darrell Turner
Religious News Service, New York
December 27, 1991 (#15709)

        (RNS) An ancient document composed of sayings of Jesus has generated a
recent spate of scholarly articles, along with strongly held opinions that the
document, known as the Gospel of Thomas, deserves a much wider audience.
According to scholars, the 114 quotations in the Gospel of Thomas are as
valuable as Matthew, Mark, Luke and John for gaining understanding of the man
Christians worship as Messiah.
        In a recent telephone interview, Helmut Koester of Harvard Divinity
School, the new president of the Society of Biblical Literature, said nearly all
biblical scholars in the United States agree that Thomas is as authentic as the
New Testament Gospels. In an article that appeared in Bible Review in April
1990, Koester and his co-author Stephen J. Patterson wrote, 'the Gospel of
Thomas must be given equal weight with the canonical Gospels' in any effort to
reconstruct the beginnings of Christianity.
        Yet, despite excitement over the work for several decades, 'nobody's heard
of it except the academic scholars,' says Paterson Brown. 'If the general public
knew that there was a book around called Thomas--which I think 95 percent of the
public doesn't know exists--there would be a volcanic eruption,' said Brown, a
former professor of the philosophy of religion who has written on Thomas for the
journal Novum Testamentum.
        Thomas was discovered in 1945 in Egypt along with more than 50 other
ancient Christian, Jewish and pagan works that make up a collection known as the
Nag Hammadi Library. The documents, which date from the 4th century BC to the
4th century AD, were written in Coptic, the language of early Egyptian
Christians. The library, including Thomas, has been translated into English and
published in several scholarly editions. But many scholars feel that Thomas
should be made available in a separate volume. 'I think it's urgent that Thomas
be published alone in a paperback edition,' said Brown.
        Unlike the other Nag Hammadi volumes, Thomas contains teachings of Jesus,
which scholars believe would be particularly valuable for Christian readers.
Many students of the Gospel of Thomas believe that its material is potentially
of more interest to the general public than the much-ballyhooed Dead Sea
Scrolls--except that it is not as well known.
        Many quotations recorded in Thomas are similar to those in the Gospels
that make up what is known as the New Testament canon--the writings of the early
church that eventually came to be accepted as authentic and authoritative texts
for all Christians. For example, Saying 90 in Thomas, 'Come unto me, for my yoke
is easy and my lordship is mild, and you will find repose for yourselves,' bears
strong resemblance to a familiar passage in Matthew 11:28-30.



Joachim Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus (1963 edition, II.3): Embellishment: In
many cases parables [in the synoptics] have undergone elaboration, and ... the
simpler version [of Thomas] represents the original.

Helmut Koester, Introduction to 'The Gospel of Thomas', in James M. Robinson
(ed.), The Nag Hammadi Library in English (Bibliography #2, above): If one
considers the form and wording of the individual sayings in comparison with the
form in which they are preserved in the New Testament, The Gospel of Thomas
almost always appears to have preserved a more original form of the traditional
saying. In its literary genre, The Gospel of Thomas is more akin to one of the
sources of the canonical gospels, namely the so-called Synoptic Sayings Source
(often called 'Q' from the German Quelle, 'source'), which was used by both
Matthew and Luke.... In its most original form, [Thomas] may well date from the
first century.

------------, Ancient Christian Gospels (London: SCM Press; Philadelphia:
Trinity Press International, 1990): What is put to the test is the 'early
Catholic' or 'orthodox' tradition, which asserts the monopoly of the canonical
gospel tradition.... Only dogmatic prejudice can assert that the canonical
writings have an exclusive claim to apostolic origin and thus to historical
priority.... The parables of the Gospel of Thomas are to be read as stories in
their own right, not as artificial expressions of some hidden Gnostic truth.

James M. Robinson (General Editor for the Nag Hammadi Codices), Introduction to
The Nag Hammadi Library in English (Bibliography #2, above): The focus of this
library has much in common with primitive Christianity, with eastern religion
and with 'holy men' (and women) of all times, as well as with the more secular
equivalents of today, such as the counter-culture movements coming from the
1960s. Disinterest in the goods of a consumer society, withdrawal into communes
of the like-minded away from the bustle and clutter of big-city distraction,
non-involvement in the compromises of political process, sharing an in-group's
knowledge both of the disaster-course of the culture and of an ideal, radical
alternative not commonly known--all this in modern garb is the real challenge
rooted in such materials as the Nag Hammadi library.... Primitive Christianity
was itself a radical movement. Jesus called for a full reversal of values,
advocating the end of the world as we have known it and its replacement by a
quite new, utopian kind of life in which the ideal world would be real. He took
a stand quite independent of the authorities of his day ··· and did not last
very long before they eliminated him. Yet his followers reaffirmed his stand--
for them he came to personify the ultimate goal.... Just as the Dead Sea Scrolls
[at Qumran] were put in jars for safekeeping and hidden at the time of the
approach of the Roman Tenth Legion, the burial [three centuries later] of the
Nag Hammadi library in a jar may have been precipitated by the approach of Roman
authorities, who had by then become Christian.



        These are the secret sayingsº which the living Yeshúaº has spoken and
Didymos Judas Thomasº inscribed. (Lk 8:10)

1. And he <says>*: Whoever finds the interpretation of these sayings shall not
taste death. (Isa 25:8, Lk 9:27, Jn 8:51; this is apparently an introductory
logion quoting Thomas himself, included [like Jn 21:24] by his own disciples,
since it speaks of the following as a collection of sayings; *thruout the Greek
fragments of Thomas, 'x says' is in the present tense)

2. Yeshúa says: Let him who seeks not cease seeking until he finds, and when he
finds he shall be troubled, and when he has been troubled he shall marvel and he
shall reign over the totalityº <and find repose>. (Dan 7:27, Lk 1:29, Rev/Ap
1:6, 3:21, 5:10, 20:4)

3. Yeshúa says: If those who would lead you, say to you: Behold, the Kingdom is
in the skyº!, then the birds of the sky would precede you. If they say to you:
It is in the sea!, then the fish <of the sea> would precede you. But the Kingdom
<of God> is within you and it is without you. <Those who come to know themselves
shall find it, and when you come to know yourselves> then you shall know that
you are the Sons of the Living Father. Yet if you do not know yourselves then
you are impoverished and you are poverty. (Dt 30:11-14, Mal 2:10, Lk 17:21,
Plato's Philebus 48c, 63c)

4. Yeshúa says: The person old in days will not hesitate to ask a little child
of seven days concerning the place of life--and he shall live. For many who are
first shall become last, <and the last first>. And they shall become a single
unity. (Gen 2:2-3, 17:12, Mt 11:25-26, Lk 10:21)

5. Yeshúa says: Recognize what is in front of thy face, and what is hidden from
thee shall be revealed to thee. For there is nothing concealed which shall not
be revealed, <and nothing buried that shall not be raised>.

6. His Disciples ask him,* they say to him: How do thou want us to fast, and how
shall we pray? And how shall we give alms, and what diet shall we maintain? |
Yeshúa says: Do not lie, and do not practice what you hate--for everything is
manifest before the face of the sky. For there is nothing concealed that shall
not be revealed, and there is nothing covered that shall remain without being
exposed. (*asyndeton, or omission of conjunctions, characterizing Semitic
languages but not Greek or Coptic--thus signaling an underlying Semitic source-

7. Yeshúa says: Blestº be the lion which the human eats--and the lion shall
become human. And accursed be the human which the lion eats--and the [human]
shall become [lion].

8. And he says: The [Kingdom] is like a wise fisherman who cast his net into the
sea. He drew it up from the sea full of small fish. Among them he found a large
good fish. That wise fisherman, he threw all the small fish back into the sea,*
he chose the large fish without hesitation. Whoever has ears to hear, let him
hear! (*asyndeton)

9. Yeshúa says: Behold, the sower came forth--he filled his hand, he threw. Some
indeed fell upon the road--the birds came, they gathered them. Others fell on
the bedrock--and they did not take root down into the soil, and did not sprout
grain skyward. And others fell among the thorns--they choked the seed, and the
worm ate them. And others fell upon the good earth--and it produced good fruit
up toward the sky, it bore 60-fold and 120-fold. (multiple asyndeta; Mt 13:18-

10. Yeshúa says: I have cast fire upon the worldº--and behold, I guard it until
it is ablaze. (Lk 12:49)

11. Yeshúa says: This sky shall pass away, and the one above it shall pass away.
And the dead are not alive, and the living shall not die. In the days when you
consumed the dead, you transformed it to life--when you come into the Light,
what will you do? On the day when you were together, you became separated--yet
when you have become separated, what will you do? (Mt 24:35)

12. The Disciples say to Yeshúa: We know that thou shall go away from us. Who is
it that shall be Rabbiº over us? | Yeshúa says to them: In the place that you
have come, you shall go to Jacob the Righteousº, for whose sake the sky and
earth come to be. (apparently a post-resurrection dialog; vide Jn 7:5 & Ac 1:14)

13. Yeshúa says to his Disciples: Make a comparison to me, and tell me whom I
resemble. | Simon Peterº says to him: Thou are like a righteous angel. |
Matthewº says to him: Thou are like a philosopherº of the heart. | Thomas says
to him: Teacher, my mouth will not at all be capable of saying whom thou are
like. | Yeshúa says: I'm not thy teacher, now that thou have drunk, thou have
become drunken from the bubbling spring which I have measured out. And he takes
him, he withdraws, he speaks three words to him:

I•Am Who I•Am)

Now when Thomas comes to his comrades, they inquire of him: What did Yeshúa say
to thee? | Thomas says to them: If I tell you even one of the words which he
spoke to me, you will take up stones to cast at me--and fire will come from the
stones to consume you. (the Name does not appear in the papyrus, but can be
inferred; Ex 3:14, Lev 24:16, Mk 14:62, Lk 6:40, Jn 4:14, 15:1, Th 61b, 77, Odes
of Solomon 11:6-9)

14. Yeshúa says to them: If you fast, you shall beget transgression for
yourselves. And if you pray, you shall be condemned. And if you give alms, you
shall cause evil to your spirits. And when you go into any land to sojourn in
the regions, if they receive you then eat what they set before you and heal the
sick among them. For what goes into your mouth will not defile you--but rather
what comes out of your mouth, that is what will defile you. (Isa 58:6-9, Mt 6:6
+ Jn 18:1, Th 6, 95, 104, Ph 74)

15. Yeshúa says: When you see him who was not born of woman, prostrate
yourselves upon your faces and worship him--he is your Father. (Th 101)

16. Yeshúa says: People perhaps think that I have come to cast peace upon the
world, and they do not know that I have come to cast divisions upon the earth--
fire, sword, war. For there shall be five in a house--three shall be against two
and two against three, the father against the son and the son against the
father. And they shall stand as solitaries.

17. Yeshúa says: I shall give to you what eye has not seen and what ear has not
heard and what hand has not touched and what has not arisen in the mind of
mankind. (Isa 64:4)

18. The Disciples say to Yeshúa: Tell us how our end shall be. | Yeshúa says:
Have you then discovered the originº, so that you inquire about the end? For at
the place where the origin is, there shall be the end. Blest be he who shall
stand at the origin--and he shall know the end, and he shall not taste death.

19. Yeshúa says: Blest be he who was before he came into being. If you become
Disciples to me and heed my sayings, these stones shall minister to you. For you
have five treesº in paradise, which in summer are unmoved and in winter their
leaves do not fall--whoever is acquainted with them shall not taste death.

20. The Disciples say to Yeshúa: Tell us what the Kingdom of the Heavensº is
like. | He says to them: It resembles a mustard seed, smaller than all (other)
seeds--yet when it falls on the tilled earth, it produces a great plant and
becomes shelter for the birds of the sky.

21. Mariamº says to Yeshúa: Whom are thy Disciples like? | He says: They are
like little children who are sojourning in a field which is not theirs. When the
owners of the field come, they will say: Leave our field to us! They take off
their clothing in front of them in order to yield it to them and to give back
their field to them. Therefore I say, if the householder ascertains that the
thief is coming, he will be alert before he arrives and will not allow him to
dig thru into the house of his domain to carry away his belongings. Yet you,
beware of the systemº--gird up your loins with great strength lest the bandits
find a way to reach you, for they will find the advantage which you anticipate.
Let there be among you a person of awareness--when the fruit ripened, he came
quickly with his sickle in his hand,* he reaped it. Whoever has ears to hear,
let him hear! (*asyndeton)

22. Yeshúa sees little children who are being suckled. He says to his Disciples:
These little children who are being suckled are like those who enter the
Kingdom. | They say to him: Shall we thus by becoming little children enter the
Kingdom? | Yeshúa says to them: When you make the two one, and you make the
inside as the outside and the outside as the inside and the above as the below,
and if you establish the male with the female as a single unity so that the man
will not be masculine and the woman not be feminine, when you establish [an eye]
in the place of an eye and a hand in the place of a hand and a foot in the place
of a foot and an imageº in the place of an image--then shall you enter [the

23. Yeshúa says: I shall choose you, one from a thousand and two from ten
thousand--and they shall stand as a single unity. (Dt 32:30, Ecc 7:28, Jer 3:14)

24. His Disciples say: Explain thy place to us, for it is compulsory for us to
seek it. | He says to them: Whoever has ears, let him hear! Within a Person of
Light there is Light, and he illumines the entire world. When he does not shine,
there is darkness. (Mt 5:14-16, Jn 12:36)

25. Yeshúa says: Love thy Brother as thy soul, protect him as the pupil of thine
eye. (asyndeton; Dt 32:10, I-Sam 18:1, Ps 17:8, Jn 13:34-35)

26. Yeshúa says: The mote which is in thy Brother's eye thou see--but the plank
that is in thine own eye thou see not. When thou cast the plank out of thine own
eye, then shall thou see clearly to cast the mote out of thy Brother's eye.

27. (Yeshúa says:) Unless you fast from the system, you shall not find the
Kingdom <of God>. Unless you keep the (entire) week as Sabbathº, you shall not
behold the Father. (Mk 1:13, Jn 5:19!; see Paterson Brown, Novum Testamentum

28. Yeshúa says: I stood in the midst of the world, and incarnateº I was
manifest to them.* I found them all drunk, I found none among them athirst. And
my soul was grieved for the sons of men, for they are blind in their hearts and
do not see that empty they have come into the world and that empty they are
destined to come forth again from the world. (Ecc 6:15) However, now they are
drunk--when they have shaken off their wine, then shall they rethinkº. (*re
'Gnosticism', Jn 1:14--this appears to be a post-resurrection saying)

29. Yeshúa says: If the flesh has come into being because of spirit, it is a
marvel--yet if spirit because of the body, it would be a marvel among marvels.
But I marvel at this, how this great wealth has inhabited this poverty.

30. Yeshúa says: Where there are three gods, they are <godless. Where there is
only one, I say that> I myself am with him. <Raise the stone and there you shall
find me, cleave the wood and there am I.> (cp. The Letter of Aristeas 15-16;
cleaving the wood could be seen as a metaphor for the crucifixion, removing the
stone for the resurrection)

31. Yeshúa says: No oracleº is accepted in his own village, no physician heals
those who know him. (asyndeton)

32. Yeshúa says: A city being built upon a high mountain and fortified cannot
fall nor can it be hidden.

33. Yeshúa says: What thou shall hear in thy ear proclaim to other ears from
your rooftops. For no one kindles a lamp and sets it under a bushel-basket nor
puts it in a hidden place, but rather it is placed upon the lampstand so that
everyone who comes in and goes out will see its light.

34. Yeshúa says: If a blind person leads a blind person, both together fall into
a pit.

35. Yeshúa says: It is impossible for anyone to enter the house of the strong to
take it by force, unless he binds his hands--then he will ransack his house.
(Isa 49:24-25)

36. Yeshúa says: Be not anxious in the morning about the evening or in the
evening about the morning, <either for your [food] that you shall eat or for
[your clothing] that you shall wear. You are much superior to the [windflowers]
which neither comb (wool) nor [spin] (thread). Having one garment what do you
[lack]? Or who can increase your stature? He himself shall give to you your

37. His Disciples say: When will thou be revealed to us, and when shall we
behold thee? | Yeshúa says: When you take off your clothing without being
ashamed, and take your clothes and place them under your feet to tread on them
as the little children do--then [shall you behold] the Son of the Living-One,
and you shall not fear. (Gen 2:25, 3:7; this appears to be a post-resurrection

38. Yeshúa says: Many times have you yearned to hear these sayings which I speak
to you, and you have no one else from whom to hear them. There will be days when
you will seek me but you shall not find me. (Prov 1:28, Lk 17:22)

39. Yeshúa says: The clergyº and the theologiansº have received the keys of
knowledge, but they have hidden them. They did not enter, nor did they permit
those to enter who wished to. Yet you--become astute as serpents and pure as

40. Yeshúa says: A vine has been planted without the Father, and as it is not
viable it shall be pulled up by its roots and destroyed. (Mt 15:13)

41. Yeshúa says: Whoever has in his hand, to him shall (more) be given. And
whoever does not have, from him shall be taken even the trifle which he has. (Mt
13:12, Lk 12:48)

42. Yeshúa says: Become transientsº (passers-by). (Mt 10:1-23, 28:19-20, Jn

43. His Disciples say to him: Who are thou, that thou say these things to us? |
(Yeshúa says to them:) From what I say to you, you do not recognize who I be,
but rather you have become as the Jews--for they love the tree but hate its
fruit, and they love the fruit but hate the tree. (Mt 12:33)

44. Yeshúa says: Whoever vilifies the Father, it shall be forgiven him. And
whoever vilifies the Son, it shall be forgiven him. Yet whoever vilifies the
Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him--neither on earth nor in heaven.

45. Yeshúa says: They do not harvest grapes from thorns, nor do they gather figs
from thistles--for they give no fruit. A good person brings forth goodness out
of his treasure. A bad person brings forth wickednessº out of his evil treasure
which is in his heart, and he speaks oppressively--for out of the abundance of
the heart he brings forth wickedness. (I-Sam 24:13)

46. Yeshúa says: From Adamº until John the Baptistº there is among those born of
women none more exalted than John the Baptist--so that his eyes shall not be
broken. Yet I have said that whoever among you becomes childlike shall know the
Kingdom, and he shall become more exalted than John. (Lk 7:28, Th 15)

47. Yeshúa says: It is impossible for a person to mount two horses or to stretch
two bows, and it is impossible for a slave to serve two masters--otherwise he
will honor the one and offend the other. No person drinks vintageº wine and
immediately desires to drink new wine, and they do not put new (wine) into old
wineskins lest they burst, and they do not put vintage wine into new wineskins
lest it sour. They do not sew an old patch on a new garment because there would
come a split.

48. Yeshúa says: If two make peace with each other in this one house, they shall
say to the mountain: Be moved!--and it shall be moved.

49. Yeshúa says: Blest be the solitary and chosen--for you shall find the
Kingdom. You have come from it, and unto it you shall return. (Jn 16:28)

50. Yeshúa says: If they say to you: 'From whence do you come?', say to them:
'We have come from the Light, the place where the Light has originated thru
himself--he stood and he revealed himself in their imagery.' If they say to you:
'Who are you?', say: 'We are his Sons and we are the chosen of the Living
Father.' If they ask you: 'What is the sign of your Father in you?', say to
them: 'It is movement with repose.' (Lk 16:8, Jn 12:36)

51. His Disciples say to him: When will the repose of the dead occur, and when
will the new world come? | He says to them: That which you look for has already
come, but you do not recognize it.

52. His Disciples say to him: Twenty-four prophetsº proclaimed in Israel, and
they all spoke within thee. | He says to them: You have ignored the Living-One
who is facing you, and you have spoken about the dead.

53. His Disciples say to him: Is circumcision beneficial or not? | He says to
them: If it were beneficial, their father would beget them circumcised from
their mother. But the true spiritual circumcision has become entirely

54. Yeshúa says: Blest be the poor, for the Kingdom of the Skies is yours.

55. Yeshúa says: Whoever does not hate his father and his mother will not be
able to become a Disciple to me. And whoever does not hate his brothers and his
sisters and does not take up his own cross in my way, will not become worthy of
me. (Lk 14:26-27)

56. Yeshúa says: Whoever has known the system has found a corpse--and whoever
has found a corpse, of him the system is not worthy.

57. Yeshúa says: The Kingdom of the Father is like a person who has [good] seed.
His enemy came by night,* he sowed a weed among the good seed. The man did not
permit them to pull up the weed. He says to them: Lest perhaps you go forth
saying: 'We shall pull up the weed'--and you pull up the wheat along with it.
For on the day of harvest the weeds will appear--they pull them and burn them.
(*asyndeton; II-Pt 3:15-17?!)

58. Yeshúa says: Blest be the person who has suffered--he has found the life.
(asyndeton; Mt 5:10-12, Jas 1:12, I-Pt 3:14)

59. Yeshúa says: Behold the Living-One while you are alive, lest you die and
seek to perceive him and be unable to see.

60. (They see) a Samaritanº carrying a lamb, entering Judea. Yeshúa says to
them: Why does he (take) the lamb with him? | They say to him: So that he may
kill it and eat it. | He says to them: While it is alive he will not eat it, but
only after he kills it and it becomes a corpse. | They say: Otherwise he will
not be able to do it. | He says to them: You yourselves--seek a place for
yourselves in repose, lest you become corpses and be eaten.

61a. Yeshúa says: Two will rest on a bed--the one shall die, the other shall
live. (asyndeton; Lk 17:34)

61b. Salomeº says: Who are thou, man? As if (sent) from someone, thou laid upon
my bedº and thou ate from my table. | Yeshúa says to her: I•Am he who is from
equality. To me have been given from the things of my Father. | (Salome says:)
I'm thy Disciple.* | (Yeshúa says to her:) Thus I say that whenever someone
equalizes he shall be filled with light, yet whenever he divides he shall be
filled with darkness. (*'thy Disciple': the Coptic indicates a masculine
possessive of a feminine noun; see Plumley, Bibliography #3, §50, or the online
grammar Bibliography #18, lesson 5.1)

62. Yeshúa says: I tell my mysteries to those [who are worthy of] my mysteries.
What thy right (hand) shall do, let not thy left (hand) ascertain what it does.
(Mk 4:10-12)

63. Yeshúa says: There was a wealthy person who possessed much money, and he
said: I shall utilize my money so that I may sow and reap and replant, to fill
my storehouses with fruit so that I lack nothing. This is what he thought in his
heart--and that night he died. Whoever has ears, let him hear!

64a. Yeshúa says: A person had houseguests, and when he had prepared the banquet
he sent his slave to invite the guests. He went to the first, he says to him: My
master invites thee. He replied: I have some business with some merchants, they
are coming to me in the evening, I shall go to place my orders with them--I beg
to be excused from the banquet. He went to another, he says to him: My master
has invited thee. He replied to him: I have bought a house and they require me
for a day, I shall have no leisure time. He came to another, he says to him: My
master invites thee. He replied to him: My comrade is to be married and I must
arrange a feast, I shall not be able to come--I beg to be excused from the
banquet. He went to another, he says to him: My master invites thee. He replied
to him: I have bought a villa, I go to receive the rent, I shall not be able to
come--I beg to be excused. The slave came, he said to his master: Those whom
thou have invited to the banquet have excused themselves. The master said to his
slave: Go out to the roads, bring those whom thou shall find so that they may
feast. (multiple asyndeta)

64b. (And he says:) Tradesmen and merchants shall not enter the places of my
Father. (Ezek 27 28, Zech 14:21, Jn 2:13-16, Rev/Ap 18:11-20)

65. He says: A kindº person had a vineyard. He gave it out to tenants so that
they would work it and he would receive its fruit from them. He sent his slave
so that the tenants would give to him the fruit of the vineyard. They seized his
slave, they beat him--a little longer and they would have killed him. The slave
went, he told it to his master. His master said: Perhaps [they] did not
recognize [him]. He sent another slave--the tenants beat him as well. Then the
owner sent his son. He said: Perhaps they will respect my son. Since those
tenants knew that he was the heir of the vineyard, they seized him, they killed
him. Whoever has ears, let him hear! (multiple asyndeta)

66. Yeshúa says: Show me the stone which the builders have rejected--it is the
cornerstone. (Isa 28:16)

67. Yeshúa says: Whoever knows everything, but fails (to know) himself, lacks
everything. (Th 3)

68. Yeshúa says: Blest be you when you are hated and persecuted and find no
place there where you have been persecuted.

69a. Yeshúa says: Blest be those who have been persecuted in their heart--these
are they who have known the Father in truth.

69b. (Yeshúa says:) Blest be the hungry, for the stomach of him who desires
shall be filled.

70. Yeshúa says: When you bring forth that which is within you, this that you
have shall save you. If you do not have that within you, this which you do not
have within you will kill you. (Mt 13:52)

71. Yeshúa says: I shall destroy [this] house, and no one will be able to
[re]build it.

72. [Someone says] to him: Tell my brothers to divide the possessions of my
father with me. | He says to him: Oh man, who made me a divider? | He turned to
his Disciples,* he says to them: I'm not a divider, am I? (*asyndeton)

73. Yeshúa says: The harvest is indeed plentiful, but the workers are few. Yet
beseech the Lord that he send workers into the harvest.

74. He says: Lord, there are many around the reservoir, yet no one in the

75. Yeshúa says: There are many standing at the door, but the solitary are those
who shall enter the Bridal-Chamberº.

76. Yeshúa says: The Kingdom of the Father is like a merchant possessing a
fortune, who found a pearl. That merchant was shrewd--he sold the fortune, he
bought the one pearl for himself. You yourselves, seek for [the treasure of his
face], which perishes not, which endures--the place where no moth comes near to
devour nor worm ravages. (multiple asyndeta; Ps 11:7, 17:15)

77. Yeshúa says: I•Am the light who is above them all, I•Am the Allº. All came
forth from me and all return to me. Cleave wood,* there am I. Lift up the stone
and there you shall find me. (*asyndeton; Jn 8:12)

78. Yeshúa says: Why did you come out to the wilderness--to see a reed shaken by
the wind? And to see a person dressed in plush garments? [Behold, your] rulers
and your dignitaries are those who are clad in plush garments, and they shall
not be able to recognize the truth.

79. A woman from the multitude says to him: Blest be the womb which bore thee,
and the breasts which nursed thee! | He says to her: Blest be those who have
heard the meaning of the Father and have kept it in truth. For there shall be
days when you will say: Blest be the womb which has not conceived and the
breasts which have not nursed. (Lk 1:42)

80. Yeshúa says: Whoever has known the system has found the body--and whoever
has found the body, of him the system is not worthy. (Th 56)

81. Yeshúa says: Let whoever is enriched be made sovereign, and let whoever has
power renounce it.

82. Yeshúa says: Whoever is close to me is close to the fire, and whoever is far
from me is far from the Kingdom.

83. Yeshúa says: The images are manifest to mankind, and the Light which is
within them is hidden. (Th 19) He shall reveal himself in the imagery of the
Light of the Father--[yet] his image is concealed by his Light.

84. Yeshúa says: When you see your reflection, you rejoice. Yet when you
perceive your images which come into being in front of you--which neither die
nor disguise--to what extent will they depend upon you? (this is the
epistemological hinge of the entire text; Ps 139:16, Jn 5:19, Th 19!)

85. Yeshúa says: Adam came into existence from a great power and a great wealth,
and yet he did not become worthy of you. For if he had been worthy, he would not
have tasted death.

86. Yeshúa says: [The foxes have their dens] and the birds have their nests, yet
the Son of Mankind has no place to lay his head for rest.

87. Yeshúa says: Wretched be the body which depends upon (another) body, and
wretched be the soul which depends upon their being together.

88. Yeshúa says: The angelsº and the oracles shall come to you, and they shall
bestow upon you what is yours. And you yourselves, give to them what is in your
hands, and say among yourselves: On what day will they come to receive what is

89. Yeshúa says: Why do you wash the outside of the chalice? Do you not mind
that He who creates the inside is also he who creates the outside? (Lk 11:39-41)

90. Yeshúa says: Come unto me, for my yogaº is naturalº and my lordship is
gentle--and you shall find repose for yourselves.

91. They say to him: Tell us who thou are, so that we may believe in thee. | He
says to them: You examine the face of the sky and of the earth--yet you do not
recognize Him who is facing you, and you do not know to inquire of Him at this
moment. (Th 5, 52, 76, 84)

92. Yeshúa says: Seek and you shall find. But those things which you asked me in
those days, I did not tell you then. Now I wish to tell them, and you do not
inquire about them.

93. (Yeshúa says:) Give not what is holy to the dogs, lest they throw it on the
dungheap. Cast not the pearls to the swine, lest they cause it to become [...].

94. Yeshúa [says:] Whoever seeks shall find. [And whoever knocks,] it shall be
opened to him.

95. [Yeshúa says:] If you have copper-coins,* do not lend at interest--but
rather give it to those from whom you will not be repaid. (Lk 6:30-36; *here in
the bound codex there is a single sheet blank on both sides)

96. Yeshúa says: The Kingdom of the Father is like a woman who has taken a
little yeast and has hidden it in dough--she produced large loaves of it.
Whoever has ears, let him hear!

97. Yeshúa says: The Kingdom of the [Father] is like a woman who was carrying a
jar full of grain. While she was walking on a distant road, the handle of the
jar broke, the grain streamed out behind her onto the road. She did not know it,
she had noticed no accident. When she arrived in her house, she set the jar
down--she found it empty. (multiple asyndeta)

98. Yeshúa says: The Kingdom of the Father is like a person who wishes to slay a
prominent man. He drew forth his sword in his house,* he thrust it thru the wall
in order to ascertain whether his hand would prevail. Then he slew the prominent
man. (*asyndeton)

99. His Disciples say to him: Thy brothers-and-sisters and thy mother are
standing outside. | He says to them: Those here who practice the desires of my
Father--these are my Brothers-and-Sisters and my Mother. It is they who shall
enter the Kingdom of my Father. (Th 15)

100. They show Yeshúa a gold coin, and they say to him: The agents of Caesar
extort tribute from us. | He says to them: Give the things of Caesar to Caesar,
give the things of God to God, and give to me what is mine. (Rev/Ap 13:18 <- I-
Ki 10:14?!--an extraordinary gematria)

101. (Yeshúa says:) Whoever does not hate his father and his mother in my way
shall not be able to become a Disciple to me. And whoever does [not] love his
[Father] and his Mother in my way shall not be able to become a Disciple to me.
For my mother [boreº me], yet [my] true [Mother] gave me the life. (Jn 2:4, Th

102. Yeshúa says: Woe unto them, the clergy--for they are like a dog sleeping in
the manger of oxen. For neither does he eat, nor does he allow the oxen to eat.
(The Fables of Aesopº)

103. Yeshúa says: Blest be the person who knows in which part the bandits may
invade, so that he shall arise and collect his [belongings] and gird up his
loins before they enter. (Mt 24:43)

104. They say [to him:] Come, let us pray today and let us fast. | Yeshúa says:
Which then is the transgression that I have committed, or in what have I been
vanquished? But when the Bridegroom comes forth from the Bridal-Chamber, then
let them fast and let them pray. (Mk 2:19-20, Th 14)

105. Yeshúa says: Whoever acknowledges father and mother, shall be called the
son of a harlot. (Mt 23:8-9)

106. Yeshúa says: When you make the two one, you shall become Sons of Mankind--
and when you say to the mountain: Be moved!, it shall be moved. (Th 22)

107. Yeshúa says: The Kingdom is like a shepherd who has 100 sheep. One of them
went astray, which was the largest. He left the 99, he sought for the one until
he found it. Having wearied himself, he said to that sheep: I desire thee more
than 99. (Ezek 34:15-16)

108. Yeshúa says: Whoever drinks from my mouth shall become like me. I myself
shall become him, and the secrets shall be revealed unto him. (Lk 6:40, Jn 4:7-
15, 7:37)

109. Yeshúa says: The Kingdom is like a person who has a treasure hidden in his
field without knowing it. And after he died, he bequeathed it to his [son. The]
son did not know about it, he accepted that field, he sold it. And he came who
purchased it--he plowed it, [he found] the treasure. He began to lend money at
interest to whomever he wishes. (multiple asyndeta; Mt 13:44)

110. Yeshúa says: Whoever has found the system and been enriched, let him
renounce the system. (Th 81)

111. Yeshúa says: The sky and the earth shall be rolled up in your presence. And
he who lives from within the Living-One shall see neither death [nor fear]--for
Yeshúa says: Whoever finds himself, of him the world is not worthy. (Isa 34:4,
Lk 21:33, Rev/Ap 6:14)

112. Yeshúa says: Woe to the flesh which depends upon the soul, woe to the soul
which depends upon the flesh. (asyndeton; Th 87)

113. His Disciples say to him: When will the Kingdom come? | (Yeshúa says:) It
shall not come by expectation. They will not say: Behold here! or: Behold there!
But the Kingdom of the Father is spread upon the earth, and humans do not
perceive it. (Lk 17:20-21)

114. Simon Peter says to them: Let Mariam depart from among us, for women are
not worthy of the life. | Yeshúa says: Behold, I shall inspireº her so that I
make her male, in order that she herself shall become a living spirit like you
males. For every female who becomes male shall enter the Kingdom of the Heavens.
(Gen 3:16, Th 22)

The Gospel according to Thomas



        Coptic was the final stage of the classical Egyptian language, evolving
after the invasion of Alexander the Great (332 BC) and subsequently supplanted
by Arabic following the Muslim conquest (640 AD). It has always been the
liturgical language of the Egyptian Church; moreover, the ancient Coptic
versions of the Old and New Testaments are of great importance in textual
Biblical studies. Utilizing many Greek loan words, Coptic also adopted the Greek
alphabet (with C for sigma, and W for omega), adding these letters: $ (shai), £
(fai), % (hori), ¥ (janja), 6 (gima), and † (ti).

Adam (46,85): Hebrew (blood-red, clay)--the original human and/or generic

Aesop (102): crippled Greek slave who flourished in the 6th-century BC and was
executed at Delphi for 'impiety', whose Fables were well-known thruout the
ancient world; the only non-Israelite other than the Delphic Oracle ('know
thyself': Th 3) whom Christ is known to have quoted, as also in Lk 4:23 (moral
from 'The Quack Frog'), Mt 7:15 ('The Wolf in Sheep's Clothing') and various
other allusions

Bear (101): TA.MAAU GAR NTA.C.[MICE MMO.I EB]OL, 'my-mother for did-she[-bear
accusative-me for]th' (vide Crum, Bibliography #4, 184b; also Plumley,
Bibliography #3, §202 re II-Perfect tense in subordinate clauses)

Bed (61b, as notably also 61a): see Crum (Bibliography #4, above), 408b & 815a;
the Coptic text here is: A.K.TELO (did-thou[masc]-lay) E¥M (upon) PA.6LO6 (my-
bed)--this last term emphatically cannot mean 'bench' or 'sofa' or 'dining-

Blest (7,18,19,49,54,58,68,69a,69b,79,103): Greek MAKARIOS; this Greek word
means divine, rather than merely human, beatitude (Mt 5:3)

Bridal-Chamber (75,104): Coptic MA N.$ELEET (place of-bride) = Greek NUMFWN =
Hebrew KHEDER; the bedroom where the marriage is consummated (Ps 19:5, S-of-S
1:4, Jn 3:29!, Mt 9:15)--see Ph 65, 71, 72, 73, 82, 94, 101, 108, 131, 143

Clergy (39,102): Hebrew 'Pharisee' (separated); religious leaders, teachers,
indoctrinators (remember Mt 23)

Image/Imagery (22,50,83,84): Greek EIKON = Hebrew TSELEM (Gen 1:26); sensory
perceptions and/or mental images, the five senses (Th 19) together with memory
and the imagination; see 'Angel and Image', below

Incarnate (28): Coptic %N CARX (in flesh--intentionally utilizing the Greek term
from Jn 1:14); see Recognition in Ph Notes re 'Gnosticism'

Inspire (114): Coptic COK; to blow as the wind or to flow as water, hence to
draw or attract

Jacob the Righteous (12): Hebrew (heeler, supplanter; Gen 25:26) = Greek
'James'; Christ's human brother (Mk 6:3, Ac 12:17, Epistle of James)

John the Baptist (46,78): John = Hebrew (Yah[weh] is merciful); the last Hebrew
prophet and the Messianic precursor (Lk 1, 3, 7 etc.), see Oracle, Ph 73, 81,
133, Baptism in Ph Notes, Logia in Tr Notes

Mariam (21,114): from Hebrew MROM (exalted; Ex 15:20); five females named Mariam
appear in the Gospels: the Virgin, Mariam Magdalene, Mariam of Bethany, Mariam
of Cleopas, and Mariam the Lord's human sister (Mc 6:3, Ph 36); Jn 20:16 gives a
transliteration of this (Semitic) name into Greek letters: MARIAM

Matthew (13): Hebrew MATTAN-YAH (gift of Yah[weh]); the Apostle/Evangelist, also
named 'Levi of Alphaeus' (see Levi in Ph Notes, Mk 2:14), brother of the Apostle
Jacob of Alphaeus; Mt 10:3 etc.

Oracle/Prophet (31,52,88): Greek PROFHTHS = Hebrew NABI; a divine spokesperson,
not merely predictive; note that there are 24 books in the Hebrew canon of the
OT, and also 24 Prophets including John the Baptist (see IV-Ezra 14:45, Rev/Ap

Origin (18): Greek ARChH; term from the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers, meaning
not a temporal beginning but rather the primal source or basic substance
underlying reality (thus in Gen 1:1 [Septuagint/LXX], Mk 1:1, Jn 1:1)

Philosopher (13): Greek FILOSOFOS (fond of wisdom); this word (coined by the
pre-Socratic Pythagoras) has no Hebrew/Aramaic parallel, and thus Matthew
himself must have used the Greek term

Rabbi (12): Hebrew (my great) = Coptic NO6 (great); a spiritual authority

Rethink (28): Greek METANOEW: reconsider, be wholeminded (Mt 3:2 etc.); the
initial message of both John the Baptist and Christ; this important term
'metanoia' (with-mind) contrasts with 'paranoia' (beside-mind)--it does not
signify a mere feeling of remorse, which is METAMELOS (see Metanoia in Tr Notes)

Sabbath (27): Hebrew SHABAT (repose); the (7th) day of rest; Ex 21:8-11, Lk 6:1-
11, Tr 7, 33--see the pericope Lk 6:4+ in Codex D (05) [Bezae]: "That same day,
he saw someone working on the Sabbath,* he said to him: Man, if indeed you
understand what you are doing, you are blest; if indeed you do not understand,
you are accursed and a transgressor of the Torah"; Nestle-Aland, Novum
Testamentum Graece, textual notes (*asyndeton)

Salome (61b): Hebrew (peaceful); an early female Disciple (Mk 15:40-41, 16:1)

Samaritan (60): those Hebrews not deported to Babylon and hence lacking the
later OT scriptures (I-Ki 16:24, II-Ki 17), therefore in post-Exilic times
considered heretics (as in Lk 10:25-37, Jn 4:1-42)

Saying/Meaning (Prolog, 1,19,38,79): Coptic $A¥E = Greek LOGOS = Hebrew AMR =
Aramaic MEMRA; English 'meaning' derives from Anglo-Saxon 'mænan' = 'concept +
expression', the exact sense of both logos and memra; Jn 1:1 thus reads 'In
(the) Origin was the Meaning'; the Greek term for 'word' is RHMA

Simon Peter (13,114): Hebrew SHIMÓN = hearing (Gen 29:33); Greek PETROS (Peter)
= Aramaic KEFA ('Cephas': bedrock)--the chief Apostle (Mt 10:2, 16:15-19)

Sky/Heaven (3,6,9,11,12,20,44,54,91,111,114): Coptic PE = Greek OURANOS; note
that 'sky' = 'heaven' in Hebrew, Greek and Coptic

Theologian (39): Greek GRAMMATEUS (scribe); an expert on the scriptures (but Mt

Thomas (Prolog, 13, Colophon): Aramaic TEOM = Greek DIDUMOS (duplicate, twin);
the Apostle Thomas, author of this text (Jn 11:16, 20:24-29, 21:2); also note
that Hebrew 'Judas' = 'praised' = Arabic 'hammad' as in 'Nag Hammadi' (village
of praise) and 'Mohammad' (great praise)

Totality/Everything/the All (2,6,67,77): Coptic THR-£ (all of him/it)

Transient (42): Greek PARAGEIN (by-led); passer-by, itinerant--see Hebrew in Ph

Trees (19): the 'five trees' may refer to the five senses (N.B. that all
emotions can presumably be included in the realm of feeling); see Tr 28 and
'Angel and Image', below (it is noteworthy that the olive tree in particular
does not shed its leaves seasonally)

Vintage/Kind/Natural (47,65,90): Greek ChRHSTOS (used), Ph 126; the ancient
pagans often confused this common term with the rare ChRISTOS, with reference to
the Hebrew Messiah

Wickedness (45): Greek PONEROS; this term (which also occurs in the canonical
Gospels at Mk 7:22-23 etc.) has a root meaning of hard work or laborious
drudgery, thus oppressed or exploited

World/System (10,16,21,24,27,28,51,56,80,110,111): Greek KOSMOS (arrangement,
order)--originally the pre-Socratic philosopher Pythagoras had used this term to
designate the entire natural universe, as in 'cosmos'; but in the Gospel koiné
(later common Greek) it had also come to signify the conventionality or
artificiality of the human social system, as in 'cosmetic'; see Lk 2:1, 4:5-6,

Yeshúa (Prolog et passim): Aramaic YESHÚA (yod.shin.vav.ayin) = Hebrew YEHÓSHUA;
from YAHWEH YASHA (He-is Savior); Josh 1:1, Ezra 5:2 [Aramaic form], Mt 1:21, Ph
20a; see also the Hebrew text of Ex 15:2 as well as the spelling of the
Tetragrammaton as written in second commandment on synagogue tablets of the
Decalogue [!]

Yoga (90): Coptic NA%B (yoke), here meaning a spiritual discipline (the cognate
Sanskrit term 'yoga' conveys this sense quite well)



1. A Hebrew° person makes a (convert) Hebrew, who moreover is called thus: a
novice° (proselyte). Yet a novice does not make (another) novice. [Some persons]
are as they are [...] and also influence others [to become like themselves,
while for the remainder] it suffices to them that they shall be. (Ex 12:48-49,
Ac 6:5)

2. The slave seeks only to be set free, yet he does not seek after the estate of
his master. Yet the son is not only a son, but also ascribes to himself the
inheritance of the father. (Jn 8:35)

3. Those who inherit the dead are themselves dead, and they inherit the dead.
Those who inherit the living are alive, and they inherit both the living and the
dead. The dead do not inherit anything. For how will the dead inherit? When the
dead inherits the living, he shall not die but rather the dead shall instead

4. A nationalist° does not die, for he has never lived so that he could die.
Whoever has trusted° the truth is alive--and this-one is in danger of dying (as
a martyr), for he is alive since the day that the Christ° came. (Mt 24:9)

5. The system is contrived, the cities are constructed, the dead carried out.
(asyndeta; Isa 40:17, Rev/Ap 18, Lk 9:60)

6. In the days when we were Hebrews we were orphans, having only our Mother (the
Spirit°). Yet when we become Messianics°, the Father joins with the Mother.

7. Those who sow in the winter reap in the summer. The winter is the world,* the
summer is the other aeon°. Let us sow in the world so that we will harvest in
the summer. Because of this, it is appropriate for us not to pray in the
wintertime. What emerges from the winter is the summer. Yet if anyone reaps in
the winter he will not harvest but rather uproot, as this method will not
produce fruit. Not only does it not come forth [in the winter], but in the other
Sabbath also his field is fruitless. (*asyndeton; Mt 6:1-6, Th 14, 27)

8. The Christ came! Some indeed he ransomed, yet others he rescued, yet for
others he atoned°. He ransomed the alienated,* he brought them to himself. And
he rescued those who came to him. These he set as pledges in his will. Not only
when he appeared did he voluntarily lay down his soul, but since the day of the
world's coming-to-be he placed his soul. Then at the time he desired he came
earliest to reclaim her, since she was placed among the pledges. She had come to
be under the bandits and they had taken her captive, yet he rescued her. He
atoned for both the good and the evil in the world. (*asyndeton; Jn 10:17-18)

9. The light with the darkness, life with death, the right with the left are
brothers to one another. It is not possible for them to be separated from one
another. Because of this, neither is the good a good, nor are the evils an evil,
nor is the life a life, nor is the death a death. Therefore each individual
shall be solved into his origin from the beginning. Yet those who have been
exalted above the world are indissoluble and eternal°. (Isa 45:7, Lam 3:38--cp.
the Chinese Tao)

10. The names which have been given by the worldly--therein is a great
confusion°. For their hearts are turned away from the real unto the unreal. And
he who hears the (word) 'God' does not think of the real, but rather he is made
to think of the unreal. So also with the (words) 'the Father' and 'the Son' and
'the Holy Spirit' and 'the Life' and 'the Light' and 'the Resurrection' and 'the
Convocation°' [and] all the other (words)--they do not think of the real, but
rather they are made to think of the [un]real. Moreover they learn the [all-
human] reality of death. They are in the system,* [they think of the unreal]. If
they were in eternity, they would not designate anything as a worldly evil nor
would they be placed within worldly events. There is a destiny for them in
eternity. (*asyndeton)

11. One single name they do not utter in the world--the name which the Father
bestows upon himself in the Son. This he exalts above every other name. For the
Son will not become the Father unless the name of the Father was bestowed upon
him. This existing name they are indeed each made to think to himself, yet they
speak it not. Yet those who do not have it do not even think it. But the truth
begets these words in the world for our sake. It would not be possible to learn
it without words. (Jn 17)

12. She alone is the truth. She makes the many, and she teaches us this alone in
love thru many. (Ph 6, 18, 40)

13. The authorities° desire to deceive humankind, because they perceived him
being in a kinship to the truly good. So they took the word 'good', they applied
it to the ungood so that thru words they might deceive and bind him within the
ungood. And subsequently whenever grace is enacted to them, they are to be
withdrawn from the ungood and be appointed in the good--as these know. For they
desired to take the free person and keep him as a slave to themselves forever.
There is empowerment given to humans. They do not want him [to know], so that
they will become [masters] over him. For where there is humankind, there is
[slavery]. (Isa 5:20; this entry together with Ph 9, 10, 72, 136 pertain to the
theoretical linguistics of this text)

14. Sacrifice began [...], and they offered up animals to the powers. [...] They
indeed offered them up alive, but when they were offered up they died. But the
human was offered up dead to God, and he lived.

15. Before Christ came there was no bread in the world as there had been in
paradise°, the place where Adam was. There were many plants as nourishment for
the animals, but it had no grain as food for humankind. So humans ate like the
animals. But Christ came, the perfect° person. He brought forth bread in heaven
so that humankind would be nourished with the food of humankind. (Ps 78:25, Jn

16. The authorities think that by their own power and volition they are doing
what they do. Yet the Holy Spirit in secret was energizing everything thru them
as she wished.

17. The truth is sown everywhere from the origin, and the multitude see it sown.
Yet few who see it reap it. (Mt 22:14)

18. Some say that Mariam was impregnated by the Holy Spirit. They are confused,*
they know not what they say. Whenever was a female° impregnated by a female?
Mariam is the virgin whom no power defiled. She is the great consecration for
the Hebrew Apostles° and for the Apostolics°. If the powers attempted to defile
this virgin, they would only defile [themselves]. And the Lord did not say 'my
Father [in] heaven', as if he had [another] father--but rather he said simply
['my Father']. (*asyndeton; Lk 2:48-49, Ph 6)

19. The Lord said to the Disciples°: [...] Indeed come into the house of the
Father, but do not possess anything in the house of the Father nor take anything
away. (Jn 14:2)

20a. Yeshúa is a secret name, Christ is a revealed name. Thus Yeshúa does not
occur in any (other) languages, but rather his name is Yeshúa as he is called.
Yet his name Christ in Aramaic° is Messiah°, but in Ionian° is: ChRISTOS.
Altogether, it is in all the other languages according to each one('s word for

20b. The revealed Nazarene° is the secret!

21. The Christ has everything within himself--whether human or angel° or
mystery°, and also the Father.

22. They say that the Lord first died and then arose; they are confused. For
first he arose and then he died. If anyone does not first acquire the
resurrection he will die, for he is not really alive until God transforms him.
(Th 29)

23. No one will hide a precious valuable in something expensive, but oftentimes
has something worth countless myriads been placed in something worth a pittance.
Thus is the case with the soul--a precious thing has come to be in a lowly body.

24. Some are fearful lest they arise naked. Therefore they desire to arise in
the flesh, and they do not know that those who wear the flesh are the denuded.
Those [...] who are divested (of the flesh) are those who are clad (in the

25. (Paul° claims that) 'flesh [and blood cannot] inherit the Kingdom [of God].'
(I-Cor 15:50) What is this which shall not inherit? This which is upon us? Yet
this is exactly what will inherit--that which belongs to Yeshúa with his flesh
and blood. Therefore he said: Whoever does not eat my flesh and drink my blood
has no life within himself. (Jn 6:53) What is his flesh?--it is the Logos. And
his blood?--it is the Holy Spirit. Whoever has received these has food and drink
and clothing. I disagree with those who say that flesh and blood shall not
arise. Then (these) both are wrong: thou say that the flesh shall not arise, but
tell me what will arise so that we may honor thee; thou say it is the spirit in
the flesh and this light in the flesh, but this also is an incarnate saying. For
whatever thou will say, thou do not speak apart from the flesh. It is necessary
to arise in this flesh, as everything exists within it.

26. In this world they who wear garments are more valuable than the garments. In
the Kingdom of the Heavens the garments are more valuable than those to whom
they have been given by means of water and fire, which purify the entire place.

27. The revelations by means of revelation,* the secrets by means of secrecy.
Some things are kept secret by means of the revelations. (*asyndeton; Th prolog,
62, 108)

28. There is liquid in water, there is fire in Chrism°. (asyndeton)

29. Yeshúa took them all by stealth. For he did not reveal himself as he
[really] was, but rather he reveals himself as [they will] be able to perceive
him. He revealed himself to [them all--he revealed himself] to the great as
great, he revealed himself to the small as small, he [revealed himself] to the
angels as an angel and to humans as a human. Thus his Logos concealed him from
everyone. Some indeed saw him while they thought they were seeing themselves.
But when he revealed himself to his Disciples in glory on the mountain he was
not made small. He became great, but he made the Disciples great so that they
would be capable of beholding him made great. (Mt 17:1-8)

30. He says today in the Eucharist°: Oh thou who have mated° the Perfect Light
with the Holy Spirit, mate also our angels with our imagery!

31. Do not disdain the Lamb, for without him it is not possible to see the door.
No one divested will be able to enter unto the King. (Jn 1:36)

32. The Sons of the Man of Heaven are more numerous than those of the man of
earth. If the sons of Adam are numerous although they surely die, how many more
are the Sons of the Perfect Man--those who do not die but rather are continually

33. The Father creates a Son, but it is not possible for the Son himself to
create a Son. For it is impossible for him who is begotten himself to beget. But
rather the Son begets for himself Brothers instead of Sons. (Jn 20:17)

34. All those who are begotten in the system are begotten physically, and the
others are begotten [spiritually]. Those begotten in his heart [call forth]
there to humankind in order [to nourish] them in the promise [of the goal] which
is above. [...] (Jn 1:12-13)

35. The Logos comes forth from the mouth. And he who is nourished from the mouth
shall become perfect. The perfect are conceived thru a kiss and they are born.
Therefore we also kiss one another--to receive conception in our mutual grace.
(Th 108)

36. There were three Mariams who walked with the Lord at all times: his mother
and [his] sister and the Magdalene°, she who is called his mate. Thus his (true)
Mother, Sister and Mate is (also) called 'Mariam'. (Mk 3:35, Th 101)

37. 'Father' and 'Son' are single names, 'Holy Spirit' is a double name. For the
Father and the Son are everywhere--above and below, secretly and manifestly. The
Holy Spirit is the secret above within the manifestation below.

38. The Saints are served by the oppressive powers, for the latter are blinded
by the Holy Spirit so that they think they are assisting a human when in fact
they are working for the Saints. Because of this, (when) a Disciple one day made
request of the Lord for something worldly, he said to him: Request of thy Mother
and she will give to thee from what belongs to another.

39. The Apostles said to the Disciples: May our entire offering obtain salt!
They called [grace] 'salt'--without it no offering [becomes] acceptable. (Lev
2:13, Num 18:19, Mk 9:49)

40. Wisdom is barren [without] the Son--hence she is called [his Mother]. But in
the place of salt [...] the Holy Spirit has many Sons. (Prov 8, Isa 54:1, Lk
7:35, Th 101)

41. Everything that the Father possesses belongs to the Son. And also he the
Son, as long as he is small, (the Father) does not entrust to him what is his.
But when he matures, the Father bestows on him all that he (himself) has. (Th

42. Those who are lost are also begotten by the Holy Spirit, and they go astray
thru her. Thus by the one breath°, the fire both blazes and is extinguished.

43. Wisdom is one thing, and dead wisdom is another. Wisdom is simply being
wise, yet dead wisdom is the wisdom of death. That which acknowledges death is
called the trite wisdom.

44. There are animals which are subject to mankind, such as the calf and the
donkey and others of this kind. There are others which are not subject, and live
apart in the wilderness. Man plows the field by means of the animals that are
subject, and from this he feeds both himself and the animals whether tame or
wild. So it is with the Perfect Person--thru the powers that are subject he
plows, providing for everything which exists. For because of this the entire
place stands--whether the good or the evil, both the right and the left. The
Sacred Spirit shepherds everyone and commands all the powers, both those who are
subject and also those who are not subject and are isolated. For truly she
continues [...] to control them [beyond] their own volition. [...]

45. [Adam] was formed, and yet thou will [not] find his sons to be noble
formations. If he were not formed but rather begotten, thou would find his seed
to be noble. Yet for now he has been formed and he has begotten. What nobility
is this? (Gen 2:7, 4:1)

46. Adultery occurred first, then murder. And (Cain°) was begotten in adultery,
for he was the son of the serpent*. Therefore he became a manslayer just like
his father, and he killed his brother. Yet every mating which has occurred
between those who are dissimilar is adultery. (*i.e. born of the falsity called
human, rather than divine, generation?; Gen 4:1-16, Jn 8:31-59!!, Th 105)

47. God is a dyer. Just as the good pigments which are called true then label
the things which have been permanently dyed in them, so it is also with those
whom God colors. Because his hues are imperishable, (those who are tinted)
become immortal thru his coloring. Yet God immerses whomever he baptizes° in an
inundation of waters (i.e. a flood of images?).

48. It is not possible for anyone to see anything of those that are established
unless he becomes like them. Not as with the person who is in the world--he sees
the sun without becoming a sun, and he sees the sky and the earth and all other
things without being them. But in the truth it is thus--thou thyself saw
something of that place, and thou came to be there. Thou saw the Spirit,* thou
became spiritual; thou saw the Christ,* thou became christlike; thou saw [the
Father,* thou] shall become paternal. Thus [in the world ...] thou see
everything and [...] thou do not see thy self, yet thou see thy self in that
[place]. For what thou see, thou shall [become]. (*asyndeta)

49. Faith receives,* love gives. [No one can receive] without faith,* no one can
give without love. Therefore we believe in order that indeed we shall receive,
yet we love in order that we may truly give. Otherwise, if someone gives without
love, he derives no benefit from giving. (*asyndeta)

50. Whoever has not received the Lord is still a Hebrew. (Ph 6)

51. The Apostles who preceded us called him thus: Yeshúa' the Nazirite° Messiah,
that is Yeshúa' the Nazirite Christ. The last name is the Christ, the first is
Yeshúa', the middle is the [Nazirite]. Messiah has two significations: both
anointed and also measurement°. Yeshúa' in Aramaic is the Atonement. Nazara is
the truth, therefore the Nazirite is the true. Christ is the measurement, the
[Nazirite] and Yeshúa' are the measured. (Num 6:1-8, Jud 13:5 -> Mt 2:23, Ph 20)

52. If the pearl is cast down into the mire it is not despised, nor if it is
anointed with balsam oil is it more valued. But rather it has its great worth to
its owner at all times. So it is with the Sons of God--whatever happens to them,
they still have the great value to their Father. (Job 30:19, Jer 38:6)

53. If thou say 'I'm a Jew'--no one will be moved. If thou say 'I'm a Roman'--no
one will be disturbed. If thou say 'I'm a Greek, a barbarian, a slave, a
freeman'--no one will be troubled. If thou [say] 'I'm a Christic°'--[everyone]
will tremble. May it be that I [speak] in such a manner that [they] will not be
able to withstand [hearing] this name!

54. A god is a cannibal. Because of this, they [sacrifice] mankind to it. Before
they sacrificed mankind, they were sacrificing animals. For these to which they
sacrificed, were not divinities. (Ph 14)

55. Both vessels of glass and vessels of pottery come to be thru fire. But if
glass vessels break they are remade, for they come to be by means of breath
(spirit). Yet if pottery vessels break they are destroyed, for they come to be
without breath.

56. A donkey going in a circle at a millstone did a hundred miles walking. When
it was released it found itself still in the same place. There are also people
who take many journeys but make no progress anywhere. When evening comes upon
them, they discern neither city nor village, neither creation nor nature,
neither power nor angel. In vain did the wretches toil! (Ps 127:2, Ecl 2:11)

57. The Eucharist is Yeshúa. For in Aramaic they call him FARISATHA--this is,
the outspread. For Yeshúa came to crucify the world.

58. The Lord went into the dyeworks of Levi°. He took 72 complexions,* he threw
them into the vat. He brought them all up white, and he said: This is how the
son of mankind comes--[as] a dyer. (*asyndeton; Gen 10 [LXX] lists 72 nations in
all the world; also, Lk 10:1 in some ancient MSS mentions 72 Disciples)

59. The wisdom which humans call barren is the Mother of the Angels. (Ph 40) And
the Mate of the [Christ] is Mariam Magdalene. The [Lord loved] Mariam more than
[all the other] Disciples, [and he] kissed her often on her [mouth. (Ph 35) He
embraced] the other women also, yet they said to him: Why do thou love [her]
more than all of us? | The Savior° replied,* he said to them: Why do I not love
you as I do her? (*asyndeton; Th 61b)

60. While a blind person and one who sees are both in the dark, they do not
differ from one another. But when the light comes, then he who sees shall behold
the light yet he who is blind shall remain in the darkness. (Th 34)

61. The Lord said: Blest be he who was before he came into being. (Th 19) For he
who is, both was and shall be.

62. The exaltation of mankind is not manifest but rather implicit. Because of
this he dominates the animals which are stronger than him--who thus is great
both manifestly and implicitly. And this gives to them their survival. Yet when
mankind separates from them, they kill each other and gnash each other and
devour each other, because they find no food. Yet when mankind cultivated the
earth they found food.

63. If anyone goes down into the water and comes back up without having
received, but says 'I'm a Christic', he has taken the name on loan. Yet if he
receives the Holy Spirit, he has the gift of the name. He who has received a
gift is not deprived of it, but he who takes a loan has it demanded from him.
(Th 41)

64. This is how it is when someone exists in a mystery--the sacrament° of
marriage is grand. For the world is complex: [the system] is based upon mankind,
yet [mankind] is based upon matrimony*. (Therefore) contemplate the pure mating,
for it has [great] power. Its imagery is in a defiling [of bodies]. (*matrimony
<-> patrimony°; Lev 15:18!!)

65. Among the unclean spirits there are male and female. The males indeed are
those who mate with the souls inhabiting a female form, yet the females are
those who unite° with a male form--both thru disparity°. (Ph 46) And no one will
be able to escape from these once they seize him unless he receives both male
and female power--which is the Bridegroom with the Bride. One receives them in
the mirrored Bridal-Chamber. (Th 75) Whenever the foolish women see a male
sitting alone, they leap upon him to carouse with him and defile him. So also
the foolish men when they see a beautiful female sitting alone, they seduce her
or coerce her in the desire to defile her. Yet if they see the man sitting
together with his woman, the females cannot violate the man nor can the males
violate the woman. So it is if the imagery and the angel are mated together,
neither can anyone dare to violate the male or the female. (Ph 30) He who comes
forth from the world cannot be detained any longer merely because he used to be
in the world. It is evident that he transcends both the yearning and the fear of
the [flesh]. He is master over [desire],* he is more precious than jealousy. And
if [the many] come to seize him and strangle [him], how will he not be able to
escape [by the salvation] of God? How can he fear them? (*asyndeton)

66. Many times there are some who come [and say]: We are faithful, hide us from
[unclean spirits] and demons! But if they had the Holy Spirit, no unclean spirit
would cling to them.

67. Do not fear the flesh, nor love it. If thou fear it, it will enslave thee.
If thou love it, it will devour and strangle thee.

68. One exists either in this world or in the resurrection or in the
transitional° regions. May it not occur that I be found in the latter! In this
world there is good and evil. Its goods are not good and its evils are not evil.
(Ph 9) Yet there is evil after this world, which is truly evil and which is
called the transition; it is death. While we are in this world it is appropriate
for us to be begotten in the resurrection, so that if we are divested of the
flesh we shall find ourselves in the repose and not wander in the transition.
For many go astray on the way. Thus it is good to come forth from the world
before humankind transgressed. (Rev/Ap 20:5)

69. Some indeed neither wish nor are able. Yet others if they wish gain no
benefit, for they do not act correctly. For desire makes them transgressors. Yet
not desiring righteousness conceals from them both the wish and the deed.

70. An Apostolic in a vision saw some [...] who were in a house of fire, crying
out in a fiery air, cast [...] in the flames. [... Even] the water in [that
place is aflame], and they declare to themselves: [...] The waters cannot save
us, whatever we may wish! They received [death as] chastisement. This is called
the [outermost] darkness. The enemy [comes] forth in water with fire. (Rev/Ap
20:14-15, Mt 25:30)

71. The soul and the spirit of the Son of the Bridal-Chamber come forth [in]
water and fire with light. The fire is the Chrism, the light is the fire. I do
not mean this fire that has no form, but rather the other--whose form is white
and which is made of beautiful light and which bestows splendor. (Ph 26, 28)

72. The truth does not come unto the system naked, but rather it comes in
symbols with imagery. The world will not receive it in any other fashion. There
is a rebirth° (or upbirth) together with a reborn (or upborn) imagery. It is
truly appropriate to be reborn (or upborn) thru the imagery. (Jn 3) What is the
resurrection with its imagery?--it is appropriate to arise thru the imagery. The
Bridal-Chamber with its imagery?--it is appropriate to come into the truth. This
is the restoration°. It is appropriate to be begotten not only of the words 'the
Father with the Son with the Holy Spirit', but also to be begotten of them
themselves. Whoever is not begotten of them will have the name also taken from
him. (Ph 63) Yet one receives them in the Chrism which comes in the power of the
cross, which the Apostles call: the right with the left. For this-one is no
longer a Christic but rather a Christ. (Isa 30:21)

73. The Lord [did] everything sacramentally: Baptism and Chrism and Eucharist
and Atonement and [holy] Bridal-Chamber.

74. He said: I have come [to make the outer] as the inner and the [above as the
below]. (Th 22) The other place [is represented] here in symbols. [...] She is
the one who is above. (Ph 12) He who is revealed [...] from there is called: he
who is below. And he has the hidden that is there above him. For it is good that
they say: the inner and the outer together with what is outside of the outer.
Because of this, the Lord called destruction: the outer darkness. There is
nothing outside of that. He said: thy Father in secret. He said: Go into thy
closet, shut thy door behind thee and pray to thy Father in secret. This is He
who is within them all. Yet He who is within them all is the fullness--beyond
him there is nothing further within. This is what is meant by: He who is above
them (all). (Mt 8:12, 6:6, Th 77, Ph 70)

75. Before Christ some came forth. They are no longer able to enter into whence
they came, and they are no longer able to exit from whither they went. Yet the
Christ came. Those who had gone in he brought out, and those who had gone out he
brought in.

76. In the days when Eve° was within Adam, there was no death. When she
separated from him, death came to be. If [she] again enters and he receives
[her], death will no longer be.

77. 'My God, my God, why oh Lord [have] thou abandoned me?'--He said these
(words) on the cross. For he put asunder the [entire] place, having been
begotten within the [Holy] Spirit by God. (Ps 22:1 -> Mk 15:34, vis-à-vis

78. The [Lord arose] from death. [He became again] as he had been, but [his
body] was made [entirely] perfect. He wore the flesh, but this [flesh is indeed]
the true flesh. (Jn 1:14) [Yet our flesh] is not true, but rather a mirror-image
of the true [flesh].

79. The Bridal-Bed° is not for the animals nor is it for the slaves nor for the
impure women, but rather it is for the free men with the virgins. (Ac 21:8-9!)

80. Thru the Holy Spirit we are indeed born, yet we are reborn (or upborn) thru
the Christ. In both we are anointed thru the Spirit--and having been begotten,
we are mated. (Gen 2:7, Jn 3:7)

81. No one will be able to see himself either in water or in a mirror without
light. Nor again will thou be able to see thyself in the light without water or
a mirror. Therefore it is appropriate to baptize in both--in the light and the
water. Yet the light is the Chrism. (Isa 43:2, Mt 3:11)

82. There had been* three vestibules for places of offering in Jerusalem°--one
open to the west called the holy, another open to the south called the holy of
the holiness, the third open to the east called the holy of the holinesses where
the high priest alone was to enter. Baptism is the holy vestibule, Atonement is
the holy of the holiness, the holy of the holinesses is the Bridal-Chamber.
Baptism has the resurrection [with] the Atonement entering the Bridal-Chamber.
Yet the Bridal-Chamber is more exalted than those. [...] Thou will find nothing
that [compares with it]. (multiple asyndeta; Lev 16, Num 18:7; *'There had
been': Coptic pluperfect tense--hence this entry was written after the Roman
conquest of 70 AD; see Plumley's Grammar, §231)

83. [Those who] pray [for] Jerusalem pray [in] Jerusalem and they see
[Jerusalem]. These are called the holies (or Saints) of the holinesses.

84. [The sacred] veil was torn [in order to reveal] the Bridal-Bed, which is
nothing but the imagery [which is] above. And the veil was torn from the top to
the bottom, for it is appropriate for some from below to go above. (Th 84, Mk

85. Those who are clothed in the Perfect Light--the powers can neither see them
nor restrain them. Yet one shall be clothed with light in the sacrament of the
Mating. (Ph 38)

86. If the female had not separated from the male, she would not die with the
male. [Her] separation was the inception of death. Therefore Christ came, so
that he might overcome the separation that had obtained from the beginning and
again mate the two. And to those who have died in the separation he shall give
life by mating them. Yet the woman mates with her husband in the bridal-bed.
Those however who have mated in the Bridal-Bed will no longer be separated.
Because of this, Eve separated from Adam--because she did not mate with him in
the Bridal-Bed. (Gen 3:19, Th 11, 22, Ph 76)

87. The soul of Adam came into being from a Spirit (= breath, Gen 2:7), and her
Mate is the [Christ]. The Spirit bestowed upon (Adam) is his Mother, and is
given to him in his soul. [Yet because] he was not mated [...] in the Logos, the
dominant powers bewitched him. But those who mate with the [Holy] Spirit in
secret [...] are invited individually to the Bridal-Bed, where they are mated.

88. Yeshúa revealed [himself by the River] Jordan° as the fullness of the
Kingdom of the Heavens who precedes the totality. Moreover [*] he was begotten
as a Son, moreover he was anointed, moreover he was atoned, moreover he atoned.
(asyndeta; *dittography)

89. If it is appropriate to tell a mystery, the Father of the totality mated
with the Virgin who had come down--and a fire shone for him on that day. He
revealed the great Bridal-Bed. Thus his body came into being on that day. He
came forth in the Bridal-Bed as one issuing from the Bridegroom with the Bride.
This is how Yeshúa established the essence of the totality. And it is
appropriate for each one of the Disciples to enter into his repose.

90. Adam came into being thru two virgins--thru the Spirit and thru the virgin
earth. Therefore Christ was begotten thru a virgin, in order to rectify the fall
which had occurred in the beginning. (Gen 2:7, Lk 1:26-35)

91. There were two trees in paradise--the one produces beasts,* the other
produces humans. Adam ate from the tree that produces beasts, and becoming a
beast he begot beasts. Because of this (the beasts) were then worshipped. Adam
[ate] the fruit of that tree, [...] and this bore many fruits [...] which were
also eaten; humans begot [humans] and worshipped humans. (*asyndeton)

92. God creates mankind, yet mankind creates gods. This is how it is in the
world--the humans create gods and they worship their creations. It would be more
appropriate for the gods to worship the humans! (Isa 44:9-20)

93. Thus is the truth regarding the deeds of mankind--those that come forth thru
his power are therefore called works, but his creations are his sons who come
forth thru his repose. Because of this, his power governs in his [works], yet
his repose is manifest in his sons. And thou will find that this also penetrates
thru the imagery: this is the Mirrored Person--doing his [works] in his power,
yet begetting his Sons in his repose. (Jn 5:19, Th 50!)

94. In this world the slaves work for the free. In the Kingdom of the Heavens
the free serve the slaves: the Sons of the Bridal-Chamber serve the sons of
marriage. The Sons of the Bridal-Chamber have [a single] name, share in the
repose, and have no needs. [...] (Ph 64)

95. Contemplation° [of the images] is the greatest [...] of glories. (compare
Aristotle, Metaphysics XII.7, 1072b.23)

96. [Those who] go down into the water do not go down to death, for he atoned
for those who are [fulfilled] in his name. For he said: [Thus] we must fulfill
all righteousness. (Mt 3:15)

97. Those who say that they will first die and then arise are confused. If they
do not first receive the resurrection while they live, they will receive nothing
when they die. Thus it is said also of Baptism in stating that Baptism is great,
for those who receive it shall live. (Ph 22)

98. Philip the Apostle° says: Joseph the Craftsman° planted a garden because he
needed wood for his craft. He made the cross from the trees that he planted, and
his posterity hung on that which he had planted. His posterity is Yeshúa, yet
the plant is the cross. But the tree of life is in the center of paradise, the
olive tree from which the Chrism comes thru him who is the resurrection. (Mt
13:55, Ex 30:22-33, Dt 21:22-23)

99. This world devours corpses--everything which is eaten in it thereby dies.
The truthful consumes the living--therefore no one nourished in [the living
shall] die. Yeshúa came forth from that place and he brought nourishment from
there. And to those whom he wished he gave life so that they would not perish.
(Jn 6:53, Th 11, 60, Ph 15)

100. God [planted] a garden-paradise. Mankind lives in the garden, but [...]
their hearts [...] are not in God. [...] This garden [is the place] where it
will be said: My Son, [eat] this or do not eat that according to thy desire. In
this place I shall consume all things, for the tree of knowledge is there. It
slew Adam, yet the place of the tree of knowledge gave life to mankind. The
Torah° is the tree. It has the capability to bestow the knowledge of good and
evil. It neither stopped him from evil nor preserved him in the good, but rather
it presupposed death for those who ingested it. For death originated in his
saying: Eat this but do not eat that. (Th 113, Gen 2:16-17)

101. The Chrism is lord over Baptism. For from the Chrism we are called
Christics, and not because of the Baptism. And he is called the Christ because
of the Chrism. For the Father anointed the Son, yet the Son anointed the
Apostles, yet the Apostles anointed us. (Lk 4:18, Jn 20:21-22, Ac 6:5-6) He who
is anointed has everything--he has the resurrection, the light, the cross,* the
Holy Spirit. The Father bestowed this upon him in the Bridal-Chamber, and he
received. (*asyndeton)

102. The Father was in the Son, and the Son in the Father. This is the Kingdom
of the Heavens! (Jn 14:10, 17:20-23)

103. Ideally did the Lord say: Some have entered the Kingdom of the Heavens
laughing, and they came forth [from the world rejoicing]. The Christic [...] who
went down into the water immediately came forth as lord over everything, because
[he not only considered] (this world) a farce but also [disdained it for] the
Kingdom of the Heavens. [...] If he disparages it and scorns it as a farce, he
will come forth laughing.

104. This is altogether how it is with the bread and the chalice and with the
ointment--there is nonetheless another (sacrament) more exalted than these. (Ph

105. The system began in a transgression, for he who contrived it desired to
make it imperishable and immortal. He fell away and did not attain his ambition.
For there is no imperishability of the system, and there was no imperishability
of him who contrived the system. For there is no imperishability of things but
only of Sons, and no one can obtain imperishability except by becoming a Son.
Yet he who is unable to receive, how much more will he be unable to give! (Ph 5,

106. The chalice of communion° contains wine and water, for it is appointed as
the symbol of the blood for which the Eucharist is celebrated. And it is filled
with the Holy Spirit, and it belongs to the completely Perfected Person.
Whenever we drink this, we receive the Perfect Person. (Jn 19:34, I-Jn 5:6-8)

107. The living water is a body. It is appropriate that we be clothed with the
Living Person. Because of this, when he comes to go down into the water he
undresses himself in order that he may be clothed with that.

108. A horse begets a horse, a human begets a human,* a god begets a god. This
is how it is with the Bridegroom within the Bride--[the Sons] come forth in the
Bridal-Chamber. The Jews did not derive from the Greeks, and we Christics do not
[derive] from the Jews. [...] And these are called the chosen generation of the
[Holy Spirit]--the true person and the son of mankind and the seed of the son of
mankind. This generation are called the true ones in the world. This is the
place where the Sons of the Bridal-Chamber are. (*asyndeton)

109. Mating in this world is the man upon the woman, the place of strength over
weakness. In eternity the mating is something else in the likeness of this, yet
it is called by these same names. Yet there is another (mating) which is exalted
beyond all designated names, and which transcends force. For where there is
force, there are also those who are more precious than force.

110. The one is not, and the other is--but these are together the single unity.
This is He who shall not be able to come unto me thru a heart of flesh. (Ph 9)

111. Is it not appropriate for all those who possess the totality to understand
themselves? Some indeed, who do not understand themselves, do not enjoy what
they have. Yet those who do understand themselves shall enjoy it. (Th 67)

112. Not only will they be unable to seize the perfected person, but they will
not be able even to see him. For if they saw him they would seize him. In no
other fashion will one be able to be begotten of this grace, unless he is
clothed in the Perfect Light and himself becomes one of the Perfect Lights.
[...] Thus clad he enters into this perfection.

113. [It is appropriate] that we become [perfected persons] before we come forth
[from the world]. Whoever receives everything [without mastering] these places
will [not be able to master] that place, but rather he shall [go] to the
transition as imperfect. Only Yeshúa knows the destiny of that one.

114. The Saint is entirely holy, including his body. For if he receives the
bread he sanctifies it, or the chalice, or anything else he receives he
purifies. And how will he not purify the body also?

115. By perfecting the water of Baptism, Yeshúa poured death away. Because of
this, we indeed go down into the water yet we do not go down unto death, in
order that we not be poured away into the spirit of the world. Whenever that
breathes the winter comes, but when the Holy Spirit breathes the summer comes.
(Mk 10:38-39)

116. Whoever recognizes° the truth is free. Yet he who is free does not
transgress, for 'he who transgresses is the slave of transgression.' (I-Jn 3:9,
Jn 8:34) The Mother is the truth, yet recognition is the union. These to whom it
is given not to transgress in the world are called free. These to whom it is
given not to transgress have their hearts exalted by recognizing the truth. This
is what liberates them and exalts them over the universe. Yet (Paul claims that
'knowledge is vain but) love edifies.' (I-Cor 8:1) He however who is liberated
thru recognition is enslaved by love for the sake of those who have not yet been
able to be carried up to the freedom of recognition. Yet recognizing suffices to
liberate them.

117. Love [does not take] anything, for how [can it take anything when
everything belongs to it?] It does not say 'This is [mine]' or '[That] is mine',
[but rather it says] 'It is thine.'

118. Spiritual love is wine and fragrance. All those who are anointed with it
enjoy it. As long as the anointed remain, those also enjoy it who stand beside
them. But if they who are anointed with the Chrism withdraw and depart, those
who are not anointed but only stand alongside will still remain in their own
miasma. The Samaritan gave nothing to the wounded man except wine and ointment--
and it healed the wounds, for 'love covers a multitude of transgressions.' (Lk
10:30-37, Prov 10:12 -> I-Pet 4:8)

119. Those whom the woman begets will resemble him whom she loves. If it is her
husband they will resemble her husband,* if it is an adulterer they will
resemble the adulterer. Often, if there is a woman who sleeps with her husband
by compulsion yet her heart is toward the adulterer and she mates with him and
begets, then the one to whom she gives birth resembles the adulterer. Yet you
who are with the Sons of God--love not the world but rather love the Lord, so
that those whom you beget will not be made to resemble the world but rather will
be made to resemble the Lord. (*asyndeton)

120. The human unites with the human, the horse unites with the horse, the
donkey unites with the donkey. The species unite with their like-species. Thus
in this manner the Spirit unites with the Spirit, the Logos mates with the
Logos, and the Light mates [with the Light]. If thou become human then [mankind
will] love thee, if thou become [spiritual] then the Spirit will mate with thee,
if thou become meaningful then the Logos will unite with thee, if thou become
enlightened then the Light will mate with thee, if thou transcend then the
Transcendental will repose upon thee. But if thou become like a horse or a
donkey or a calf or a dog or a sheep or any other animal outside and inferior,
then neither mankind nor the Spirit nor the Logos nor the Light nor those above
nor those within will be able to love thee. They will be unable to repose in thy
heart and they will not be thy heritage. (multiple asyndeta; Ph 108)

121. He who is enslaved against his own volition will be able to be freed. He
who has been liberated by the gift of his master, and has sold himself back into
slavery, will no longer be able to be freed. (Ex 21:5-6 [but also Lev 25:10], Ph

122. Cultivation in the world is thru four modes°--(crops) are gathered into the
barn thru earth and water and wind and light. And the cultivation by God is
likewise thru four: trust and hope° and love and recognition. Our earth is trust
in which we take root, the water is hope thru which we are nourished, the wind
is love thru which we grow, yet the light is recognition thru which we ripen.
[...] (Ph 116)

123. Grace made [...] the earth to be made [...] in Heaven above. Blest be this
[...] soul!

124. This is Yeshúa the Christ--he beguiled the entire place and did not burden
anyone. Therefore blest be a perfected person of this kind, for such is the

125. Ask us concerning him, inasmuch as it is difficult uprightly (to portray
him). How shall we be able to succeed in this magnificent task?

126. How will he bestow repose on everyone? First and foremost, it is not
appropriate to aggrieve anyone--whether great or small, unbeliever or believer.
Then, to provide repose for those who rest in the good. There are some whose
privilege it is to provide repose for those who are ideal. He who does good
cannot of himself give repose to them, for he does not come of his own volition.
Yet neither can he grieve them, for he does not oppress or distress them. But he
who is ideal sometimes grieves them--not that he is thus (grievous), but rather
it is their own wickedness which causes them grief. Whoever is natural° gives
joy to him who is good--yet consequently some grieve terribly. (Th 90)

127. The master of an estate acquired everything--whether son or slave or dog or
cattle or swine, whether wheat or barley or straw or hay or [bones] or meat [or]
acorns. He was wise and knew the food of [each]. Before the sons he indeed set
bread and [olive-oil with meat, before] the slaves he set castor-oil with grain,
before the cattle he set [barley] with straw and hay, to the dogs he cast bones,
yet before [the swine] he threw acorns and crusts of bread. So it is with the
Disciple of God--if he is wise he is perceptive about the Discipleship. The
bodily forms will not deceive him, but rather he will look to the disposition of
the soul of each one in order to speak with him. In the world there are many
animals made in human form--these he recognizes. To the swine indeed he will
throw acorns, yet to the cattle he will cast barley with straw and hay, to the
dogs he will cast bones, to the slaves he will give the elementary, to the Sons
he shall present the Perfect.

128. There is the son of mankind and there is the grandson of mankind. The Lord
is the son of mankind, and the grandson of mankind is he who is created thru the
son of mankind. The son of mankind received from God (the ability) to create as
well as to beget.

129. That which is created is a creature,* that which is begotten is a child. A
creature cannot beget,* (but) a child can create. Yet they say: The creature
begets. But a child is a creature. Therefore (a person's) children are not his
sons but rather [God's]. (*asyndeta; Ecl 11:5, Isa 29:23, Jn 1:12-13 & 3:3, Ph

130. He who creates, works manifestly and he himself is manifest. He who begets,
acts in secret and is himself [hidden from] the imagery. He who creates [indeed]
creates visibly, yet he who begets the Sons [begets them] in secret.

131. No [one will be able] to know on what day [the man] and the woman mate with
each other, except themselves only. For marriage in the world is a mystery for
those who have taken a wife. If the marriage of impurity is hidden, how much
more is the immaculate marriage a true sacrament! It is not carnal but rather
pure, it is not lustful but rather willing, it is not of the darkness or the
night but rather of the day and the light. A marriage which is exhibited becomes
prostitution°, and the bride has prostituted herself not only if she receives
the semen of another man but even if she leaves the bedroom° and is seen. She
may only display herself to her father and her mother and the comrade of the
bridegroom and the sons of the bridegroom. To these it is given to enter daily
into the bridal-chamber and to see her. Yet as for the others, let them yearn
even to hear her voice and to enjoy her fragrance, and let them feed like the
dogs from the crumbs that fall from the table. Bridegrooms with Brides belong in
the Bridal-Chamber. No one will be able to behold the Bridegroom with the Bride
unless he becomes this. (Mk 7:28, Jn 3:29!)

132. When Abraham° [rejoiced] at seeing what he was to see, he circumcised the
flesh of the foreskin--showing us that it is appropriate to sever the flesh
[...] of this world. (Gen 17:9-14, Jn 8:56, Th 53)

133. As long as [......] the entrails of the person are enclosed, the person
continues to live. [...] If his entrails are exposed and he is disemboweled, the
person will die. So also the tree sprouts and thrives as long as its root is
covered, but if its root is exposed the tree withers. Thus it is with everything
in the world, not only with the manifest but also with the covert. For as long
as the root of evil is hidden it is strong, yet when it is recognized it
decomposes and when it is exposed it perishes. This is why the Logos (John!)
says: Already the axe has reached the root of the trees! (Mt 3:10) It will not
merely chop off, for that which is chopped off sprouts again. But rather the axe
delves down underground and uproots. Yeshúa pulled up the root of the entire
place, yet the others had done so only in part. As for ourselves--let each one
of us dig down to the root of the evil that is within him and pull up its root
from out of his own heart. Yet it will be uprooted if we but recognize it. Yet
if we are unaware of it, it takes root within us and produces its fruits in our
hearts. It becomes master over us and we become its slaves. We are taken
captive, and we are coerced into doing what we do [not] want and [not] doing
what we do want. It is potent because we do not recognize it. While indeed it is
subliminal it impels.

134. Ignorance is the mother of [all evils....] (Lk 23:34, Ac 3:17) Those things
which came forth from [ignorance] neither existed nor [exist] nor shall exist
[in reality. Yet] they shall be perfected when the entire truth is revealed. For
the truth is like ignorance--while it is hidden it reposes within itself, yet
when it is revealed it is recognized. It is glorious in that it prevails over
ignorance and confusion and in that it liberates. The Logos says: You shall know
the truth and the truth will set you free. Ignorance is slavery, recognition is
freedom. By recognizing the truth we shall find the fruits of the truth within
our hearts. By mating with it we shall receive our fulfillment. (Jn 8:32)

135. At present we have the revelation of creation. They say that (visible
beings) are strong and honorable yet the invisible are weak and contemptible.
However the truth is that visible beings are weak and inferior yet the invisible
are strong and honorable.

136. The mysteries of the truth are revealed in symbolic imagery. Yet the
bedroom is hidden--it is the holy (or the Saint) within the holiness.

137. The veil indeed at first concealed how God governs the creation. Yet when
the veil is torn and the things within are revealed, then this house will be
forsaken and desolate and yet moreover it shall be destroyed. Yet the whole
divinity shall depart from these places, never to re-enter, for it shall not be
able to unite therein with the light and with the fullness. But rather it shall
enter into the holies (or Saints) of the holinesses, under the wings of the
cross [and in] its arms. (Ex 26:31-34, Mt 27:51, 23:38, 24:2, Ph 83)

138. This ark will become salvation [for us] when the cataclysm of water
overwhelms them.

139. If someone is in the tribe of the priesthood, he shall be allowed to enter
within the veil with the high priest. Therefore the veil was not torn at the top
only, else it would have been opened only for those who are higher--nor was it
torn at the bottom only, else it would have been revealed only to those who are
lower. But rather it was torn from the top to the bottom. Those who are above
have opened to us who are below in order that we might enter into the secret of
the truth. (Num 18:7, Mk 15:38)

140. This strengthening is truly excellent. Yet we shall enter therein by means
of despised symbols and weaknesses. They are indeed humble by comparison with
the perfect glory. There is a glory that surpasses glory,* there is a power
which surpasses power. Therefore the perfect have opened to us with the secrets
of the truth. Moreover, the holies (or Saints) of the holinesses are revealed,
and the bedroom has invited us within. (*asyndeton; Ph 83, 137)

141. As long as evil indeed is covert it is potent, not yet truly purged from
the midst of the seed of the Sacred Spirit. They are enslaved by the oppression.
Yet when the Perfect Light is revealed, then it will pour forth upon everyone
and all those within it shall receive the Chrism. Then the slaves shall be freed
[and] the captives atoned.

142. '[Every] plant which my heavenly Father has not implanted [shall be] rooted
out.' (Mt 15:13) Those who are separated shall be mated [and the empty] shall be
filled. (Th 40) Everyone who [enters] the bedroom shall be born of the Light.
For they are [not begotten] in the manner of the [unseen] marriages which are
enacted by night, the fire of which [flares] in the dark (and then) is
extinguished. Yet the sacraments of this marriage are consummated in the day and
the light. That day with its light never sets.

143. If anyone becomes a Son of the Bridal-Chamber, he shall receive the Light.
If he does not receive it in these places, he will not be able to receive it in
the other place. He who receives the Light shall not be seen nor shall he be
seized, nor shall anyone disturb such a one even if he socializes in the world.
And furthermore, when he leaves the world he has already received the truth in
the imagery. The world has become eternity, because the fullness is for him the
eternal. And it is thus revealed to him individually--not hidden in the darkness
or the night but rather hidden in a Perfect Day and a Holy Light. (Ph 85)

The Gospel according to Philip°



        The translation of Philip is concordant with that of Thomas, and therefore
words discussed in the notes there are not repeated here. Complete references
are listed for selected terms; otherwise only the first occurrence is given.

Abraham (132): Hebrew (father of many); the first Hebrew patriarch (Gen 11:26

Aeon (7): Coptic ENE%= Greek AIWN (unconditional); designates either a specific
limited era of time, or a transtemporal eternity

Angel (21,29,30,56,59,65): Greek AGGELOS = Hebrew MALAK (emissary, messenger),
here the observing angel/child of God, and thus one's true self (cp. Immanuel
Kant's 'transcendental unity of apperception'); Mt 18:10, Lk 20:36, Th 88,
'Angel and Image', below)

Anointed (20): Hebrew MASHIAKH (Messiah) = Greek ChRISTOS; in ancient Israel
priests and prophets and monarchs were installed by crowning with an olive-oil
ointment (Ex 29:7, I-Ki 19:16, II-Sam 2:4--hence Lk 4:18, Mt 26:6-7); see Gen
28:18, Ex 30:22-33

Apostle (18): Greek APOSTOLOS (sent forth); one who is commissioned

Apostolic (18): Greek APOSTOLIKOS (follower of the Apostles)

Aramaic (20): Semitic language of the ancient world, dated by extra-Biblical
records to 3000 BC, source of Hebrew square-letter alphabet and the language of
Abraham (Dt 26:5) as well as of Christ in his ministry (Mk 5:41, 7:34, 15:34, Mt
27:46); Gen 22:20-21, II-Ki 18:26, Isa 36:11

Atone (8,51,73,82,88,96,141): Coptic CWTE (note = Greek SWTHR: Savior) = Greek
LUTROW = Hebrew KPR (cover, substitute; as in 'Yom Kippur': Day of Atonement);
personal sacrifice or suffering, by the guilty or by the innocent, which serves
to reconcile the guilty (Lev 1:1-4, 16:1-34, Isa 53, Mt 5:10-12, 20:28, Th 58,
68, 69a); see Sacrament and Tr 1

Authority (13): Greek ARChWN (original-being); an official within the system

Baptism (47,73,81,82,97,101,115): Greek BAPTISMA (immersion); the sacrament of
spiritual cleansing vis-à-vis the Torah--see John the Baptist in Th Notes, Mk
1:4, Mt 28:19, Ac 1:22, Tr 37

Bedroom (131,136): Greek KOITWN

Breath (42): see Spirit

Bridal-Bed (79,84,86,87,89): Greek PASTOS

Cain (46): Hebrew (product and hence possession); that is, 'my or our work'
rather than 'work of God', perhaps indicating the 'original transgression' of
humans as claiming (Godlike) to create and hence to judge their offspring; Gen
2:15-4:1, Ecl 11:5!--see Ph 93 & 129

Chrism (28,51,52,71,72,73,80,81,88,98,101,118,141): Greek ChRISMA (unguent) =
Coptic NE% and CO6N and TW%C; the sacrament of anointing with oil,
christification; see Anointed and Tr 41

Christ (4): Greek ChRISTOS; see Anointed

Christic (53): Greek ChRISTIKOS (follower of Christ) = Hebrew 'Messianic'
(follower of the Messiah)

Communion (106): Coptic $LHL; communicating with God, prayer (note that in Lk
18:1, PANTOTE PROSEUChESThAI means pray continually)

Confusion (10): Greek PLANH (straying); hence 'planet' as a celestial body which
appears to stray relative to the fixed stars

Contemplation (95): Greek ThEWRIA; here meaning to behold one's imagery as God's
own manifested imagination (Mt 18:10 and 'Angel and Image', below); the quote in
Aristotle is: H ThEWRIA TO HDISTON KAI ARISTON, 'Contemplation [of the
intelligible (NOHTOS) is] the most delightful and excellent.'

Convocation (10): Greek EKKLHSIA (called-out); the assembly of those 'called
forth' from the world (Mt 16:18, 18:15-20); this had been the term for the
Athenian Assembly

Disciple (19): Greek MAThHTHS (pupil, follower); compare Apostle

Disparity (65): Coptic AT.TWT (not in agreement, not conjoined)

Eternal (9,10,109,143): see Aeon

Eucharist (30,57,73,106): Greek EUChARISTIA (well-joying, thanksgiving); the
sacrament of bread and wine (Lk 22:14-20)

Eve (76): Hebrew (living; Gen 3:20); see Cain and Female

Female (18): Coptic C%IME; here emphasizing the Holy Spirit as our Mother, as in
Isa 49:15, 66:13, Lk 13:34; see Spirit

Hebrew (1): Hebrew EBER (cross over, beyond, passer-by, transient: Th 42!); the
lineage of Shem and especially of Abraham (Gen 10:21, 14:13, 16:15--thus Ishmael
also was a Hebrew)

Hope (122): Greek ELPIS (expectation); not mere wishing, but rather anticipation

Ionian (20): Greek IONIOS (violet) = Hebrew JAVAN/YAYIN (wine); Hebrew name for
the Greeks (Gen 10:2-5, Dan 8:21); the coast of Asia Minor (now Turkey) was
where Greeks met the middle-eastern civilizations, acquiring the alphabet via
the Semitic-speaking Phoenicians (FOINIX: purple--Greek name for the Canaanites
[!!!, Hebrew: 'merchants'] of Gen 9:18-10:19, 12:5-7, I-Ki 5, Isa 23; according
to Herodotus' Histories, Thales of Miletus--the first 'pre-Socratic'--was a

Jerusalem (82): Hebrew (foundations/city of peace); Hebrew YARAH (directive) is
the root of both 'Jeru-' and 'Torah'

Jordan (88): Hebrew (descender); the river of the Holy Land, in the northern
extension of Africa's Great Rift Valley

Joseph the Craftsman (98): Joseph = Hebrew (addition); craftsman = Coptic %AM$E,
Greek TEKTWN (Mt 13:55)

Levi (58): Hebrew (join, convert); the OT patriarch of the priestly line; Ph 58
could thus be interpreted: 'The Lord went into the dyeworks of conversion [or of
the priesthood]....' (Isa 14:1, Zech 2:11)

Magdalene (36,59): Hebrew (great, watchtower) Isa 5:1-2, Mic 4:8, Lk 8:2, Jn
20:1-18; it should be noted that APTW in Jn 20:17 means not 'touch' but rather
'kindle, caress'

Mate (30,36,59,65,80,86.87,89,119,120,131,142): Coptic %WTP= Greek KOINWNIA
(common-being); sexual union

Measurement (51): Hebrew M-SHQL (of-weighing) is apparently here being punned
with MASHIAKH (Messiah)

Messiah (20): Hebrew MASHIAKH; see Anointed

Messianic (6): Hebrew 'Messiah' with Greek suffix -IKOS; thus 'follower of the
Messiah'--see Christic

Mode (122): Greek EIDOS (form); the term for the Platonic forms (often as IDEA)
as well as the Aristotelian species; note also the evident allusion to the four
primary elements of ancient physics: earth, water, air, and fire (recast in
modern formulation as the four basic states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and

Mystery (21,64,73,85,89,104,131,136,142): Greek MUSTHRION (secret or sacrament,
a term from the ancient Mediterranean 'Mystery Religions'); see Th 62, Tr 5, 45

Nationalist (4): Greek EThNIKOS = Hebrew GOY (body, corpse!); non-Israelite,
pagan, Gentile, as in Ps 2, Mt 18:17, 20:25, 24:9, Ac 4:25-26

Natural (126): see Vintage/Kind/Natural in Th notes

Nazarene (20b): Hebrew 'of Nazareth' (NT Greek spelling NAZARHNOS, as in Mk
1:24); to be carefully distinguished from:

Nazirite (51): Hebrew (consecrated, crowned; LXX and NT Greek spelling
NAZWRAIOS, as in Num 6:1-8, Jud 13:5 -> Mt 2:23); Hebrew holy man or woman with
uncut hair, abstaining from products of the grapevine, and avoiding corpses

Novice (1): Greek PROSHLUTOS (proselyte, toward-comer); a Torah convert (Num
9:14, Tob 1:8, Mt 23:15, Ac 2:10) such as St. Nicholas of Antioch ('Santa
Claus', the first Gentile Disciple!) at Ac 6:5

Ointment (104): the chrism or oil of anointing; see Chrism

Paradise (15): Greek PARADEISOS; Persian word meaning 'garden/park'

Patrimony (64): attribution of the begetting of children to human parents rather
than directly to God ('matrimony <-> patrimony' [or 'marriage <-> inheritance']
signifies mutual logical entailment, as in Gen 25:5-6 and also laws 170-71 of
the Code of Hammurabi); see Cain, Dt 14:1, Hos 1:10, Mt 23:8-9, Jn 1:12-13,
11:52, Th 105

Paul (25,116): Latin 'small'; the supposed Apostle (but see 'The Paul Paradox',
below); remarkably, Mt 5:19 can thus be read 'Whoever relaxes one of the least
of these commandments ... shall be called Paul [i.e. small]' (!)

Perfect (15): Greek TELEIOS (completed); Biblical morality exhibits a three-
valued rather than a binary logic: [1] evil/wrong (in violation of the Torah),
[2] good/right (in accordance with the Torah), and [3] perfect (in accordance
with the Messiah); see Mt 5:48, 19:16-21

Philip The Apostle (98): Philip = Greek FILOS-IPPOS -> FILIPPOS: friend of
horses--Mk 3:18, Jn 1:43-46, 12:21, 14:8; to be distinguished from:

Philip The Evangelist (Colophon): Ac 6:1-6, 8:4-40, Ac 21:8 ff.--author of this

Prostitution (131): Greek PORNEIA (from PERNHMI: to sell); does not mean
'fornication' (non-adulterous sexual relations outside of marriage) but rather
'prostitution' (commercial or cultic sexual relations, as in 'porno-graphy');
see Mk 7:21, Th 105 as well as Bruce Malina's important article in the Dutch
journal Novum Testamentum 1972; forbidden by Dt 23:17 (cultic) & Lev 19:29
(commercial--note that the blame falls solely on her parents)

Rebirth (72): Coptic ¥PO.N.KE.COP = Greek GENETH ANWThEN (both: generation from
above [up-place]); can equally mean 'birth from above' or 'birth again' (compare
Jn 3:3 with 3:31)

Recognition (116,122,134): Coptic COOUN = Greek GNWSIS (gnosis); this important
term means direct personal acquaintance rather than mere intellectual knowledge;
Th 5, 43, 51, 78, 91, Tr 1, 4, 6, etc.; re the anti-Gnosticism of these texts,
see Th 28, Ph 77, Tr 10, 29, Incarnate in Th Notes ('Gnosticism' by definition
denies the reality of the physical universe, and thus of all incarnation; our
texts, on the contrary, share the Biblical view that both the natural universe
and all incarnation are divinely created)

Restoration (72): Greek APOKATASTASIS (from-down-stand), as in Ac 1:6 & 3:21--in
the secular papyri this term is used for the repair of buildings, returning
estates to their rightful owners, and balancing accounts

Sacrament (64): see Mystery; Ph 73 gives a hierarchical list of five Sacraments

Savior (59): Greek SWTHR = Coptic NOU%M = Hebrew YASHA; see Yeshúa in Th Notes,
Tr 1

Spirit (6): Greek PNEUMA (neuter gender) = Hebrew RUAKH (feminine gender!); in
both languages the word for 'spirit' is like 'breath' or 'wind' (Isa 57:16, Jn

Symbol (72,74,136): Greek TUPOS (mark, alphabetical letter, pattern, model)

Torah (100): Hebrew (directive); the 613 commandments or mitzvot of the OT Law,
also specifically the five books of Moses (Gen -> Dt); Ps 9:7-10, Mt 5:17-19, Lk
16:31, Tr 36

Transition (68): Coptic MHTE = Greek MESOTHS (middle); between alternatives,
neither the one nor the other (Rev/Ap 3:16)

Trust (4): Greek PISTIS (trust, faith); not mere factual opinion, but rather
personal confidence in someone or something

Unite (65): Coptic TW% (combine or couple, copulate)



1. The Gospel of Truth is joy for those who have received from the Father of
truth the gift of recognizing° him, thru the power of the meaning who comes
forth from the fullness which is in the thought and mind of the Father. This is
he who is called the Savior--that being the name of the task which he is to do
for the atonement of those who had been unacquainted with the name of the
Father. (Mt 1:21, Jn 17, Ac 4:12)

2. Now the Gospel is the revelation of the hopeful, it is the finding of those
themselves who seek him. For since the totality were searching for him from whom
they came forth--and the totality were within him, the incomprehensible
inconceivable, he who is beyond all thought--hence unacquaintance with the
Father caused anxiety and fear. Then the anxiety condensed like a fog so that no
one could see.

3. Wherefore confusion grew strong, contriving its matter in emptiness and
unacquaintance with the truth, preparing to substitute a potent and alluring
fabrication for truthfulness. But this was no humiliation for him, the
incomprehensible inconceivable. For the anxiety and the amnesia and the
deceitful fabrication were nothing--whereas the established truth is immutable,
imperturbable and of unadornable beauty. Therefore despise confusion! It has no
roots and was in a fog concerning the Father, preparing labors and amnesia and
fear in order thereby to entice those of the transition and take them captive.

4. The amnesia of confusion was not made as a revelation, it is not the
handiwork of the Father. Forgetfulness does not occur under his directive,
although it does happen because of him. But rather what exists within him is
acquaintanceship--this being revealed so that forgetfulness might dissolve and
the Father be recognized. Since amnesia occurred because the Father was not
recognized, thereafter when the Father is recognized there will be no more

5. This is the Gospel of him who is sought, which he has revealed to those
perfected thru the mercies of the Father as the secret mystery: Yeshúa the
Christ! He enlightened those who were in darkness because of forgetfulness. He
illumined them. He gave them a path, and that path is the truth which he

6. Therefore confusion was enraged at him and pursued him in order to suppress
and eliminate him. He was nailed to a tree,* he became the fruit of recognizing
the Father. Yet it did not cause those who consumed it to perish, but rather to
those who consumed it he gave a rejoicing at such a discovery. For he found them
in himself and they found him in themselves--the incomprehensible inconceivable,
the Father, this perfect-one who created the totality, in whom the totality
exists and of whom the totality has need. For he had withheld within himself
their perfection, which he had not yet bestowed upon them all. (*re
'Gnosticism'; Jn 19:18, 14:20)

7. The Father is not jealous, for what envy could there be between him and his
members? For if the way of this aeon had prevailed they would not have been able
to come unto the Father, who retains within himself their fulfillment and
bestows it upon them as a return to himself with a recognition which is single
in perfection. It is he who ordained the totality, and the totality is within
him and the totality had need of him. It is like a person with whom some have
been unacquainted, yet who desires that they recognize and love him. For what
did they all lack except acquaintance with the Father? (Jn 14:9)

8. Thus he became a reposeful and leisurely guide in the place of instruction.
The Logos came to the midst° and spoke as their appointed teacher. There
approached those who considered themselves wise, putting him to the test--yet he
shamed them in their vanity. They hated him because they were not truly wise.
Then after them all there also approached the little children, those who have
the acquaintance of the Father. Having been confirmed, they learned of the face-
forms° of the Father. They recognized, they were recognized; they were
glorified, they glorified. Revealed in their heart was the living book of life,
this which is inscribed in the thought and mind of the Father and which has been
within his incomprehensibility since before the foundation of the totality. No
one can take this away, because it was appointed for him who would take it and
be slain. (Mt 18:10)

9. No one of those who trusted in salvation could have become manifest unless
this book had come to the midst. This is why the merciful and faithful-one--
Yeshúa!--patiently endured the sufferings in order to take this book, since he
knew that his death would become life for many. Just as the fortune of the
deceased master of the estate remains secret until his bequest is opened, so
also the totality remained hidden so long as the Father of the totality was
invisible--this-one thru whom all dimensions originate. This is why Yeshúa
appeared, clothed in that book. (Rev/Ap 5:1-5)

10. He was nailed to a tree in order to publish the edict of the Father on the
cross.* Oh sublime teaching, such that he humbled himself unto death while clad
in eternal life! He stripped off the rags of mortality in order to don this
imperishability which none has the power to take from him. Entering into the
empty spaces of the terrors, he brought forth those who had been divested by
amnesia. Acting with recognition and perfection, he proclaimed what is in the
heart [of the Father, in order to] make wise those who are to receive the
teaching. Yet those who are instructed are the living, inscribed in this book of
life, who are taught about themselves and who receive themselves from the Father
in again returning to him. (*re 'Gnosticism')

11. Because the perfection of the totality is in the Father, it is necessary
that they all ascend unto him. When someone recognizes, he receives the things
that are his own and gathers them to himself. For he who is unacquainted has a
lack--and what he lacks is great, since what he lacks is that which will make
him perfect. Because the perfection of the totality is in the Father, it is
necessary that they all ascend unto him. Thus each and every one receives
himself. (Mt 5:48)

12. He pre-inscribed them, having prepared this gift for those who came forth
from him. Those whose names he foreknew are all called at the end. Thus someone
who recognizes has his name spoken by the Father. For he whose name has not been
spoken remains unacquainted. How indeed can anyone hearken whose name has not
been called? For he who remains unacquainted until the end is a figment of
forgetfulness and will vanish with it. Otherwise why indeed is there no name for
those wretches, and why do they not heed the call?

13. Thus someone with acquaintance is from above. When he is called he hears and
heeds and returns to him who called, ascending unto him. And he discovers who it
is that calls him. In recognition he does the will of him who called. He desires
to please him, and granted repose he receives the name of the One. He who
recognizes thus discovers from whence he has come and whither he is going. He
understands like someone who was intoxicated and who has shaken off his
drunkenness and returned to himself, to set upright those things which are his

14. He has brought many back from confusion. He went before them into the spaces
thru which their hearts had migrated in going astray due to the depth of him who
encompasses all dimensions without himself being encompassed. It is a great
wonder that they were within the Father without recognizing him, and that they
were able to depart unto themselves because they could neither comprehend nor
recognize him in whom they were. For thus his volition had not yet emerged from
within himself. For he revealed himself so that all his emanations° would
reunite with him in recognition.

15. This is acquaintance with the living book, whereby at the end he has
manifested the eternal-ones° as the alphabet of his revelation. These are not
vowels nor are they consonants, such that someone might read them and think of
emptiness, but rather they are the true alphabet by which those who recognize it
are themselves expressed. Each letter is a perfect thought, each letter is like
a complete book written in the alphabet of unity by the Father, who inscribes
the eternal-ones so that thru his alphabet they might recognize the Father.

16. His wisdom meditates on the Meaning, his teaching expresses it, his
acquaintance revealed it, his dignity is crowned by it, his joy unites with it,
his glory exalted it, his appearance manifested it, his repose received it, his
love embodied it, his faith embraced it.

17. Thus the Logos of the Father comes into the totality as the fruit of his
heart and the face-form of his will. But he supports them all, he atones them
and moreover he assumes the face-form of everyone, purifying them, bringing them
back--within the Father, within the Mother, Yeshúa of infinite kindness. The
Father uncovers his bosom, which is the Holy Spirit, revealing his secret. His
secret is his Son! Thus thru the compassions of the Father the eternal-ones
recognize him. And they cease their toil of seeking for the Father and repose in
him, recognizing that this is the repose.

18. Having replenished the deficiency, he dissolved the scheme°. For the scheme
is this world in which he served as a slave, and deficiency is the place of
jealousy and quarreling. Yet the place of the unity is perfect. Since deficiency
occurred because the Father was not recognized, thereafter when the Father is
recognized there shall be no deficiency. Just as with ignorance, when someone
comes to know, the ignorance dissolves of itself--and also as darkness
dissipates when the light shines--so also deficiency vanishes when perfection
appears. Thus from that moment on there is no more scheme, but rather it
disappears in the fusion of the unity. For now their involvements are made equal
in the moment when the fusion perfects the spaces.

19. Each one shall receive himself in the unification and shall be purified from
multiplicity into unity in acquaintanceship--consuming matter in himself like a
flame, darkness with light, and death with life. Since these things have thus
happened to each one of us, it is appropriate that we think of the totality so
that the house be holy and silent for the unity.

20. It is like some who move jars from their proper places to unsafe places,
where they are broken. And yet the master of the house suffered no loss but
rather rejoiced, for those unsound jars were replaced by these which are fully
perfect. This is the judgment which has come from above, like a double-edged
sword drawn to cut this way and that as each one is judged.

21. There came to the midst the Logos, which is in the heart of those who speak
it. This was not a mere sound, but rather it was incarnate. A great disturbance
occurred among the jars--for lo some were emptied, others were filled, some were
supplied, others were overturned, some were cleansed, others were broken. All of
the spaces quaked and were agitated, having neither order nor stability.
Confusion was in anguish at not discerning what to do--distressed and lamenting
and cropping-hair from understanding nothing. (Lev 19:27, Num 6:5)

22. Then when recognition approached with all its emanations, this was the
annihilation of confusion which was emptied into nothingness. The truth came to
the midst, and all his emanations recognized and embraced the Father in truth
and united with him in a perfect power. For everyone who loves the truth
attaches himself to the mouth of the Father with his tongue by receiving the
Holy Spirit. The truth is the mouth of the Father, his language is the Holy
Spirit joined to him in truth. This is the revelation of the Father and his
self-manifestation to his eternal-ones. He has revealed his secret, explaining
it all.

23. For who is the existent-one, except for the Father alone? All dimensions are
his emanations, recognized in coming forth from his heart like sons from a
mature person who knows them. Each one whom the Father begets had previously
received neither form nor name. Then they were formed thru his self-awareness.
Although indeed they had been in his mind, they had not recognized him. The
Father however is perfectly acquainted with all the dimensions, which are within

24. Whenever he wishes he manifests whomever he wishes, forming him and naming
him. And in giving him a name, he causes him to come into being. Before they
came into being, these assuredly were unacquainted with him who fashioned them.
I do not say however that those who have not yet come into being are nothings--
but rather they pre-exist within him who shall intend their becoming when he
desires it, like a season yet to come. Before anyone is manifest (the Father)
knows what he will bring forth. But the fruit that is not yet manifest neither
recognizes nor accomplishes anything. Thus all dimensions themselves exist
within the Father who exists, from whom they come forth, and who established
them unto himself from that which is not. (Th 19)

25. Whoever lacks root also lacks fruit, but still he thinks to himself: 'I have
become, so I shall decease--for everything that (earlier) did not (yet) exist,
(later) shall no (longer) exist.' What therefore does the Father desire that
such a person think about himself?: 'I have been like the shadows and the
phantoms of the night!' When the dawn shines upon him, this person ascertains
that the terror which had seized him was nothing. They were thus unacquainted
with the Father because they did not behold him. Hence there occurred terror and
turmoil and weakness and doubt and division, with many deceptions and empty
fictions at work thru these.

26. It was as if they were sunk in sleep and found themselves in troubled
dreams--either fleeing somewhere, or powerlessly pursuing others, or delivering
blows in brawls, or themselves suffering blows, or falling from a high place, or
sailing thru the air without wings. Sometimes it even seems as if they are being
murdered although no one pursues them, or as if they themselves are murdering
their neighbors since they are sullied by their blood.

27. Then the moment comes when those who have endured all this awaken, no longer
to see all those troubles--for they are naught. Such is the way of those who
have cast off unacquaintance like sleep and consider it to be nothing, neither
considering its various events as real, but rather leaving it behind like a
dream of the night. Recognizing the Father brings the dawn! This is what each
one has done, sleeping in the time when he was unacquainted. And this is how,
thus awakened, he comes to recognition. (Isa 29:7-8)

28. How good for the person who returns to himself and awakens, and blest be
this-one who has opened the eyes of the blind! And the Spirit ran after him,
resurrecting him swiftly. Extending her hand to him who was prostrate on the
ground, she lifted him up on his feet who had not yet arisen. Now the
recognition which gives understanding is thru the Father and the revelation of
his Son. Once they have seen him and heard him, he grants them to taste and to
smell and to touch the beloved Son. (the five senses; Th 19)

29. When he appeared, telling them about the incomprehensible Father, he
breathed into them* what is in the thought of doing his will. Many received the
light and returned to him. But the materialists were alien and did not behold
his likeness nor recognize him, although he came forth incarnate** in form.
Nothing obstructs his course--for imperishability is indomitable. Moreover he
proclaimed beforehand that which was new, expressing what is in the heart of the
Father and bringing forth the flawless Logos. (*see Jn 20:22, EMFUSAW; **re
'Gnosticism', Jn 1:14)

30. Light spoke thru his mouth, and his voice gave birth to life. He gave to
them the thought of wisdom, of mercy, of salvation, of the spirit of power from
the infinity and the kindness of the Father. He abolished punishment and
torment, for these caused some who had need of mercy to go astray from his face
in confusion and bondage. And with power he pardoned them, and he humbled them
in acquaintanceship. (Jn 8:2-11)

31. He became a path for those who had strayed, acquaintance for the unaware,
discovery for those who seek, stability for the wavering, and immaculate purity
for those who were defiled.

32. He is the shepherd who left behind the 99 sheep which were not lost, in
order to go searching for this-one which had strayed. And he rejoiced when he
found it. For 99 is a number that is counted° on the left hand, which tallies
it. But when 1 is added, the entire sum passes to the right hand. So it is with
him who lacks the One, which is the entire right hand--he takes from the left
what is deficient in order to transfer it to the right, and thus the number
becomes 100. Now, the signification of what is in these words is the Father. (Mt
18:12-13, Th 107)

33. Even on the Sabbath he labored for the sheep which he found fallen into the
pit. He restored the sheep to life, bringing it up from the pit, so that you
Sons of heart-understanding may discern this Sabbath on which the work of
salvation must never cease, and so that you may speak from this day which is
above, which has no night, and from the perfect light which never sets. (Mt
12:11, Th 27, Ph 142)

34. Speak therefore from your hearts, for you are this perfect day and within
you dwells this abiding light. Speak of the truth with those who seek it, and of
acquaintanceship unto those who in confusion have transgressed. Support those
who stumble, reach out your hand to the sick, feed those who are hungry, give
repose to the weary, uplift those who yearn to arise, awaken those who sleep--
for you are the wisdom that rescues!

35. Thus strength grows in action. Give heed to yourselves--be not concerned
with those other things which you have already cast out of yourselves. Do not
return to what you have regurgitated, be not moth-eaten, be not worm-eaten--for
you have already cast that out. Do not become a place for the devil, for you
have already eliminated him. Do not reinforce those things that made you stumble
and fall. Thus is uprightness!

36. For someone who violates the Torah harms himself more than the judgement
harms him. For he does his deeds illicitly, whereas he who is righteous does his
deeds for others. Do therefore the will of the Father, because you are from him.
For the Father is kind, and things are good thru his will. He has taken
cognizance of whatever is yours, so that you may repose yourselves about such
things--for in their fruition it is recognized whose they are. (Jn 16:28, Lk

37. The Sons of the Father are his fragrance, for they are from the grace of his
face. Therefore the Father loves his fragrance and manifests it everywhere. And
blending it with matter, he bestows his fragrance upon the light, and in his
repose he exalts it over every likeness and every sound. For it is not the ears
that inhale the fragrance, but rather the breath (spirit) has the sense of smell
and draws it to oneself--and thus is someone baptized in the fragrance of the

38. Thus he brings it to harbor, drawing his original fragrance which had grown
cold unto the place from which it came. It was something which in psychic form
had become like cold water permeating loose soil, such that those who see it
think it to be dirt. Then afterwards, when a warm and fragrant breeze blows, it
again evaporates. Thus coldness results from separation. This is why the
faithful-one came--to abolish division and bring the warm fullness of love, so
that the cold would not return but rather there should be the unification of
perfect thought. This is the Logos of the Gospel of the finding of the fullness
by those who await the salvation which comes from on high. Prolonged is the hope
of those who await--those whose likeness is the light which contains no shadow--
at that time when the fullness finally comes.

39. The deficiency of matter did not originate thru the infinity of the Father,
who came in the time of inadequacy--although no one could say that the
indestructible would arrive in this manner. But the profundity of the Father
abounded, and the thought of confusion was not with him. It is a topic for
falling prostrate, it is a reposeful topic--to be set upright on one's feet, in
being found by this-one who came to bring him back. For the return is called:
Metanoia°! (Mk 1:4, 15)

40. This is why imperishability breathed forth--to follow after the transgressor
so that he might have repose. For to forgive is to remain behind with the light,
the Logos of the fullness, in the deficiency. Thus the physician hastens to the
place where there is illness, for this is the desire of his heart. But he who
has a lack cannot hide it from him who has what he needs. Thus the fullness,
which has no deficiency, replenishes the lack.

41. (The Father) gave of himself to replenish whomever lacks, in order that
thereby he may receive grace. In the time of his deficiency he had no grace.
Thus wherever grace is absent, there is inferiority. At the time when he
received this smallness which he lacked, (then the Father) revealed to him a
fullness, which is this finding of the light of truth that dawned upon him in
unchangeability. This is why the Christ was invoked in their midst--so that they
would receive their returning. He anoints with the Chrism those who have been
troubled. The anointing is the compassion of the Father who will have mercy upon
them. Yet those whom he has anointed are those who are perfected.

42. For jars which are full are those which are sealed°. Yet when its sealant is
destroyed, a jar leaks. And the cause of its being emptied is the absence of its
sealant. For then something in the dynamics of the air evaporates it. But that
is not emptied from which no sealant has been removed, nor does anything leak
away, but rather the perfect Father replenishes whatever is lacking.

43. He is good. He knows his seedlings, for it is he who planted them in his
paradise. Now his paradise is his realm of repose. This is the perfection in the
thought of the Father, and these are the logoi° of his meditation. Each one of
his logoi is the product of his unitary will in the revelation of his meaning.
While they were still in the depths of his thought, the Logos was the first to
come forth. Furthermore he revealed them from a mind that expresses the unique
Logos in the silent grace called thought, since they existed therein prior to
being revealed. So it occurred that (the Logos) was the first to come forth at
the time when it pleased the will of him who intended it. (Jn 1:1)

44. Now the will of the Father is that which reposes in his heart and pleases
him. Nothing exists without him, nor does anything occur without the volition of
the Father. (Ps 139:16, Jn 5:19) But his will is unfathomable. (Isa 40:13) His
will is his imprint, and none can determine it nor anticipate it in order to
control it. But whenever he wills, what he wills exists--even if the sight does
not please them. They are nothing before the face of God and the will of the
Father. For he knows the beginning and the ending of them all--at their end he
shall question them face-to-face. Yet the ending is to receive acquaintance with
this-one who was hidden. Now this is the Father--this-one from whom the
beginning came forth, this-one to whom all these shall return who came forth
from him. Yet they have been manifest for the glory and joy of his name. (Th 77)

45. Now the name of the Father is the Son. He first named him who came forth
from himself, and who is himself. And he begot him as a Son. He bestowed his own
name upon him. It is the Father who from his heart possesses all things. He has
the name, he has the Son who can be seen. Yet his name is transcendental--for it
alone is the mystery of the invisible, which thru him comes to ears completely
filled with it. (Mt 1:21, Lk 1:31, Jn 17:6-26!, Ph 11)

46. For indeed the name of the Father is not spoken, yet rather it is manifested
as a Son. Accordingly, great is the name! Who therefore could proclaim a name
for him, the supreme name, except him alone whose name this is, together with
the Sons of the Name?--those in whose heart the name of the Father reposes and
who themselves likewise repose in his name. Because the Father is unchangeable,
it is he alone who begot him as his own name before he fashioned the eternal-
ones, so that the name of the Father would be Lord over their heads--this-one
who is truly the name, secure in his command of perfect power. (Ex 3:14, Th 13)

47. The name is not mere wordage, nor is it only terminology, but rather it is
transcendental. He alone named him, he alone seeing him, he alone having the
power to give him a name. Whoever does not exist has no name--for what names are
given to the non-existent? But this existing-one exists together with his name.
And the Father alone knows him, and he alone names him.

48. The Son is his name. He did not keep him hidden as a secret--but rather the
Son came to be, and (the Father) alone named him. Thus the name belongs to the
Father, such that the name of the Father is the Son. How otherwise would
compassion find a name, except from the Father? For after all, anyone will say
to his companion: 'Whoever could give a name to someone who existed before him?-
-as if children do not thus receive their names thru those who gave them birth!'

49. Firstly, therefore, it is appropriate that we think on this topic: what is
the name? Truly (the Son) is the name--thus also he is the name from the Father.
He is the existent name of the Lord. Thus he did not receive the name on loan as
do others, according to the pattern of each one who is to be created in his
heart. For he is the Lordly Name. There is no one else who bestowed it upon him,
but he was unnamable and it was ineffable until the time when He who is Perfect
gave expression to him alone. And it is he who has the power to express his name
and to see him. Thus it pleased him in his heart that his desired name be his
Son, and he gave the name to him--this-one who came forth from the profundity.

50. He expressed his secret, knowing that the Father is benevolent. This is
exactly why he brought this-one forth--so that he might speak of the realm and
his place of repose from which he came, and render glory to the fullness, the
majesty of his name, and the kindness of the Father. He shall speak of the realm
from which each one came--and each one who issued from that place shall thus be
hastened to return unto it again, to share in receiving his substance in the
place where he stood, receiving the taste of that place, receiving nourishment
and growth. And his own realm of repose is his fullness.

51. Thus all the emanations of the Father are plenitudes, and the source of all
his emanations is within the heart of Him from whom they all flourish. He
bestowed their destinies upon them. (Ps 139:16!, Jn 5:19!) Thus is each one made
manifest, such that thru their own meditation they [return to] the place to
which they direct their thought. That place is their source, which lifts them
thru all the heights of heaven unto the Father. They attain unto his head, which
becomes their repose. And they are embraced as they approach him, so that they
say that they have partaken of his face in kisses. Yet they are not thus made
manifest by exalting themselves. They neither lack the glory of the Father, nor
do they think of him as being trite or bitter or wrathful. But rather he is
benevolent, imperturbable and kind--knowing all the dimensionalities before they
come into existence, and having no need of edification.

52. This is the form of those who themselves belong on high thru the grandeur of
the immeasurable, as they await the single and perfect-one who makes himself
there for them. And they do not descend unto the abode of the dead°. They have
neither jealousy nor lamentation nor mortality there among them, but rather they
repose in him who is reposeful. They are neither troubled nor devious concerning
the truth, but rather they themselves are the truth. The Father is within them
and they are within the Father, perfected and made indivisible in the truly
good, not inadequate in anything but rather given repose and refreshed in the
Spirit. And they shall obey their source in leisure, these in whom his root is
found and who harm no soul. This is the place of the blest, this is their place!
(Jn 17:21-23, Ph 102)

53. Wherefore let the remainder understand in their places that it is not
appropriate for me, having been in the realm of repose, to say anything further.
But it is within his heart that I shall be--forever devoted to the Father of the
totality, together with those true Brothers upon whom pours the love of the
Father and among whom there is no lack of him. These are they who are genuinely
manifest, being in the true and eternal life and speaking the perfect light
which is filled with the seed of the Father, and who are in his heart and in the
fullness and in whom his Spirit rejoices, glorifying him in whom they exist. He
is good, and his Sons are perfect and worthy of his name. For it is children of
this kind that he the Father desires.



        The translation of the Gospel of Truth is concordant with that of Thomas
and Philip, and therefore words discussed in the notes there are not duplicated

Count (32): this refers to the ancient technique of finger-calculation, whereby
numbers 1->99 were counted on the left hand but from 100 upward on the right
hand; the number 100 itself was formed by touching the right forefinger-tip to
the upper joint of the thumb (the Hindus call such a symbolic hand-posture a

Dead, Abode of (52): Coptic EMNTE (west: as the place of entering the
underworld) =  Hebrew SHEOL (plead) = Greek AIDHS (hades: 'unseen')

Emanation (14): Coptic †H; Grobel (Bibliography #13, above) convincingly shows
that this term alludes to the Neo-Platonic notion of divine radiation, wherein
all beings are likened to sunbeams emanating from the one God

Eternal-Ones (15): see Aeon in Ph Notes; all creatures considered as eternal,
relative to the trans-dimensional mind of God (Lk 20:38, Jn 6:54, 'Angel and
Image', below)

Face-Form (8): Coptic MOUNG N.%O (form of face); see Emanation (here the idea
seems similar to that expressed in those extraordinary Hindu religious paintings
which show all men and creatures as countless manifestations of one
transcendental Deity [the Brahman]--this metaphysic is found in the Upanishads
and the Bhagavad Gita)

Logoi (43): Greek LOGOI; this is the plural of LOGOS (see Saying/Meaning in Th
Notes), indicating that each Son-or-Daughter of God is a divine Logos like unto
the Savior (see Lk 6:40 with Jn 1:1 & Th 108, also Ph 133 where John the Baptist
is quoted as Logos!)

Metanoia (39): see Rethink in Th Notes

Midst (8): Coptic MHTE (amidst, in transition, hence this transitory world); see
Transition in Ph Notes and in Tr 3

Recognize (1): see Recognition in Ph Notes, Hos 6:6, Mt 5:8

Scheme (18): Greek SXHMA (form, plan, appearance as opposed to the substantial

Seal (42): Coptic TBBE; a sealant such as retsina, used to affix the top onto a
jar/amphora to make it airtight (perhaps led to the tradition of retsina
flavoring in Greek wine)



         In a remarkable entry of the Philip Gospel, particular attention is drawn
to the fact that 'spirit' is a feminine concept in the Semitic languages
(Hebrew: RUAKH): 'Some say that Mariam was impregnated by the Holy Spirit. They
are confused, they know not what they say. Whenever was a female impregnated by
a female?' (Ph 18) And indeed this fundamental point, traditionally obscured in
scriptural translation and ignored by commentators, recurs thematically in both
Thomas and Philip as well as the Gospel of Truth. It clearly has the most far-
reaching theological implications.
        Suffice it to recall that PNEUMA in Greek is neuter and PARAKLHTOS
masculine, while SPIRITUS and ADVOCATUS in Latin are both masculine in gender.
Hence starting from the earliest versions of both the Old and New Testaments in
non-Semitic tongues, the very point was lost which Philip is here emphasizing.
Thus for example we have 'el Espíritu' instead of 'la Espíritu' in Spanish, 'der
Geist' in place of 'die Geist' in German, and in English 'he/him' in place of
'she/her' referring to the Helpmate (Hebrew: ME-NAKHEM; participle, and thus
without gender) in Jn 16:7 ff.
        We need hardly remind ourselves of the confusions, schisms and even
religious machismo to which this gender-shift has given rise across the
centuries, as theologians struggled to make sense of a presumably all-male
Trinity Thus most notably the Orthodox/Catholic rupture of 1054 AD resulted from
a controversy about the 'procession' of the third member of the Trinity. With
the Holy Spirit as a female figure, however, the underlying idea is considerably
elucidated: Father God and Mother Spirit and Incarnate Son as the basic mystery
of three-in-one, the threefold Godhead. Here the concept is clearly that of a
transcendental holy family, in which the divine Christ-Child--and indeed each
child (Mt 18:10, Jn 11:52)--is eternally born of the mystical union between the
paternal and maternal aspects of the selfsame Divinity:

        \          /
         \   GOD  /
          \      /
           \    /
            \  /

        Herewith are the other passages in Thomas, Philip and Valentine which
directly concern this topic: My mother [bore] me, yet [my] true [Mother] gave me
the life. (Th 101; cf. also 15 & 46) In the days when we were Hebrews we were
orphans, having only our Mother. Yet when we become Messianics the Father joins
with the Mother. (Ph 6) She alone is the truth. She makes the many, and for us
she teaches this alone in love through many. (Ph 12) His (true) Mother, Sister
and Mate is called 'Mariam'. (Ph 36) A Disciple one day made request of the Lord
for something worldly; he said to him: Request of thy Mother and she will give
to thee from what belongs to another. (Ph 38) Wisdom is barren [without] the
Son--hence she is called [his Mother]. But in the place of salt [...] the Holy
Spirit has many Sons. (Ph 40) The wisdom which humans call barren is the Mother
of the Angels. (Ph 59) She is the One who is above. (Ph 74) Adam came into being
through two virgins--through the Spirit and through the virgin earth. (Ph 90)
The Mother is the truth, yet recognition is the union. (Ph 116) He assumes the
face-form of every one, purifying them, bringing them back--within the Father,
within the Mother, Yeshúa of infinite kindness. The Father uncovers his bosom,
which is the Holy Spirit, revealing his secret. His secret is his Son! (Tr 17)
        In numerous entries in the latter part of Philip, reference is then made
to the holy NUMFWN or bridal-chamber wherein the Son is born of the mystical
union of the Father with the Spirit--thus for example: "If it is appropriate to
tell a mystery, the Father of the totality mated with the Virgin who had come
down--and a fire shone for him on that day. He revealed the great Bridal-Bed.
Thus his body came into being on that day. He came forth in the Bridal-Bed as
one issuing from the Bridegroom with the Bride. This is how Yeshúa established
the essence of the totality." (Ph 89) That primal mystery is then celebrated in
the apostolic sacrament of the holy Bridal-Chamber (KHEDER HA-QODESH).
        It will be of value to list here the fourteen female Disciples who appear
in the scripture: (1) the Virgin Mariam, also called the mother of Joseph and
Jacob [Mt 13:55, 28:1, Mk 15:40, Ac 1:14], (2) Mariam the sister of Yeshúa [Ph
36], (3) Mariam Magdalene [passim], (4) Mariam the wife of Cleopas [Lk 24:18, Jn
19:25], (5) Mariam the mother of John Mark [Ac 12:12], (6,7) Mariam & Martha of
Bethany [Lk 10:38-42, Jn 11], (8) the sister of the Virgin [Jn 19:25], (9)
Salome [Mk 15:40, 16:1, Th 61b], (10) Susanna [Lk 8:2], (11) Johanna wife of
Chuza [Lk 8:2, 24:10], (12) the wife of Zebedee [Mt 20:20-23, 28:56], (13)
Tabitha [Ac 9:36-43], and (14) Rhoda [Ac 12:13-17].



Th 5 19 22 50 52 76 83 84 91 111
Ph 26 30 47 65 71 81 85 93 95 112 130 143
see Mt 18:10 & Jn 5:19

        The extraordinary angel/image analysis contained in these passages
proposes replacing [a] the 'worldly' frame of reference (paradigm, model,
vocabulary) with [b] a 'celestial' frame of reference (paradigm, model,
vocabulary). According to the former, we are living bodies in a material
universe; according to the latter, we are eternal spirits in the mind of God,
contemplating his imagination in our five senses.
        In his superlative study, Claude Tresmontant presents "the Hebrew
conception of the sensible insofar as it differs from the Greek: the biblical
world is a world in which the idea of 'matter' does not occur.... Hebrew is a
very concrete language.... It has no word for 'matter' nor for 'body' [as
contrasted with 'soul'], because these concepts do not cover any empirical
realities. Nobody ever saw any 'matter' nor a 'body', such as they are defined
by substantial dualism. The sensible elements--wood, iron, water--are not
'matter'; they are sensible realities." (Bibliography #16, above)
        Starting with this implicit axiom that there can be no such thing as
'matter' (that being an essentially non-referential term), the texts proceed to
designate our entire sensory field as 'imagery' (including memories, emotions
and fantasies, as well as those perceptions which comprise one's individual
incarnation). This whole realm--the entire film, so to speak, of everyone's
life--is then reinterpreted by the Logos to be our immediate personal perception
of the transcendental imagination of God (so Gen 1:26, 'in our imagination and
likeness'). There is a lovely word-play here on EIKWN: our sensory images are
themselves holy icons.
        One's correspondingly-juxtaposed and eternally-witnessing individual ego--
space and time being merely relations among the images--is then designated as an
'angel' (or 'Child of God'). Thus it is said that we the angels contemplate,
manifest (or 'mirrored') in our very perceptions, the imagination of the
Spiritual Father/Mother--of whose union we are eternally born.
        Such an analysis has significant parallels with George Berkeley's
philosophy of Subjective Idealism, Ludwig Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-
Philosophicus (5.6->5.641) and Notebooks 1914-1916 (7.VIII.16 & 2.IX.16), Martin
Buber's I and Thou, Hans Reichenbach's The Philosophy of Space & Time (Dover
Books, New York, n/d), and much traditional Oriental thought--Hindu, Buddhist,
and Taoist.




        Those who study the New Testament may well note the fact that popular
'red-letter' editions of the text, with Christ's words thus highlighted, contain
virtually no such rubrics throughout the Epistles of Paul. With the sole
exception of the eucharistic formula at I-Cor 11:24-25, he does not quote any
sayings of the historical Yeshúa/Jesus. Indeed furthermore, he never even once
alludes to the detailed biographical panorama, from the Nativity up to the
Passion, which fills the pages of the canonical Gospels. This is, on the face of
it, a most puzzling omission.
        Beyond this remarkable lack of historical concern, however, there is an
even more enigmatic aspect of Paul's record in the New Testament. For an
objective, philosophical reading of the documents would seem to reveal a number
of logical contradictions, both within his biography and also between his
theology and that of the Evangelists. It must be emphasized that these anomalies
are conceptual rather than factual in nature. For although they of course occur
in interwoven historical, theological, and normative contexts within the NT,
they nevertheless present themselves as a priori problems of analytical
consistency between various texts--regardless of the truth or falsity of any
factual claims being made or presumed by those texts. Furthermore, these
discrepancies must be similarly distinguished from logically posterior issues
concerning the ancient composition, editing, redactions, or dating of the New
Testament writings, all of which are factual/historical topics.
        In sum, and stated more formally: the Pauline antinomies are logical
contradictions and therefore cannot in principle be resolved by means of either
historical investigation or textual criticism, both of which are empirical
        Neither is this the place to provide a retrospective survey of the many
past commentaries on these complex questions. I shall only append a series of
quotations from a number of modern figures--starting with Santa Teresa of Ávila
and John Locke--who are in general agreement that Paul's views appear to be
seriously at odds with the Gospel message. These excerpts suffice to show that
what might be called 'the Paul paradox' has been recognized by a remarkably wide
spectrum of eminent individuals in recent times.  


        Here then is the matrix of antinomies, along with a brief statement of
what I take to be the logical contradiction in each case:

1. Ac 9:7 || Ac 22:9
        In the propositional calculus of modern logic, 'p & not-q' is the truth-
functional negation of 'q & not-p'. Thus 'they heard but did not see' directly
contradicts 'they saw but did not hear'. Yet this famous event on the Damascus
road was the original justification for Paul's supposed commission in
independence of Peter/Cephas and the other Apostles.

2. Ac 9:26-29 || Gal 1:17-2:1
        Did Paul then travel immediately--or seventeen years later!--from Damascus
to Jerusalem in order to meet with the entire Apostolic circle?

3. Ac 1:15 || I-Cor 15:6
        How can Christ have appeared to over 500 Brothers at a time (prior to the
ascension) when the whole Discipleship numbered only 120?

4. Mt 10:2&40, 16:15-19 || Gal 2:11-13
        The explicit designation of Simon Peter as the foremost Apostle, with all
the delegated authority of the Lord himself, logically precludes any other
Disciple or Apostle opposing him 'to his face' and calling him a hypocrite.

5. Mt 28:16-20, Ac 10:1-11:18 || Gal 2:6-9
        The Gospel doctrine is clearly that, after the resurrection, the remaining
eleven Apostles were sent forth to evangelize the whole world. Paul nevertheless
claims to be the one and only Apostle to the gentiles ('the' Apostle as he is
often called), while Peter and the others according to this view were to be
restricted to proselytizing among the Jews.

6. Mt 5:48, Jn 1:14, 6:53-56 || Rom 8:8
        The incarnation of the Logos, and also the injunction to be perfect,
entail that those who are in the flesh can indeed please God.

7. Lk 24:36-43, Jn 11:43-44, 20:27, Ac 1:9-11, Ph 25 || I-Cor 15:50
        The evangelists proclaim an incarnate resurrection and parousia (second
coming), whereas Paul takes an anti-corporeal, gnostic position.

8. Lk 4:5-8, Jn 18:36, 19:18, Ac 4:26 (Ps 2:2) || Rom 13:1-5
        The heavenly kingdom is described in the Gospels as of another order from
the entire realm of the nations, which are ruled by Satan and whereby Christ was
crucified. On the other hand, the secular authorities with their weaponry
(including Mk 16:15 ff.??) are stated by Paul to be God's own army.

9. Mt 22:21 || Ac 25:11
        Christ cedes taxes to Caesar, Paul cedes his personal security to him
(Nero, no less!).

10. Dt 23:15-16, Mt 23:10-12, Jn 8:31-36 || Col 4:1, I-Tim 6:1-2, Philem 10-19
        The re-conceptualization in the Gospels promises to emancipate the
believers from oppressive relationships, while Paul literally endorses slavery
within the Discipleship.

11. Mt 12:46-50, 23:8-9, Lk 14:25-26, Jn 1:12-13, 3:1-8, 11:52 || Col 3:18-21,
I-Tim 5:8
        Christ teaches that family ties are to be renounced in favor of--that is,
replaced by--the Father/Motherhood of God together with the Brother/Sisterhood
of their incarnate Sons and Daughters, while Paul adamantly defends the
traditional family structure.

12. Mt 19:10-12, Lk 14:20-26, 18:28-30, 20:34-36 || I-Cor 7:2-16 & 9:5 (?!), Eph
5:22-24, I-Tim 3:1-4:3
        The Gospels stipulate that those worthy of salvation must transcend
matrimony (note that Lk 18:28-30 occurs after Lk 4:38-39). Paul notwithstanding
permits a continuation of marriage among the Disciples.

13. Num 6:5, Lev 19:27, Mt 2:23 (Jud 13:5), Tr 21 || I-Cor 11:14
        The Hebrew tradition was that long hair on male or female is a sign of
holiness and special devotion to God. Indeed the word at Mt 2:23 is NAZWRAIOS
(the LXX or Septuagint term for Nazirite), not NAZARHNOS (i.e. someone from
Nazareth). Were not John the Baptist and Christ both thus consecrated from

14. Mt 6:24-34, 10:8, Mk 10:13-31, Lk 14:28-33, Ac 4:32-36 || I-Cor 11:34, II-
Thes 3:6-12
        Christ decrees a cessation of working for mammon, giving all private
possessions to the poor and living thereafter communally--childlike and without
anxiety day-to-day like the birds and the flowers, with all shared possessions
being distributed equitably among those who have need--thus lifting the curse of
toil from mankind (Gen 3:17-19). Paul's advice is to 'eat at home' and avoid
idlers, who must either work or go hungry.

15. Mk 7:14-23, Lk 7:34 || Rom 14:21, I-Cor 8:13
        Either we ought, or we ought not, to observe some particular diet for
religious reasons. Yet Paul agrees with neither the OT's dietary rules (kashrut)
nor the Savior's remarkable midrash (commentary) thereupon.

16. Mt 12:19 (Isa 42:2), Lk 10:7 || Ac 17:16-34, 20:20
        Paul preaches house-to-house, as well as in the streets and squares--
contrary to Christ's paradigm.

17. Mt 6:5-6 || I-Tim 2:8
        Paul demands the very same outspoken prayer which Christ condemns as

18. Mt 18:1-4, Mk 9:33-35, Lk 14:7-11 || II-Cor 11:5-12:13
        Paul's recounting of his travels is insubordinately boastful and
rivalrous--rather than humble, respectful and obedient--toward those who
preceded him in the Discipleship.

19. Mt 5:43-48, 7:1-5, 9:10-13, 18:21-35, Jn 8:2-11 || I-Cor 5, Gal 5:12, Tit
        The Gospel attitude toward wrongdoers is merciful, yet Paul's is frankly
inquisitional. Is 'turning someone over to Satan for the extermination of the
flesh' intended to mean delivering him to the secular authorities for execution
(as in Jn 19:17-18)? Are we to love our enemies or excoriate them?

20. Mt 23:8-12 || Ac 20:28, I-Cor 4:15, I-Tim 3:1-13
        Paul introduces the terms 'father' and 'deacon' and 'bishop' to designate
religious leaders--the very sort of title (along with 'pastor', 'minister',
etc.) which Christ had explicitly prohibited. Indeed, the passage in Matthew
would seem to preclude any kind of hierarchy in the Discipleship other than
simple seniority (thus PRESBUTEROS, 'elder', in Ac 21:18, Jas 5:14, I-Pet 5:1,
II-Jn 1--by which criterion Paul was obliged to submit to the original Apostles,
quite contrary to II-Cor 11:5 & Gal 2:6).

21. Gen 17:10, Lk 2:21 || Ac 16:3 (?!), Phlp 3:2, Gal 5:2, Tit 1:10-11
        Saying that it is necessary 'to gag (EPISTOMIZEIN) circumcisionist dogs'
is completely out of place in an Apostolic context. In any event, even if Christ
referred to that custom parabolically--as in Th 53--he certainly did not forbid
its physical practice.

22. Lk 11:27-28, Jn 4:1-30, 11:20-35, 20:11-18, Th 21 || I-Cor 14:33-35, I-Tim
        Various women speak up boldly to the Savior. Later, Mariam Magdalene as
first witness (!) of the resurrection is sent by Christ to angel (AGGELLW: p66*
Aleph* A B) his rising to the other Disciples and to the Apostles themselves.
This is not a teaching of female submissiveness or keeping quiet in the

23. Lk 7:36-8:3, 10:38-42, 23:55-24:11, Jn 12:1-3, Th 61b, 114 || I-Cor 7:1-2,
Eph 5:22-24
        The Gospels represent women as an intimate part of Christ's entourage--
thus rescinding the punishment of husband-domination in Gen 3:16. Paul
emphatically opposes any liberated role for females.

24. Mt 5:17-19, 19:16-19, Lk 16:29-31, Ac 21:17-24! || Rom 7:6, Gal 3:10, 5:18
        If the entire Torah--the decalogue in particular, but also the remaining
mitzvot (moral rules) such as Lev 19:18 et passim--is in effect until sky and
earth pass away, then it is not an obsolete curse from which believers are
discharged. This was the very topic at issue when, after he completed his three
missionary journeys, 'all of the Elders' (!) in Jerusalem required Paul to take
the Nazirite vow--to prove his continuing adherence to the Mosaic Law.

25. Mt 7:21, 19:16-19, 25:31-46, Jn 13:34!, 14:21, 15:10, Jas 2:14-26 || Rom
3:28, 10:9, I-Cor 15:35-44
        Christ says that one's calling him 'Lord' is not enough, but rather that
the Disciple's total obedience is required; both the OT and the Gospels require
adherence to a plenitude of divine commandments with resultant fruitful deeds.
Paul on the other hand states that a mere confession of faith, along with a
belief in Christ's (merely spiritual, not corporeal) resurrection, suffices--a
thoroughly antinomian doctrine. (This subject must be carefully distinguished
from that of forgiveness--both among humans and between God and humankind--as a
pre-eminently innovative tenet in the Gospels. For of course absolution
logically presupposes a transgression of the rules, not their abrogation;
compare e.g. Ezek 18 with Mt 6:14-15.)

26. Gen 49, Jud 2:16 ff., Mt 19:28, Ac 1:13-26, Rev/Ap 2:2, 21:14 || I-Cor 9:1-
2, II-Cor 11:5-13
        Finally, we must observe the fact that the permanent tally of the Apostles
was established by the Savior at exactly twelve (for obvious reasons of
historical symbolism--note the symmetry at Rev/Ap 21:12-14), and moreover that
Paul was never numbered in that circle.


        The canon of the New Testament was not ecclesiastically established until
the Third Council of Carthage in 397 AD. Precisely what transpired during the
preceding four centuries is notoriously obscure, as the original Gospel
Messianics were eventually supplanted by the Pauline 'Christians' (Ac 11:25-26)-
-see in this regard Walter Bauer's epochal study, Orthodoxy and Heresy in
Earliest Christianity (Tübingen 1934, Philadelphia 1971).
        My purpose has been merely to format a set of scriptural dichotomies which
exhibit the underlying logic of the ancient Messianic/Paulianity schism, as
essentially a conceptual (and of course personal) rather than a factual issue.
This in turn may hopefully serve to stimulate a discussion both of the apostolic
status of Saul of Tarsus and of his inclusion in the canon.
        These basic issues can be neither papered over nor settled by
institutional fiat. For their illuminating implication is that traditional
Christianity--as defined by the classical NT canon including both Gospels and
Epistles--is logically self-contradictory and hence inherently unstable. Or, in
a contemporary analogy, we might say that Paul's writings are like a computer
virus: a 'theological virus' which, downloaded with the Gospels, completely
changes the latter program, rendering it not gibberish but rather transmuted
into another doctrine altogether. In order to avoid such dilemmas, one or the
other component must be omitted and 'the Discipleship' specified in terms either
of the evangelists or of Paul, but not both. The corresponding primal community
centering on the historical Christ and Simon Peter may then for the sake of
clarity be distinguished as 'Messianics' or 'Christics' or 'Apostolics'. And how
exhilarating it has to be, one must remark, to mount above those lowlands of
Pauline smog, up to the clear heights of the simple Gospel message!


Appendix: Modern Quotations regarding Paul
(in chronological order of original publication date)

Santa Teresa of Ávila, Accounts of Conscience, XVI (1571): It seemed to me that,
concerning what St. Paul says about the confinement of women--which has been
stated to me recently, and even previously I had heard that this could be the
will of God--[the Lord] said to me: 'Tell them not to follow only one part of
the Scripture, to look at others, and [see] if they will perchance be able to
tie my hands.'

John Locke, The Reasonableness of Christianity (1695): It is not in the epistles
we are to learn what are the fundamental articles of faith, where they are
promiscuously and without distinction mixed with other truths.... We shall find
and discern those great and necessary points best in the preaching of our Savior
and the Apostles ... out of the history of the evangelists.

Thomas Morgan, The Moral Philosopher (1737-40): St. Paul then, it seems,
preach'd another and quite different Gospel from what was preach'd by Peter and
the other Apostles.

Peter Annet, Critical Examination of the Life of St. Paul (letter to Gilbert
West, 1746): We should never finish, were we to relate all the contradictions
which are to be found in the writings attributed to St. Paul.... Generally
speaking it is St. Paul ... that ought to be regarded as the true founder of
Christian theology,... which from its foundation has been incessantly agitated
by quarrels [and] divisions.

Voltaire, Philosophical Dictionary, 'Paul' (Varberg edition, 1765): Paul did not
join the nascent society of the Christians, which at that time was half-
Jewish.... Is it possible to excuse Paul for having reprimanded Peter?... What
would be thought today of a man who intended to live at our expense, he and his
woman, judge us, punish us, and confound the guilty with the innocent?

Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776): Judaizing
Christians seem to have argued with some degree of plausibility from the divine
origin of the Mosaic law ... that the Messiah himself, and his disciples who
conversed with him on earth, instead of authorizing by their example the most
minute observances of the Mosaic law, would [like Paul] have published to the
world the abolition of those useless and obsolete ceremonies.

Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Characteristics of the Present Age (1806): [The]
Christian System ... [is] a degenerate form of Christianity, and the authorship
of which ... [must be] ascribed to the Apostle Paul.

Thomas Jefferson, 'Letter to William Short' (1820): Paul was the ... first
corrupter of the doctrines of Jesus.

Jeremy Bentham, Not Paul But Jesus (1823): It rests with every professor of the
religion of Jesus to settle with himself, to which of the two religions, that of
Jesus or that of Paul, he will adhere.

Ferdinand Christian Baur, 'The Christ Party in the Corinthian Church, the
Opposition between Petrine and Pauline Christianity in the Ancient Church, and
the Apostle Peter in Rome' (1831); The Church History of the First Three
Centuries (1853): What kind of authority can there be for an 'Apostle' who,
unlike the other Apostles, had never been prepared for the Apostolic office in
Jesus' own school but had only later dared to claim the Apostolic office on the
basis of his own authority? | The only question comes to be how the Apostle Paul
appears in his Epistles to be so indifferent to the historical facts of the life
of Jesus.... He bears himself but little like a disciple who has received the
doctrines and the principles which he preaches from the Master whose name he

Henry David Thoreau, A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers (1849): It is
necessary not to be Christian to appreciate the beauty and significance of the
life of Christ.

Søren Kierkegaard, The Journals (1849,'50,'54,'55): In Christ the religious is
completely present-tense; in Paul it is already on the way to becoming doctrine.
One can imagine the rest!... This trend has been kept up for God knows how many
centuries. | When Jesus Christ lived, he was indeed the prototype. The task of
faith is ... to imitate Christ, become a disciple. Then Christ dies. Now,
through the Apostle Paul, comes a basic alteration.... He draws attention away
from imitation and fixes it decisively upon the death of Christ the Atoner. |
What Luther failed to realize is that the true situation is that the Apostle
[Paul] has already degenerated by comparison with the Gospel. | It becomes the
disciple who decides what Christianity is, not the master, not Christ but
Paul,... [who] threw Christianity away completely, turning it upside down,
getting it to be just the opposite of what it is in the [original] Christian

Benjamin Jowett, The Epistles of St. Paul to the Thessalonians, Galatians and
Romans (1855): Our conception of the Apostolical age is necessarily based on the
Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles of St. Paul. It is in vain to search
ecclesiastical writings for further information.... Confining ourselves, then,
to the original sources, we cannot but be struck by the fact, that of the first
eighteen years after the day of Pentecost, hardly any account is preserved to
us.... It seems as if we had already reached the second stage in the history of
the Apostolic Church, without any precise knowledge of the first.

Charles Dickens, Little Dorrit (1857): There was the dreary Sunday of his
childhood, when he sat with his hands before him, scared out of his senses by a
horrible tract which commenced business with the poor child by asking him, why
he was going to perdition?,... and which, for the further attraction of his
infant mind had a parenthesis in every other line with some such hiccoughing
reference as 2 Ep.Thess. c.iii v.6&7 ['keep away from any brother who travels
about in idleness'].

Ernest Renan, Saint Paul (1869): True Christianity, which will last forever,
comes from the Gospels, not from the epistles of Paul. The writings of Paul have
been a danger and a hidden rock, the causes of the principal defects of
Christian theology.

Mark Twain, Notebooks (n/d): If Christ were here now, there is one thing he
would not be--a Christian.

Feodor Dostoyevsky, The Diary of a Writer (1880); The Brothers Karamazov (1880):
If slavery prevailed in the days of the Apostle Paul, this was precisely because
the churches which originated then were not yet perfect, as we perceive from the
Epistles of the Apostle himself. However, those members of the congregations
who, individually, attained perfection no longer owned or could have had slaves,
because these became brethren, and a brother, a true brother, cannot have a
brother as his slave. | This child born of the son of the devil and of a holy
woman:... they baptized him 'Paul'.

Friedrich Nietzsche, The Dawn (1881): The story of one of the most ambitious and
obtrusive of souls, of a head as superstitious as it was crafty, the story of
the Apostle Paul--who knows this, except a few scholars? Without this strange
story, however, without the confusions and storms of such a head, such a soul,
there would be no Christianity.

Leo Tolstoy, My Religion (1884): The separation between the doctrine of life and
the explanation of life began with the preaching of Paul who knew not the
ethical teachings set forth in the Gospel of Matthew, and who preached a
metaphisico-cabalistic theory entirely foreign to Christ; and this separation
was perfected in the time of Constantine, when it was found possible to clothe
the whole pagan organization of life in a Christian dress, and without changing
it to call it Christianity.

William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience (Gifford Lectures, 1901):
This is the religious melancholy and 'conviction of sin' that have played so
large a part in the history of Protestant Christianity.... As Saint Paul says:
self-loathing, self-despair, an unintelligible and intolerable burden ... [--a]
typical [case] of discordant personality, with melancholy in the form of self-
condemnation and sense of sin.

William Wrede, Paul (1904): The obvious contradictions in the three accounts [of
Paul's conversion in Ac 9 & 22 & 26] are enough to arouse distrust of all that
goes beyond this kernel.... The moral majesty of Jesus, his purity and piety,
his ministry among his people, his manner as a prophet, the whole concrete
ethical-religious content of his earthly life, signifies for Paul's Christology-
-nothing whatever.... If we do not wish to deprive both figures of all
historical distinctness, the name 'disciple of Jesus' has little applicability
to Paul.... Jesus or Paul: this alternative characterizes, at least in part, the
religious and theological warfare of the present day.

Albert Schweitzer, The Quest for the Historical Jesus (1906); The Mysticism of
St. Paul (1931): Paul ... did not desire to know Christ after the flesh....
Those who want to find a way from the preaching of Jesus to early Christianity
are conscious of the peculiar difficulties raised.... Paul shows us with what
complete indifference the earthly life of Jesus was regarded by primary
Christianity. | What is the significance for our faith and for our religious
life, of the fact that the Gospel of Paul is different from the Gospel of
Jesus?... The attitude which Paul himself takes up towards the Gospel of Jesus
is that he does not repeat it in the words of Jesus, and does not appeal to its
authority.... The fateful thing is that the Greek, the Catholic, and the
Protestant theologies all contain the Gospel of Paul in a form which does not
continue the Gospel of Jesus, but displaces it.

Gerald Friedlander, The Jewish Sources of the Sermon on the Mount (1911): Paul
has surely nothing to do with the Sermon on the Mount.... The Sermon says:
'Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly are
ravening wolves' (Matt.vii.15). This is generally understood as a warning
against untrustworthy leaders in religion.... Does the verse express the
experience of the primitive Church? Might it not be a warning against Paul and
his followers?

George Bernard Shaw, Androcles and the Lion, Introduction (1915): There is not
one word of Pauline Christianity in the characteristic utterances of Jesus....
There has really never been a more monstrous imposition perpetrated than the
imposition of Paul's soul upon the Soul of Jesus.... It is now easy to
understand why the Christianity of Jesus failed completely to establish itself
politically and socially, and was easily suppressed by the police and the
Church, whilst Paulinism overran the whole western civilized world, which was at
that time the Roman Empire, and was adopted by it as its official faith.

Martin Buber, 'The Holy Way' (1918); Two Types of Faith (1948): The man who, in
transmitting Judaism to the peoples, brought about its breakup,... this violator
of the spirit,... [was] Saul, the man from Tarsus.... He transmitted Jesus'
teaching ... to the nations, handing them the sweet poison of faith, a faith
that was to disdain works, exempt the faithful from realization, and establish
dualism in the [Christian] world. It is the Pauline era whose death agonies we
today [in World War I] are watching with transfixed eyes. | Not merely the Old
Testament Belief and the living faith of post-Biblical Judaism are opposed to
Paul, but also the Jesus of the Sermon on the Mount.... One must see Jesus apart
from his historical connection with Christianity.... It is Peter [rather than
Paul] who represents the unforgettable recollection of the conversations of
Jesus with the Disciples in Galilee.

Thomas Edward Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1919): Christianity was a
hybrid, except in its first root not essentially Semitic.

Carl Gustav Jung, 'The Psychological Foundations of Belief in Spirits' (1919);
'A Psychological Approach to the Dogma of the Trinity' (1940): Saul's ...
fanatical resistance to Christianity,... as we know from the Epistles, was never
entirely overcome. | It is frankly disappointing to see how Paul hardly ever
allows the real Jesus of Nazareth to get a word in.

Herbert George Wells, The Outline of History (1920): St. Paul and his successors
added to or completed or imposed upon or substituted another doctrine for--as
you may prefer to think--the plain and profoundly revolutionary teachings of
Jesus, by expounding ... a salvation which could be obtained very largely by
belief and formalities, without any serious disturbance of the believer's
ordinary habits and occupations.

Franz Kafka, The Castle (1926): Barnabas is certainly not an official, not even
one in the lowest category.... One shouldn't suddenly send an inexperienced
youngster like Barnabas ... into the Castle, and then expect a truthful account
of everything from him, interpret each single word of his as if it were a
revelation, and base one's own life's happiness on the interpretation. Nothing
could be more mistaken.

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, The Divine Milieu (1927): The mystical Christ, the
universal Christ of St. Paul, has neither meaning nor value in our eyes except
as an expansion of the Christ who was born of Mary and who died on the cross.
The former essentially draws his fundamental quality of undeniability and
concreteness from the latter. However far we may be drawn into the divine spaces
opened up to us by Christian mysticism, we never depart from the Jesus of the

Mahatma Gandhi, 'Discussion on Fellowship', Young India (1928): I draw a great
distinction between the Sermon on the Mount and the Letters of Paul. They are a
graft on Christ's teaching, his own gloss apart from Christ's own experience.

Kahil Gibran, Jesus the Son of Man (1928): This Paul is indeed a strange man.
His soul is not the soul of a free man. He speaks not of Jesus nor does he
repeat His Words. He would strike with his own hammer upon the anvil in the Name
of One whom he does not know.

Oswald Spengler, The Decline of the West (vol II, 1928): Paul had for the Jesus-
communities of Jerusalem a scarcely veiled contempt.... 'Jesus is the Redeemer
and Paul is his Prophet'--this is the whole content of his message.

Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms (1929): That Saint Paul.... He's the one
who makes all the trouble.

Rudolf Bultmann, 'The Significance of the Historical Jesus for the Theology of
Paul' (1929): It is most obvious that [Paul] does not appeal to the words of the
Lord in support of his strictly theological, anthropological, and soteriological
views.... When the essentially Pauline conceptions are considered, it is clear
that there Paul is not dependent on Jesus. Jesus' teaching is--to all intents
and purposes--irrelevant for Paul.

Walter Bauer, Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity (German edition
1934): As far as Paul is concerned, in the Apocalypse [Rev/Ap 21:14] only the
names of the twelve apostles are found on the foundations of the New Jerusalem--
there is no room for Paul.... For Justin [Martyr in the mid-second century],
everything is based on the gospel tradition.... The name of Paul is nowhere
mentioned by Justin;...not only is his name lacking, but also any congruence
with his epistles.... If one may be allowed to speak rather pointedly, the
apostle Paul was the only arch-heretic known to the apostolic age....We must
look to the circle of the twelve apostles to find the guardians of the most
primitive information about the life and preaching of the Lord.... This treasure
lies hidden in the synoptic gospels.

Henry Miller, Black Spring (1936): That maniac St. Paul.

Ludwig Wittgenstein, Culture and Value (1980, notes from 1937): The spring which
flows gently and limpidly in the Gospels seems to have froth on it in Paul's
Epistles.... To me it's as though I saw human passion here, something like pride
or anger, which is not in tune with the humility of the Gospels.... I want to
ask--and may this be no blasphemy--'What might Christ have said to Paul?'... In
the Gospels--as it seems to me--everything is less pretentious, humbler,
simpler. There you find huts; in Paul a church. There all men are equal and God
himself is a man; in Paul there is already something like a hierarchy.

Will Durant, Caesar and Christ (1944): Paul created a theology of which none but
the vaguest warrants can be found in the words of Christ.... Through these
interpretations Paul could neglect the actual life and sayings of Jesus, which
he had not directly known.... He had replaced conduct with creed as the test of
virtue. It was a tragic change.

Paul Schubert, 'Urgent Tasks for New Testament Research', in H.R. Willoughby
(editor), The Study of the Bible Today and Tomorrow (1947): As regards Paul and
his letters there is no notable agreement [among modern theologians] on any
major issue.

Robert Frost, 'A Masque of Mercy' (1947): Paul: he's in the Bible too. He is the
fellow who theologized Christ almost out of Christianity. Look out for him.

Erich Fromm, The Dogma of Christ (n/d): Paul appealed ... to some of the wealthy
and educated class, especially merchants, who by means of their adventures and
travels had a decided importance for the diffusion of Christianity.... [This]
had been the religion of a community of equal brothers, without hierarchy or
bureaucracy, [but] was converted into 'the Church', the reflected image of the
absolute monarchy of the Roman Empire.

Herbert J. Muller, The Uses of the Past (1952): Saul of Tarsus, who became St.
Paul,... knew Jesus only by hearsay, and rarely referred to his human life....
Paul preached a gospel about Jesus that was not taught by the Jesus of the
synoptic Gospels.... Setting himself against [the] other disciples,... he was
largely responsible for the violent break with Judaism.... He contributed a
radical dualism of flesh and spirit unwarranted by the teachings of Jesus.

W.D. Davies, 'Paul and Jewish Christianity', in J. Daniélou, Théologie du Judéo-
Chriantianisme (1958): Jewish-Christians [opposing Paul] ... must have been a
very strong, widespread element in the earliest days of the Church.... They took
for granted that the gospel was continuous with Judaism.... According to some
scholars, they must have been so strong that right up to the fall of Jerusalem
in AD 70 they were the dominant element in the Christian movement.

James Baldwin, The Fire Next Time (1963): The real architect of the Christian
church was not the disreputable, sun-baked Hebrew who gave it his name but
[rather] the mercilessly fanatical and self-righteous St. Paul.

Georg Strecker, 'On the Problem of Jewish Christianity', Appendix 1 to Walter
Bauer, op.cit. (1964 ed.): Jewish Christianity, according to the witness of the
New Testament, stands at the beginning of the development of church history, so
that it is not the gentile Christian 'ecclesiastical doctrine' that represents
what is primary, but rather a Jewish Christian theology.

Helmut Koester, 'The Theological Aspects of Primitive Christian Heresy', in
James Robinson (editor), The Future of our Religious Past (German edition 1964);
Ancient Christian Gospels (1990); with Stephen Patterson, 'The Gospel of Thomas:
Does It Contain Authentic Sayings of Jesus?', Bible Review (1990): Paul himself
stands in the twilight zone of heresy. | One immediately encounters a major
difficulty. Whatever Jesus had preached did not become the content of the
missionary proclamation of Paul.... Sayings of Jesus do not play a role in
Paul's understanding of the event of salvation.... The Epistle of James also
shares with the Sermon on the Mount the rejection of the Pauline thesis that
Christ is the end of the [Mosaic] law. | Paul did not care at all what Jesus had
said.... Had Paul been completely successful, very little of the sayings of
Jesus would have survived.

Emil G. Kraeling, The Disciples (1966): The peculiar, unharmonized relationship
between Paul and the Twelve that existed from the beginning was never fully
adjusted.... Modern Biblical research in particular has made it difficult to put
the religion of the New Testament (to say nothing of the Bible as a whole) into
the straightjacket of Paulinism.

Joseph Campbell, The Masks of God: Creative Mythology (1968): The reign in
Europe of that order of unreason, unreasoning submission to the dicta of
authority:... Saint Paul himself had opened the door to such impudent idiocies.

Günther Bornkamm, Paul (1969): Above all there results the chasm which separates
Jesus from Paul and the conclusion that more than the historical Jesus ... it is
Paul who really founded Christianity.... Already during his lifetime Paul was
considered an illegitimate Apostle and a falsifier of the Christian message....
For a long time, Judeo-Christianity rejected him completely, as a rival to Peter
and James, the brother of the Lord.... Paul does not connect immediately with
... [the] words ... of the earthly Jesus. Everything seems to indicate that he
didn't even know them.

David Ben-Gurion, Israel: A Personal History (1971): Jesus probably differed
little from many other Jews of his generation. The new religion was given an
anti-Jewish emphasis by Saul,... [who] gave Christianity a new direction. He
sought to uproot Jewish law and commandments, and to eliminate Judaism as a
national entity striving to achieve the Messianic vision of the Prophets.

William Steuart McBirnie, The Search for the Twelve Apostles (1973): Why did
Jesus choose only twelve chief Apostles? Obviously, to correspond to the twelve
tribes of Israel.... Paul stoutly maintained that he also was an Apostle.... Yet
there is no evidence that he was ever admitted to that inner circle of the
original Twelve.... Those who expect the Acts to be the complete early history
of Christianity are doomed to disappointment.... The Bible student is soon, and
perhaps unconsciously, caught up in the personal ministry of Paul. Peter, though
prominent at first, is later ignored, as the Acts unfolds for the reader the
story of Paul and his friends.... There is absolutely no evidence that Paul ever
recognized the 'primacy' of Peter.

Ronald Brownrigg, The Twelve Apostles (1974): The letters of Paul present a
marked contrast to Luke's writings [in his Gospel and the Acts]. Whereas Luke
suggests that the Apostles were a closed corporation of twelve governing the
whole Church, Paul disagrees, claiming his own Apostleship to be as valid as any
of the twelve.... Certainly Paul knew no authority of the twelve.... The
qualification for Apostleship, at the election of Matthias [Ac 1:15-26], had
been a divinely guided selection and a constant companionship with Jesus
throughout his [public] lifetime.

Elaine H. Pagels, The Gnostic Paul (1975): Two antithetical traditions of
Pauline exegesis have emerged from the late first century through the second.
Each claims to be authentic, Christian, and Pauline: but one reads Paul anti-
gnostically, the other gnostically.... Whoever takes account of the total
evidence may learn from the debate to approach Pauline exegesis with renewed
openness to the text.

Irving Howe, World of our Fathers (1976): The view that sexual activity is
impure or at least suspect, so often an accompaniment of Christianity, was
seldom entertained in the [east-European Jewish] shtetl. Paul's remark that it
is better to marry than to burn would have seemed strange, if not downright
impious, to the Jews.

Edward Schillebeeckx, Christ (1977): There is a difference between the theology
of the early Jewish Christian congregations in Jerusalem which are oriented on
Jesus of Nazareth, and Pauline theology, which knows only 'the crucified'.

Yigael Yadin, 'The Temple Scroll--the Longest Dead Sea Scroll', Biblical
Archaeology Review (Sept/Oct 1984): We must distinguish between the various
layers, or strata, to use an archaeological term, of early Christianity. The
theology, the doctrines and the practices of Jesus, John the Baptist and Paul
... are not the same.

James Michener, Legacy (1987): Women ... will no longer kowtow to the
fulminations of St. Paul.

Paula Fredriksen, From Jesus to Christ (1988): Scholars, their confusion
facilitated by Paul's own apparent inconsistency,... do not agree even on what
Paul said, much less why he said it.

Stephen Mitchell, The Gospel according to Jesus (1991): Paul of Tarsus ... [was]
the most misleading of the earliest Christian writers,... [and] a particularly
difficult character: arrogant, self-righteous, filled with murderous hatred of
his opponents, terrified of God, oppressed by what he felt as the burden of the
[Mosaic] Law, overwhelmed by his sense of sin.... He didn't understand Jesus at
all. He wasn't even interested in Jesus; just in his own idea of the Christ.

Shlomo Riskin, The Jerusalem Post International Edition (March 28, 1992): Saul
of Tarsus ... broke from Jewish Law, and the religion thereby created was soon
encrusted with pagan elements.

Dennis J. Trisker & Vera V. Martínez T., They Also Believe (1992): While many
persons believe that Christianity was founded by Jesus Christ,... it is due to
Paul that there exists the organization called Christian.... In the New
Testament, we can see how Paul ... was in disagreement with the church in
Jerusalem and even held in suspicion by them.... He did not emphasize the Jewish
aspect of the teaching, and this brought about the first separation within the
church. Across the years this separation widened, making the church more pagan
and less Jewish.... Paul was no Apostle.

Bart D. Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture (1993): Whether seen from a
social or a theological point of view,... Christianity in the early centuries
was a remarkably diversified phenomenon.... Matthew and Paul are both in the
canon.... Many of Paul's opponents were clearly Jewish Christians ... [who]
accepted the binding authority of the Old Testament (and therefore the
continuing validity of the [Mosaic] Law) but rejected the authority of the
apostate Apostle, Paul.

Ian Wilson, Jesus: The Evidence (1996): [The] interest [in Paul's letters] lies
in their apparent ignorance of any details of Jesus' earthly life.... [Paul]
reflected the attitudes of contemporary society towards women rather than what
we may now believe to have been Jesus' own ideas.... We seem to be faced with a
straight, first-century clash of theologies: Paul's on the one hand, based on
his other-worldly [Damascus Road] experience; and James' [in his epistle], based
on his fraternal knowledge of the human Jesus. And, despite the authority which
should be due to the latter, it would seem to be Paul's that has been allowed to
come down to us.... Particularly significant is [James'] gentle but firm stance
on the importance of Jesus' teaching on communal living.

Alan F. Segal (for Eugene Schwartz), 'Electronic Echoes: Using Computer
Concordances for Bible Study', Biblical Archaeology Review (Nov/Dec 1997): We
can easily quantify allusions by measuring whether a passage in one Biblical
work merely repeats a few words of another or whether it directly quotes several
words running.... The results of our research seemed to confirm ... very few
clear parallels between Paul and the Gospels.... [They] almost always express
[even] the same ideas in completely different words.... I am unconvinced by the
myriad rather weak parallels between the Gospels and Paul. Rather,... the
[computer] word study seems to show that the two are definitely unrelated.


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